Main purpose of this report is to analysis The English Teaching Courses and The English Teaching Practice Program of IER and The National University. Other objectives are to compare the main features between the two English Teaching (Teaching English) Courses of IER and the National University. Here also compare the qualitative standard between the English Teaching Practice programs of both institutes. Finally identify the lessons that one system can learn from the other and vice-versa.
The Quality of education depends to a greater extent on the quality of teachers. Teachers are groomed through teacher education programs. Despite having palatial building, a sound curriculum and a well-equipped library, the system of education cannot raise above its teachers. On the other hand if the teachers are well educated and well trained, they can overcome many problems related to education. Hence, a country like Bangladesh needs a greater number of well-trained teachers to get rid of illiteracy and contribute in the socio-economic development of the country. The need of professional capacity building and strengthen the existing capacity of the teachers to serve the education sector has been voiced by researchers and learned observers of the education sector of Bangladesh. To address the issue, Bangladesh government introduced the Teacher Education Program in a broad aspect to ensure the quality of the teachers, who directly or indirectly mould the character and shape the future career of the young learners.
At present, in Bangladesh the Teacher Education Program is conducted through public and private institutions. The National University offers teacher-training program in Bangladesh, through some public and private TTCs. These TTCs lend a hand to assist skilled and learned manpower for our education sector. Other public institutions for teacher education institutes, the National Academy for Educational Management (NAEM) and the National Academy for Primary Education (NAPE), the Open University and some private universities are also providing basic orientation course for the large number of teachers and the public sector education personnel.
The Institute of Education and Research at Dhaka University, also offers Teacher Education program leading to higher degrees in education. Moreover it conducts research studies and provides extension services in Education. IER has introduced B-Ed (Hons) program from the academic session 1994-95. The institute plays a vital role to support the quality of education at both national and international level and to promote skilled teachers for our education sector.
With the aims of ensuring quality of teachers and developing the education system of Bangladesh as a whole, IER of Dhaka University and the public and private TTCs under the National University are running B-Ed program for those who intend to pursue higher studies in education and its related areas. The National University conducts two kinds of B-Ed Program. Such as, one year B-Ed program and 4 years duration B-Ed (Hons) program. IER provides a 4 years B-Ed program rather known as “Bachelor of Education (Hons) program”. These courses include practice Teaching Program and the practice Teaching Program of IER is named, “Internship” and the Practice Teaching Program of the National University is named “Practicum”.
Both IER and National University offer some professional elective and core courses along with other course in the B-Ed program. The B-Ed curricula of both institutes include the English Teaching Course and the English Teaching Practice Programs as professional elective courses to develop the professional attitudes and skills as well as professional competency of the trainee teachers. Since, IER and National University runs English Teaching course and English Teaching practice program conducted by IER and National University might have similarities and differences in a number of components namely, course objectives, contents, assessment system, duration and effectiveness. Therefore the main purpose of the study was to identify the main features and measure the qualitative standard of the English Teaching Courses and the English Teaching Practice Programs of IER and the National University. Moreover, through some selected indicators, the strengths and the weakness of the courses and practice teaching programs will be compared and assessed to put forward some recommendations that warrant immediate attention.
Title of the Study:
“A Comparative study of the English Teaching Courses and the English Teaching Practice Programs of IER and the National University”.
Objectives of the Study:
a) To identify the main features of the English Teaching Course of IER and the National University.
b) To compare the main features betweens the two English Teaching (Teaching English) Courses of IER and the National University.
c) To identify the main features of the English Teaching Practice Program of IER and the National University.
d) To compare the qualitative standard between the English Teaching Practice programs of both institutes.
e) To identify the lessons that one system can learn from the other and vice-versa.
Significance of the Study:
At present Bangladesh Government is committed to ensure quality education at all levels of the Education system. Already, the government has taken number of steps to achieve this goal. Introducing the communicative Teaching Approach in the English teaching learning process at the secondary level (grade-6-10) is one of such steps, And conducting the relevant pre-service and in service training on this newly introduced English teaching curriculum for the English teachers of secondary level is an important step, taken by the government to achieve the target of ensuring quality Education. Newly introduced, Communicative teaching approach provides adequate practice in speaking and listening skills as well as practicing skills as learner centered activity within communicative context, where as the traditional grammar translation method impedes attainment of spoken competency, needed for effecting oral communication. The present syllabus of English at secondary level is fully designed in communicative approach, but it failed to promote communication skill for want of efficient and trained English Teachers. The low standard of English teaching and learning process may be partly ascribed to the unfavorable home environment, want of efficient and trained teachers, the lacking of motivation in the pupils that facilitates the process of learning, the lack of audio-visual aids, and absence of English speaking environment at out of school and in school. Almost all the English teachers delivers their lecture in Bangla, gives instructions and interacts with the learners in Bangla rather using English in the class. In many secondary schools instead of an English teacher other subject teachers often employed to teach English in the class. As they have not acquired specialization in English, they do not know all the critical terms of English language. So most of them fail to explain the text property and effectively. Even the English teachers who are not trained fail to present the lesson effectively because of their lower knowledge in English teaching methods. So to make teaching and learning process of English more convincing relevant, interesting effective and enjoyable, the Teacher Education curriculum should be reorganized. Because the teachers are the person who are directly involved in the hard task of curriculum implementation in real classroom situation. Therefore, it is necessary to provide adequate training for the English teacher about the teaching process of English language in the classroom. Considering the present demand of English teaching, the Teacher Education curriculum must include appropriate and need based course and course contents on the method of teaching English. It would appear that the Teacher Education program in Bangladesh failed to meet the requirement of secondary education. Therefore number of institution offering the teacher education program. Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka and the National University are two most well –known institutes that are playing vital role in spreading teacher education program in Bangladesh. A thorough review of the existing B-Ed curricula has conduct to assess and judge which one provides the appropriate and effective teaching English courses and adequate number of practice teaching in English to develop skill of the English teachers. With this view in mind, a comparative study with some selected indicators was consideration to carry out to judge and evaluation the effectiveness of English Teaching and English Teaching practice program
Review of Related literature:
Review of related literature is a very vital task for the researcher to conduct any types of research study. Through such reviews the researcher makes the plan for doing the research work smoothly. The field of this study is to conduct a comparative study of the English Teaching Courses and the English teaching practice programs of IER and the National University.
English is apparently a foreign language in our country rather than a second language. Teaching foreign language is a complex process. Besides, the process of learning English varies from person to person. For this reason, the techniques of teaching English are also so important. By considering the demand of the contemporary age the appropriate and effective methodology of teaching English occupied an important place not only in the curriculum of secondary education but also in the Teacher education curriculum.
There are some standard methods and procedures of teaching the language and conducting the foreign language classroom, which should be followed by the teacher to promote and facilitate the learning of English. But it is true that the present status of teaching English in our secondary school is still not satisfactory.
To overcome the problems of teaching English in our country, not only the curriculum of English of the secondary but also the Teacher Education curriculum of Teaching English has reorganized by following the present demands. IER and the National University, the two well-known institutes of Bangladesh are playing vital role in spreading Teacher education program by introducing B-ED and B-ED (Hons) program. Considering the present demand of the Global society about the importance of English language, both of the institutes provide Teaching English Course in their introduced B-Ed / B-Ed (Hons) programs. Development of any program or course is a continuous process. To identify the effectiveness or standard of quality of the program or course, it is essential to conduct the sufficient research study by obtaining opinion of the concerned personnel or to survey the necessary relevant documents. But unfortunately no such research has so far been conducted to judge the quality standard of the Teaching English Course and Practice programs of IER or the National University in either of two respective institutes.
They are discussed below:
Ms. Ferdousi Begum conducted a research of post graduation level captioned “A Comparative analysis of the compulsory subjects of the IER, University of Dhaka and Dhaka Teachers Training College (TTC) ” in the year 1994. The objective of the work was to compare and analyze the subject contents of both the programs. The researcher conducted her analysis with samples comprising of curriculum, course contents, class routine etc of both the institutions.
The results of the study are:
- The number of compulsory subjects in IER are more than those studied in TTC.
- The contents of compulsory subjects of IER are more than those in the TTC.
- TTC allots more time for compulsory subjects than in IER.
- The students of IER have to prepare and submit assignments whereas the students of TTC do not have to submit such assignments. This system of IER enriches the knowledge and writing skill of the students through analysis and presentation of assignment on different subjects.
- The specific objectives of compulsory subjects in IER are pre-defined but in TTC the objectives are not so defined.
- Course outline of IER indicates more reference books than TTC.
Important recommendations of the researcher are:
- Number of compulsory subjects of TTC should be increased.
- The quality of psychological foundation of education course of IER needs improvement.
- In TTC this course is optional TTC should make this course compulsory.
- TTC should introduce assignments for compulsory subjects.
Mr. Md. Altaf Hossain Biswas conducted a study captioned, “A Comparative Study of B-Ed. (Hons) Curriculums of Dhaka University & the National University” in the year 2000. The objective of the study was to identify the similarities and dissimilarities of these two curriculums and to justify the worthiness of the curriculums for B-Ed. (Hons) program. The study mainly based on analysis of content. The IER, D.U and the TTC were selected as the field of the study. The concerned files / records and B-Ed. (Hons) curriculum of the IER, D.U. and the National University were analyzed for collecting data. Moreover opinion of 10 specialists and 30 students were obtained in the course of this study.
The followings are the important findings of the study:
- The curriculum of IER, D.U. specifies the general objectives of the program, but the curriculum of the National University does not specify that general objectives.
- The qualities of the students are evaluated through incourse exam and assignment in IER but there is no system of such evaluation in National University.
- The reference books as mentioned in the curriculum of both the institutions are not sufficiently available in the libraries and the market.
Important recommendations for B-Ed (Hons) of IER:
- 4-year program should be introduced.
- More attention should be given for research & data collection.
- Absolute grading system is introduced in place of relative grading system.
- Number of books in the library is increased.
Important recommendations for B-Ed. (Hons) of the National University:
- 4-year program is introduced.
- Consistency should be maintained in setting contents.
- Grading system should be introduced for students’ assessment.
Another research captioned “An Assessment of Bachelor of Education (Hons) of IER by the students” was conducted by Sadia Farzana Mustafiz in the year 2002. The objective of this research was to prepare a priority list of problems existing in B-Ed (Hons) program of IER with a view to paving the way for the IER authority to go for solution on priority basis. While identifying the problems, the researcher also tried to find out the strengths that helped independent assessment of the overall program. The nature of the study is opinion survey. This study is qualitative but some sort of quantification of qualitative data was also done for explaining the context properly. Here opinions were collected from two categories of population – the students of B-Ed (Hons) and the IER authority. The students were selected by using random sampling and the IER authorities were selected by using purposive sampling. Using the following research tools – opinionnaire, FGD and interview, the researcher collected the opinions of the selected samples.
The important findings of the study:
Finding of the research revealed that the students of first four batches of B-Ed (Hons) who have completed the program are more concerned about the problem than those are presently doing the program.
In spite of existence of different problems most of the students hold optimistic views about the programs. They believe that this being a time-be fitting programs they will be able to build up their carrier in different fields, specially in the education related sectors.
The finding of the study revealed that most of the problems cropped up due to weak and indifferent administration of IER. The researcher, therefore, concludes that an in depth research study should be conducted to identify the problems of IER administration and to address the same immediately. The researcher further feels that strengthening of IER administration will help solve maximum problems of B-ED (Hons) program.
Ms. Shemoly Akbar conducted a research captioned “Assessment of Evaluation system and Comparative study of Dip-in-Ed of IER, D.U and the B-Ed. program of T.T.C” in the year 1981. This was mainly a survey type of research. The objective of the study was to make specific recommendation for more effective evaluation system after assessing the similarities and dissimilarities of the prevailing evaluation system of both the programs. The researcher collected data from three groups through different questionnaire. The said three groups comprised of 20 teachers of IER, 20 teachers of TTC and 20 students of M.Ed. program of IER who did their B-Ed from the TTC. In addition data were also collected by reviewing the prospectus, curriculum and syllabus of the Dip-in-Ed program of IER and the B-Ed program of the TTC.
The result of this research in as under:
- Notable differences exist in the evaluation system of both the IER and the TTC.
- The evaluation system prevailing in IER is more effective than that of the TTC.
The important recommendations are as follows:
- The evaluation system for teachers training courses of all institutions should be both summative and formative.
- Term and semester system be introduced in all teachers’ training courses.
- The same system of evaluation is introduced in all teachers’ training colleges including the IER.
In addition another research study was found on the English language teaching in Bangladesh, which is partially related to the present researches topic. That is a case study which conducted on the “Problems, Innovation and solutions; A case study of English language Teaching in (ELT) Bangladesh” by Moursheda Rahman in 1996.This was a case study which was directed to investigate the problems in English language study and teaching that are presently being experienced at various levels of the education system in Bangladesh. This study deal with the changing of English Language Teaching (ELT) methods in the light of students needs and interest. It explored why and how present ELT methods fail to satisfy students’ needs in learning to speak English more accurately and fluently.
The study was primarily qualitative and the methods of data collection consists of document study and questionnaire survey. The result of the study showed that many English teaching activities which teachers commonly used, fail to satisfy students needs and interests (P; 11). The researcher mentioned that lack of interest, a negative impact on motivation to study English. Some negative feelings such as frustration and boredom have been developed due to the uninteresting and non-enjoyable teaching activities. The researcher showed that ELT in Bangladesh lacks in using variety of teaching activities blamed the English curriculum lacking in real life relevance and continuation and lack of teaching materials and short time frame for English language course.
In recognition this, the researcher recommended some solution on the basis of the findings of the study. The recommendations generated from the research should be useful for changing English language Teaching Methods in Bangladesh. The researcher also argued to develop a need based foreign / second language curriculum. Finally the researcher recommended that the ESL / EFL teachers should be trained enough for handling a second / foreign language classroom. They should be properly trained to be able to use modern English language teaching methodologies as well as to satisfy the practical needs of classroom teaching in Bangladesh.
Though the topic of this case research study is not fully related to the present research topic, but this study also provided some new dimensions for the present study. The present study was directed in analyzing the quality standard of teaching English course and practice programs of two recognized teacher Education providing institutes so that the problems and solutions can be conceived properly and internally.
Comments of the researcher:
Man is inquisitive by nature. The inquisitiveness leads a man to know the unknown world before him. Research is the process of query to satisfy the thirst of knowledge. Inquisitiveness of the researchers of the above five research works inspired them to go into the details of the subjects, collect data and analyze the same with a view to formulating specific recommendations for solution of the problems.
Out of the said five research works one is related to the teaching methods of English language, one is related to the evaluation system of IER and the rest of four relate to comparative study. The present research topic is different from the said five researches. The present researcher however, admits that the study of the said research papers helped her in selecting the technique of data collection, sampling and sample technique and overall guidance of the research works.
Study Area/ Sample Area & Sample Group:
Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka and Teacher’s Training College, Dhaka were the selected study / sample area of this study.
The English Course teachers and the students only whose completed the “Teaching English” course and English Teaching Practice Program under the Bachelor of Education (one academic year) and Bachelor of Education (Hons.) program of both institutes, were concerned as population/ sample group for this research. The selection procedure of samples from the selected population is presented hereinafter. To enrich the database information of the study, the researcher also interviewed the English course teachers of the Teacher’s Training College, Dhaka.
Sample and Sampling Techniques:
Only the ‘Teaching English’ course teachers of both institutes were the selected sample group of teachers. The researcher determined to select 5 teachers from each institute for the collection of information. But, as there were four teaching English course teacher in the Dhaka TTC and one Teaching English course teacher in IER, so, the sample size of teacher was changed later. Four English teachers of Dhaka TTC, and one teaching English teacher of IER were the sample from whose, information was gathered through administering of questionnaire.
For this study 5 students of IER and 5 students of Dhaka TTC under the B-Ed program, were selected as the sample groups through purposive sampling method. Only who completed the Teaching English course and English practice teaching as the part of the achieving B-Ed degree from these mentioned institutes were selected as sample.
Review of related literatures:
In order to collect the information about the history of Teacher Education in Bangladesh and the place of English Teaching Courses and Teaching Practice courses in the different Programs of Teacher Education in Bangladesh, a critical review of relevant documents and materials was done by the researcher.
The selection of Indicators:
To compare the features and qualitative standard of the English Teaching courses and English Practice Teaching programs of IER and the National University, some indicators were selected by the researcher. On the basis of these indicators the main activities of this study was conducted. The selected indicators were as follows:
Development of Tools:
In order to get information and seek opinions from the respondents, two questionnaires were prepared for the two types of sample group. Each questionnaire had two parts. The first part of the questionnaire contained the general introduction of the respondents. The second part of the questionnaire contained both open and close ended types of questions- namely –1) simple yes-no or alternate response type, 2) multiple options-one-response type, 3) multiple response type.
The questionnaire, which prepared for the teachers, consisted 24 items and the questionnaire, which prepared for the students also consisted 24 items about the nature of the English teaching courses and English Practice Teaching programs of IER and the National University. The both questionnaire were prepared on the basis of the selected indicators.
Both questionnaires were prepared in Bangla to make it more understandable to sample groups. The researcher personally distributed the questionnaire to the respondents. Before administering the questionnaire, the purpose of the study was explained to the respondents. The respondents filled out the questionnaire in front of the researcher and the researched helped them to make the questionnaire understandable if they face any problem to fill up it.
As the existing curriculum of four-year B-Ed (Hons.) program of the National University does not include any course entitled ‘Teaching English’ so the researcher needed to collect the information about the teaching-learning opportunity of the English Teaching methods and procedures for the B-Ed (Hons.) students of TTC under the National University. In order to collect the information about the instructions that are given in the prescribe curriculum or in the course regulation of TTC about the English teaching methods to the students whose are intended to teach English in the school during practicum, the researcher took the interview of the English course teachers of Dhaka TTC. This interview was conducted to fulfill the research objectives and for the lack of sufficient information about the teaching English course of the four years B-Ed (Hons.) program of the National University, that were not found in the curriculum & other documents. The interview was taken to each teacher (four English course teacher of Dhaka TTC) independently through open-ended interview method. For this regard an interview schedule was prepared by the researcher, consisted 10 open-ended questions. Before interviewing researcher gave her identity and explained the purpose of the present research study. In this way rapport was build up with interviews. The researcher used note pad for collecting data from the interview.
Besides all instruments that were used for collecting data, prepared after getting effective direction of the honorable supervisor of this research study.
Data were managed by maintaining following procedureà
Data cleaning and editing:
All completed questionnaire were reviewed and edited according for ensuring completeness and consistency of the collected information and necessary cleaning of the data was done.
The methods of analysis were selected keeping in view the nature of the study and data, gathering devices. For the purpose of analysis and interpretation of the collected data, certain statistical approaches had adopted. Frequency distributions and percentages were adopted in the case of closed-ended and multi-response question answer. Beside the open questions were analyzed by the researchers own judgments. The opinions of the respondents (Teacher) that were collected through interview had been analyzed qualitatively.
In order to determine the predominant opinions of different groups of respondents their percentage and frequency distribution in respect of a variety of choices in items for both parts of the questionnaire were presented in the form of tables and the contents were analyzed and interpreted according to the selected indicators.
A comparative analysis of the English Teaching courses and the English Teaching Practice program of IER and the National University were done on the basis of the selected indicators. Information that was collected from the documents study, questionnaire and interview also considered during the comparison.
A report has prepared consisting of seven chapters on the basis of findings that were revealed from the comparative analysis of courses and practice teaching programs.
Teacher Education in the Primary level:
In Bangladesh, teacher training program got emphasis in the early of fifties. In 1950, there were two types of teachers training institutes for the primary school teachers namely, “Primary Training School” and “Primary Training Center”. These institutes were popularly known as “Guru Training School” and the “Moallem Training School”. In 1951 the “Primary Training Institutes” (PTI) replaced these two types of institute. At present there are 53 governments and 2 non-government PTIs in Bangladesh that provide one-year C-in-Ed (Certificate in Education) program for the teachers of the primary level. Besides the Open University introduced one-year module based C-Ed program for the primary teachers.
Teacher Education in the Secondary level:
For the first time “ Wood Dispatch” (1854) suggested the need of teacher’s training for the secondary level in this region. Following this priority, the Normal School was established at Dhaka in 1857. After that in 1869 and in 1882, two more Normal Schools were established in Comilla and Rangpur. During 1885 the Normal School located in Comilla was shifted to Chittagong. In 1882 the Hanter Commission recommended for one-year training for the graduate to teach in the secondary school. In persuasion of Hanter’s recommendation Dhaka Teachers’ Training College was established in 1909. Sadlar Commission (1917) attached more importance to the University to take up responsibilities to conduct professional education and educational research for the secondary schools teachers. Since 1956, the teachers training for the lower secondary level were imparted in the normal school and the duration of that training was two-years. Following the recommendation of the “East Bengal Education Reform Committee” those Normal Schools were converted to the Junior Training College. But the course duration remain unchanged. From 1966 these colleges had the authority to design their curriculum and conduct examination and to do assessment like TTC and awarded the beneficiaries with “Higher Education Certificate.” From 1967, the Education board undertook the total responsibilities of conducting the examination and the certificate got a new name “Higher Secondary Education Certificate”. After the liberation war, the Junior Training Colleges were converted to the college of Education in 1972 and the three-years Bachelor of Education Program introduced for the secondary level schools teachers following the recommendation of the Education Commission. The minimum requirement of getting admission in this B-Ed program was 12-year schooling. Besides the teachers training programs with 10 months duration were being conducted belong with this new program in the all teachers training colleges.
In 1960, the Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Dhaka was established to offer teaching programs leading to higher degrees, conducting research studies and providing extension services in Education. IER started its journey through offering two years Master of Education program and Doctorate in Education program. After a decade the 2-years program was split into one-year Diploma-in-Education and one-year Master of Education. In mid-nineties, IER felt the necessity of preparing specialized manpower for different sectors of Education. With a view to providing solid foundation required for such specialization a 3-years Bachelor of Education (Honors) program was introduced from the session 1994-95 which replaced the one-year Diploma-in-Education. IER extended the duration of its Bachelor of Education (Honors) program from 3-years to 4-years from the academic session 1998-99. Currently this institute is offering the following teaching programs leading to diploma/degrees in Education.
At present, there are 11 government teachers’ training colleges under the National University, and IER under University of Dhaka offering teachers’ training for the secondary level teachers. These institutes provide necessary facilities to make expert manpower for the education sector in Bangladesh. For the higher training and research work B-Ed degree is provided in all 11 TTC and M-Ed degree is also being imparted at Dhaka, Mymensingh (Male), Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi Teacher’s Training College. In addition at present there are 42 non-governments TTC established in our country under the National University. Besides from 1985 the Open University introduced teacher education program through the distance education in Bangladesh.
There is one separate teachers training college at Mymensingh for female students. Rests are run with co-education system.
Introduction to the English Teaching Courses in the different level of Teacher Education Programs:
English is taught as foreign language in Bangladesh. Bangla is the state language and a widely used language in the country. In Bangladesh the English Teaching Course got-much emphasis in the field of teacher education. A short description of English Teaching Courses at different levels of Teacher Education Programs is given below:
One-year Bachelor of Education Program of the National University:
The National University provides one-year Bachelor of Education Program. The main objective of this B-Ed program is to make efficient and skilled teachers for the secondary level. The curriculum of one-year B-Ed program includes one theoretical paper entitled “Teaching English: Special Method.” The duration of this course is 10 months. The course objectives cover all the six areas of the cognitive domain. There are eleven units in this course and include the study of the objectives of teaching of English as a foreign language at the secondary level, development of language skill, methods of teaching English, necessity and use of visual aids in teaching English, planning for works, teaching of grammar using the set grammar in S.S.C. textbooks, teaching of poetry set in the S.S.C. textbook and relevant practical works. One hundred marks are allocated for this course.
Allocation of Marks:
a) Internal Assessment 40 (20 marks in 1st term)
(20 marks in 2nd term)
b) External-Board 60
(Final Assessment) 100
Internship or practice teaching (Practicum) is the culminating experience of the first-degree program in Education. It provides the opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge on pedagogies in the actual classroom settings and gain practical experience.
In one-year B-Ed program of the National University, students get opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge of teaching and gain practical experiences, through the practicum. The duration of this practicum course is at least one or two months and is generally conducted in the last part of the academic session.
The students intend to teach English in the school during the practicum, have to participate in at least 5/6 simulation classes in order to learn the methods of teaching English and to practice their teachings skills. This simulation classes have to be conducted before the practicum, since it is the preparatory period for practicum. In the simulation classes, they also have to present full lessons with lesson plans using appropriate methods based on specific content. The simulation classes build confidence in the ability of the pupils and they have an opportunity to observe and participate in discussion on others’ performance in delivering class lectures.
During practicum students have to develop lesson plans for each lesson and to prepare necessary teaching aids. They also have to get these approved by the respective subject supervisor and to submit 30 lesson plans of each taught subject (English) for the final assessment. Besides, during the practice period subject supervisor supervises and observes 3 or 4 classes to assess the classroom performances of the students and to provide necessary guidance to make up their deficiencies. Two hundred marks are allocated for the practicum. Out of these 200 marks – 100 marks are allocated for the internal assessment and 100 marks for the external assessment (including viva).
Four-year Bachelor of Education (Hons) Program of the National University:
The National University introduced 3-years B-Ed (Hons) program only in Dhaka Teacher’s Training College. Later on, the National University extended the duration of its B-Ed (Hons) program from 3-years to 4 years.
There is no specific course on “Teaching English” in the introduced 4-years integrated B-Ed (Hons) Program of the National University. However, the curriculum of 4-years B-Ed (Hons) includes one compulsory English and two elective English courses. The contents of these courses are not related to the teaching methods & procedures of English at the secondary level. These courses are very much literature based and does not play any significant role in developing teaching ability of the trainee teachers.
In four-year integrated B-Ed (Hons) program, the students can choose two general subjects as elective which may be termed as elective general subject. The elective general subjects allow a student to pursue his/her particular interest and may become his/her chosen field of teaching in school. Simulation, microteaching, class observation preparation of lesson plans and actual classroom teaching is based on the respective elective subject. So if a student chooses “English” as one of the elective subject for study then she/he will get opportunity to teach English in school during the practicum.
The students who intend to teach English in school during practice teaching have to attend at least 4/5 simulation classes before going to practicum. They have to attend these simulation sessions in order to learn the methods of teaching English, class management, preparing lesson plan, lesson presentation process and to practice his/her teaching skills for the actual classroom situation.
Practicum is compulsory for all. The students go to practicum in the last year of academic sessions. The duration of the practicum is maximum t1 to 2 months. Sometimes they do their practicum in 2 terms in a year. But it depends on the decision of the authority of TTC. For the final assessment, a student has to submit 30 approved lesson plans and necessary teaching aids to the respective subject supervisor.
Allocation of Marks:
Total marks – 250
1) Simulation/Micro-teaching 50
2) Internship 25
(School report & co-curricular
3) Tutorial / term paper 25
4) Practice Teaching 150 (Internal Assessment – 50
(External Assessment – 100)
Four-year B-Ed (Hons) program of the Institute of Education and Research University of Dhaka:
The Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Dhaka extended the duration of its introduced B-Ed (Hons.) program from 3 years to 4 years from the academic session 1998-99. This institute offers some professional elective and core courses along with other courses in the four-years B-Ed (Hons) program. The curriculum of four-year integrated B-Ed (Hons) program includes one theoretical paper titled “Teaching English” as professional elective course. The students who are in language group are allowed to take “Teaching English” course with another teaching course i.e. “Teaching Bangla” in 5th semester. The duration of this course is one semester (6 months) with 4 credit hours. In order to set up the objectives of this course emphasis was given on the development of teaching English procedure as a foreign language. The course contents are divided into six parts. This is a course in content-cum-method practicum (English Language Teaching- ELT) where the students are required to undergo a full length of training in micro-simulation, and practical teaching. The course introduces teaching of basis language skills and a through overview of EFL methodology from the pre-nineteenth century up to the present time. The course also includes training for student teachers in various roles as observer, supervisor and coordinator. In addition to these the course introduces basic knowledge in EFL (English as a foreign language) testing and evaluation. One hundred marks are allocated for this course.
Nature of the Internship/Practicum (Teaching English):
Before going to internship, the students have to complete the Microteaching and simulation course within one semester (6 months). The total course credit hour is 4. Among this 4 credit, 2 credit are allocated for the ‘Teaching English’. This is a preparatory course for internship. In this course students in small group are involved mainly in two kinds of activities: Microteaching and Simulation. Under Microteaching, each student of a group practice skill/component of a lesson (examples-techniques of questioning use of teaching aids) separately in his/her group for a short period (5 to 7 min) under the close supervision of the teacher. Under simulation the students present the whole lesson following an approved lesson plan before the group. In both cases observations and reaction of the supervisor and the peers will facilities the presenter to improve his/her skill. Each student have to participate in at least 10 Micro-teaching sessions & 10 simulation classes and demonstrate at least 5 skills components with micro lesson plans.
During the internship period the interns get ample opportunities to demonstrate the art of teaching in real situation and participate in all activities at the school level. The duration of internship is one semester (course credit-20). The interns perform their assigned responsibilities in schools under the direct management and control of the heads of the respective schools and under the supervision of the subject supervisors and a school coordinator assigned by IER. At the initial stage of internship an internee has to observe at least 3 classes taken by the trained teacher of the cooperating school. She/he has to write report highlighting the main features of the lessons observed. In the internship, each intern has to take at least 40 classes in each of the two teaching subjects with approved lesson plans and necessary teaching aids. During last 10 classes, the subject supervisor observes at least 3 classes to assess the classroom performance of the intern. Besides each intern constructs an achievement test in his/her teaching subject consisting of at least 50 objective items and structured essay type items and one descriptive essay type item of 50-marks and administer the tests to the class he/she teaches. She/he has to score the answers script and to make the statistical analysis of the test result and prepare reports separately for each subject (Teaching Bangla & Teaching English). Each trainee also has to organize co-curricular activities for students in the class or in the school. Besides, an internee works in the cooperating school one full semester. She/he has to make an assessment of the school and submit a report to the school coordinator. After the internship, each student has to submit 30 approved lesson plan with necessary teaching aids to the respective subject supervisor.
C-Ed Program of Bangladesh Open University:
The School of Education of Bangladesh Open University has introduced one-year C-Ed program through the distance education from the session 1998. The aim of this program is to improve the quality of education by providing necessary trainings to the primary school teachers. In this program there is an opportunity for the working primary school teachers to participate in this pro-program by staying in their respective working place. Besides, who are not working as-teachers can also get the opportunity to participate in this program.
There are 12 courses in C-Ed program of the Open University. These are divided into three semesters. The duration of each semester is 6 months and each semester contains 4 courses. Each course is compulsory for all.
After the first semester examination there is an Orientation course conducted for 3 days. In this orientation course the tutors discuss about the preparation of the lesson plan and give necessary instruction regarding this topic to the students. At the end of the second semester examination a Summer school is conducted for four days. Here the students prepare 10 lesson plans of the English Subject and the tutors make necessary correction. During summer school, each student presents one practice teaching class on the English course following microteaching (skill-based) method. These activities consist 40 marks. To participate in the Orientation course and the summer school are compulsory for all. After the third semester examination, each trainee teacher has to pursue a full/complete practice teaching. Usually, the students continue their practice teaching in their respective school throughout the year until they take part in the final examination. The Head Teacher of the school supervises the practice teaching and approves the lesson plans. If she/he is not trained, then any other trained teacher of the nearest high school will approve the lesson plan. And those who are not in the teaching profession can pursue practice teaching in an authorized school. The final practice teaching consists 50 marks.
B-Ed Program of Bangladesh Open University:
At present, there are six schools faculties of the Open University. The school of Education is one of them. It plays a significant role to introduce the Educational Program of the Open University. The Bachelor of Education program is one of the introduced programs of the school of Education.
The duration of the B-Ed program of the Open University is 2 years. There are 40 courses in B-Ed program. These courses are divided into four
semesters. The duration of the each semester is 6 months. Out of 40 courses, each student has to select four compulsory courses and two elective courses from any two groups.
There are four English courses in the B-Ed program of the Open University. Such as-Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Developing English Language Skill, Methods of Teaching English and General English. These courses are offered to the students as elective subjects in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th semester. So there are two courses of teaching English- Teaching English as a Foreign Language and Methods of Teaching English. Each of the courses contains 100 marks. Students can choose this courses as elective subjects from the group A. The Teaching English as a Foreign Language, course includes the following contents- Unit-1 Nature of language and language learning. Language and its nature, Principles of language learning; Unit-2 : First language, Second language and Foreign language; Unit-3 : Role of English as a foreign language, Importance of English as an international language, Role of English in Bangladesh; Unit-4 : Objectives of teaching English at the secondary level; Unit-5 : Place of English in the school curriculum; Unit-6: Present condition of the teaching of English in the school, Drawbacks & Remedies, Present condition of the teaching of English, Drawbacks in the present condition of the teaching English, Remedies of the drawbacks.
The “Methods of Teaching English” Course contains the following contents: Unit-1: The Grammar Translation Method-its advantages and disadvantages; Unit-2: Direct methods -its advantages and disadvantages; Unit-3: The Structural Method–its advantages and disadvantages; Unit-4: The Audio-Lingual Method–its advantages and disadvantages; Unit-5: The communicative Approach-its advantages and disadvantages; Unit-6: The Eclectic Approach-its advantages and disadvantages; Unit-7: Use and preparation of Teaching Aids; Unit-8: Preparation of lesson Plans/notes-Importance of a lesson notes, Steps in a lesson note, A sample lesson plan.
The chosen elective subjects allow a student to prepare lesson plan & to do practice teaching in the Orientation classes and in the summer and the winter school that are held, after the semester final examination.
Students have to collect learning materials and to study that by themselves. They also have to participate in the tutorial sessions regularly and watch the educational program, which are broadcasted in the Radio and the television by the Open University.
After the first semester examination there is an orientation course run for 3 days where students are to be instructed to prepare lesson plan and to do practice teaching on their selected two elective courses. So, if a student takes “Teaching English as a foreign language” in the first semester as an elective subject then he/she has to prepare lesson plan and carry out practice teaching with approved lesson plans in the orientation classes by following the simulation method.
The same is done after the second semester examination in the summer school.
At the end of third semester examination, Winter School is run for 3 days. Here the tutors examine 30 lesson plans (For each subject-15) of each student. If a student takes Methods of Teaching English as an elective subject in the third semester then she/he has to submit 15 lessons plan and participate in two practice teaching classes. In this practice teaching, skill based micro teaching method is followed.
To participate in the orientation course in the summer and in the winter school are compulsory for all. After the fourth-semester examination a full/complete practice teaching with necessary teaching aids and lesson plan is conducted. For that 100 marks are allocated. The students continue their practice teaching in the respective school until they take part in the fourth semester final examination and have to prepare 60-lesson plan during that practice period. The Head Teacher of the school supervises their practice teaching and approves the lesson plans. If she/he is not trained, then any other trained teacher will approve the lesson plans. Those who are not in the teaching profession can practice in the authorized schools. The final practice teaching consists 200 marks (Practice teaching 100 + Viva 100).
4.3.6 C-in-Ed Program of NAPE:
The National Academy for Primary Education has 53 government PTIs (2 non-government) in Bangladesh that provide one-year C-in-Ed (Certificate in Education) program for the teachers of the primary level. The curriculum of one-year C-in-Ed program of NAPE doesn’t include any Teaching English course, except one course titled ‘English’. It is a compulsory course for all. This course in based on the needs of primary teachers, in the context of the primary teaching-learning situation in Bangladesh. It is intended to prepare teachers with practical strategies to teach English effectively in primary schools. The objectives of this course put emphasis the following: learn and use language items of the primary English textbooks, learn how to teach and use the four skills in English, learn how to teach and use basic English grammar, learn how to use a variety of classroom techniques and learns the different uses of assessment techniques. The outcomes of each objective are determined separately in the curriculum.
There are seven chapters in ‘English’ course content which includes the principles of teaching English in the primary school, lesson planning, basic language skills and techniques for practicing the use of English in the primary classroom, principles of teaching basic grammar in the primary classroom, English as an international language: Language diversity and understandable pronunciation, techniques for assessment and Evaluation designing different types of test. The methodology of the course is participatory by encouraging the active involvement of trainees through the use of tasks such as, discussion, brainstorming, problem solving, group work etc. The use of tasks is important so that trainees get enough scope for practice, and in this way their knowledge is activated in the training process itself. The emphasis of the training is on using skills and knowledge and not simply acquiring them and100 marks are allocated for this course.
In one-year C-in-Ed program of NAPE, the duration of practice teaching is two months, which is generally carried out in the last part of the academic session. The simulation classes are conducted to prepare students, before the practice teaching session begins on five subjects – Bangla, English, Science, Mathematics and Social science. Hence, simulation session is a preparatory period for practice teaching.
During the practice teaching, guide teachers or supervisors supervise and observe the practice teaching of the trainees and provide necessary guidance to make up their deficiencies and assess the classroom performances. Students also have to submit 60 lesson plans of each taught subject (English) of the practice teaching for the final assessment. Two hundred marks are allocated for this
The Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka is a well-known institute in Bangladesh, which offers some professional elective and core courses along with other courses in its four-year B-Ed (Hons.) program. The curriculum of four-year integrated B-Ed (Hons.) program of IER includes one theoretical course entitled “Teaching English” as professional core course. IER also offers “Practice Teaching” as professional core course, duration of which is 6 months (1 semester) for the B-Ed (Hons.) students.
Besides, the National University of Bangladesh offers B-Ed program. Under the B-Ed program, the National University provides 4-year B-Ed (Hons.) and one academic year B-Ed program in order to make efficient and skilled classroom teachers.
The existing curriculum of four-year B-Ed (Hons.) of the National University does not include any course like “Teaching English” where as the curriculum of one-year B-Ed program includes one theoretical paper entitled “Teaching English” as an elective subject. So the Teaching English Course, which offered in the 10 months B-Ed program of the National University, was considered for comparison.
In this chapter of this study, a comparative analysis between the English Teaching Course (both theoretical and practical) of IER and the National University has been made. The comparison has been done based on some selected indicators.
Comparison of Teaching English Course:
Title of the course:
The name of the teaching English course offered by IER was “Teaching English” and the course number was PEL-135.
The National University:
The teaching course of English, which offered by the National University in one-year B-Ed Program, entitled “Teaching English” (Special Method): Elective-2.
The duration of the course offered by IER was 6 months (one semester) and course credit hour was 4.
The National University:
The duration of the “Teaching English” course, offered by the National University is 10 months.
Nature of the course: (Course Description)
The ‘Teaching English’ course offered by IER was a professional elective course for the students of language group. This was a course in content cum method/practicum (English Language Teaching – ELT) where the students were required to undergo a full length of training in micro simulation, and practical teaching. The course introduced teaching of basic language skills and a thorough overview of EFL methodology from the pre-nineteenth century up to the present time. The course also included training for student teachers in various roles as observer, supervisor and coordinator. In addition to these the course introduced basic knowledge in EFL testing and Evaluation.
The National University:
The ‘Teaching English’ course which offered in one academic year B-Ed program of the National University was an elective course also. The course was designed to improve knowledge and develop skills, which is essential for an English to teach English properly at secondary level.
This course included the study of the objectives of teaching English as a foreign language at the secondary level, development of language skill, methods of teaching English, necessity and use of visual aids in teaching English, planning for works, teaching of grammar using the set grammar in S.S.C text books; teaching of poetry set in the S.S.C text book and relevant practical works.
The offered Teaching English course of B-Ed (Hons.) program of IER included six objectives and the students were expected to attain those objectives after completing the course. The course objectives were as follows-
- Define various language skills and use them in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL).
- Distinguish between receptive and productive skills and explain the role of the mother tongue in teaching EFL.
- Apply EFL methods and language skills in practical teaching.
- Explain the main features of EFL at secondary levels.
- Make valid and reliable EFL tests for secondary level.
- Perform the role of observers, supervisors and coordinators in practice teaching.
The National University:
In addition, the Teaching English course offered by the National University in one academic year B-Ed program included seven objectives that the trainees were expected to attain after completion of the course. The objectives were as follows:
- Explain the objectives of the Teaching English at the secondary level.
- Master the language skills – listening speaking, reading and writing and teach the skills in learner centered activities within communicative contest.
- Teaching structures in sequence implicitly through regular use within realistic contexts.
- Plan Lesson identifying aims, objectives, stages and activities.
- Teach grammar using the set grammar in books.
- Evaluate the student’s performance following criteria given in the curriculum.
- Explain the importance of audio visual aids in Teaching English foreign language and the use of the aids while teaching.
The National University:
The course objectives of the ‘Teaching English’ course of the National University, were appropriate because it covered almost every required areas of English teaching and the objectives were written in accurate manner. It gave clear understanding to both the learners and the teachers about what to learn and what to teach.
Organization of the Contents:
Organization of the contents of any course is a vital task in the teaching-learning process. If contents presented in organized way, then teaching-learning process would be more effective and easier. If contents are presented incoherently then the teaching learning process would become harder and both teacher and learners fail to understand the chronological development of the concept of the contents properly. So, in the course syllabus the contents must be organized properly.
By analyzing the contents of the Teaching English Course of IER, it was observed that, the contents were organized systematically. The maxim of the learning was followed in organizing the contents in the course syllabus. All the contents that included in the course syllabus were presented from easy to hard scale of the learning process of students. Besides the course contents were set up in the course syllabus according to their importance of learning. In addition the course teacher also agreed that the contents of the teaching English course of IER were organized successively.
The National University:
According to the opinions of the Teaching English course teachers of Dhaka TTC, the organizations of the course contents were not fully appropriate at all. Modification was to be needed in the organization if the course outline. . They opined that, the contents should be set up from easy to hard scale. They also proposed to add more time-befitting topics on English language teaching in order to enrich the course. But they did not identify the weaknesses about the present organization of the course contents. On the other hand, by analyzing the contents of the Teaching English course of the B-Ed program of the National University, it was revealed that the course contents were set up according to their learning importance. The organization of the contents was almost appropriate. But the first unit, “Teaching English in Bangladesh” that included, methods of teaching and nature of language and language learning, which topics were not related to the title of the unit. These topics should be set up in the separate units. Accepts these two topics the rest of the contents of other units were well organized.
Accuracy and time befitting of the contents:
According to the course teachers’ opinion of IER, the prescribed course contents were not fully accurate to fulfill the present demand of English Teaching. The teacher stated that, in the course, the major emphasis was given only on the teaching methods of English at secondary level. But no content were included on teaching literature, classroom management, and effective teaching approaches to develop learners’ competences in independent learning or language improvement. At present the English teaching learning process demands these components in content, to develop and improve skills in teaching English effectively at the secondary level. Hence the course contents of IER were not fully accurate and time befitting according to the demand of English teaching process of the present time.
The National University:
The course teachers of TTC Dhaka, stated that the prescribed. Course contents of B-Ed program of the National University, were not also fully accurate and time befitting to attain the present demand of Teaching English. They opined that the course contents would need to more improvement. They suggested that some important contents, such as, quality of English teacher, classroom behavior, managing the English classroom, reflective approaches to teach English and independent learning in English had to be included in the course syllabus to make the course content enriched and time befitting. They also suggested that more activities and practices should be added for the development of the necessary language skills that were required in the communicative teaching-learning process in English.
So, it can be say that, the teaching English course contents of the B-Ed program of the National University were not accurate and time-befitting enough. The course teachers felt it was necessary to include the suggested contents in order to make the course effective and helpful for the learners in English teaching at the secondary level.
188.8.131.52 Required contents of the English Teaching course:
- Development of Language Skills:
Learning English Language involves not just one skill. Learning English, as well as, any language involves four different skills – listening, speaking, reading and writing. These are four basic language skills. Every language demands sound knowledge and good skills on the particular area of these four skills. We know that English is not a content-based subject. It is a skill-based subject. It is about practicing language skills i.e. practicing about listening, speaking, reading and writing. The English language classroom should, above all else, be an interactive one. The students should practice English with the teacher, the teacher with the students and most important of all, the students should interact with each other.
The introduced communicative English language teaching and learning is about the acquisitions of language through constant and regular practice. The introduced English language syllabus of the secondary level aims to focus on the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing as learner-centered activities within communicative context. To achieve this aim the teacher should develop the pupils’ four language skills. To do it effectively, the teachers should have to develop their own language skills in English. They have to know the proper way of acquiring language skills and their effective uses. If they develop their own skills properly, then they can also develop the pupils’ language skills in English. So the course on Teaching English must include the content about the development of basic language skills.
By analyzing the contents of the Teaching English course of B-Ed (Hons) program of IER, it was observed that it included a unit in the course on “Language Skills: Teaching of Basic language skill”. But the contents that included in that unit were not clearly stated. From the statements of the students of IER, it was found that they got very little opportunities in the classroom for practicing their language skills and acquiring the language competencies. They also stated that they got only the theoretical concept of these four skills of language learning. Practical application of these concepts were not discussed or taught by their teachers and they did not know how to use these skills in the real life situation properly.
It was revealed through analyzing the responses which gathered from questionnaire that among the five respondents of the sample group of student from IER, two of them acquired better skills in listening, two respondents stated they acquired the listening skill moderately and rest of one respondent answered that he/she acquired the listening skill very little after completing the Teaching English Course.
In case of acquiring speaking skill, among those five respondents, two of them stated they acquired better speaking competency and rest of the three respondents acquired speaking skill moderately, little and no competency respectively.
Besides three respondents stated that they acquired better reading skill and rest of two respondent answered they acquired the reading skill moderately.
In case of acquiring writing skill, one respondents acquired full competency in writing skill, while one respondents stated that he / she acquired good writing competency and the rest of three respondents stated that they acquired writing skill moderately in English by studying the Teaching English course of IER.
The National University:
The course syllabus of the National University contained a unit on.. “Development of language skill.” The unit was divided into four parts, such as -a) Listening skill. b) Speaking skill, (c) Reading skill, d) Writing skill. Each part contained some sub-contents about the concepts and activities that were required in the development of that particular language skill. The concepts and activities that would be taught and practiced in the development of teaching basic language skill namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing were clearly stated in the four part of that unit.
According to students statements of B-Ed (one academic year) program of Dhaka TTC under the National University, the contents of the Teaching English course were appropriate and effective in developing the four basic language skills. All the students were (sample group) responded in favor of the opinion. Among the five respondents of the sample group of students, two of them stated that they got sufficient opportunity to practice the language skills during the class time, where the rest of 3 respondents stated that they got the moderate opportunity to practice the four language skills during the class time. It revealed that, the students of the B-Ed program of the National University got opportunities to apply their theoretical knowledge of the language skills in the practical situation.
The attainment of language proficiencies of the students was judged by themselves that revealed, among the fine respondents of the National University, two of them acquired full competency in listening, two respondents stated that they acquired better competency and rest of one acquired the listening skill moderately.
In case of acquiring speaking skill, three respondents acquired full speaking competency in English and rest of two acquired better skill in speaking.
Among the five respondents, two of them acquired full reading competency in English, one respondent acquired better competency and rest two acquired moderate reading skill in English.
In case of acquiring writing skill, three respondents acquired full competency in writing skill in English and rest of the two respondent acquired better writing skill.
Principal methods of Teaching:
The Teaching English course included a unit titled “EFL Methodology”. This unit contained some principal methods that were suitable to English language teaching. There were four part of this unit such as (a) brief history of the development of EFL methodology (b) Principle methods suitable to our classroom (c) eclecticism in EFL methods and (d) Integration-innovating your own techniques. In the part (b) some methods of teaching such as, The Grammar translation method, the Direct method, the structure method, Audio visual method, the Communicative approach method, Total physical response method, Community language hearing method, the Natural approach method and Suggestosedia method were included. These methods are widely practiced in teaching – learning process. From this unit learners could be able to gain the knowledge of various EFL methodologies from the pre-nineteenth century up to the present time and to select the best and effective methods of English teaching from among these methods by their own innovating power and judgment.
The National University:
The teaching English course of B-Ed program of the National University included various methods of teaching in its contents. There was no separate unit for this. The teaching methods were included along with the unit entitled “Teaching English in Bangladesh” as sub-content. This sub-content ‘methods of teaching’ contained some EFL teaching methods such as, Grammar Translation Method, Direct method, Audio-lingual method, Structural approach and Communicative approach method. The teaching English course of the National University included lesser number of teaching methods compared to IER. In this course, total physical response method, Community language method, the Natural approach method and suggestosedia method were not included in the content for study. Only the basic principle methods of teaching were included in the content.
Teaching English in Bangladesh:
In order to teach English in the school level, at first the teachers should have the clear idea about the present condition of the English teaching at the secondary level in Bangladesh. It means they have to be introduced to the English Curriculum of Secondary level at first and also know the aims and objective of teaching English at the secondary level, the evaluation system as well as they have to acquire clear ideas about the place of English in the curriculum in Bangladesh. Without knowing those, teachers cannot teach effectively. Therefore teaching course of English must includes the contents in these regards. The teaching English course of IER included the contents on the Introduction of English curriculum, textbook, teaching materials and evaluation system of secondary level in Bangladesh. Besides, the course was very much empirical. The contents or activities that included in the syllabus were discussed and practiced by the application of using textbooks of secondary level. So, the teaching course of English of IER was more effective to impart clear idea to the learners about the place of English in the curriculum of secondary level and would help them to teach English effectively in the schools.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of B-Ed program of the National University included the contents about the aims and objectives of teaching English in Secondary school in Bangladesh and the place of English in the curriculum: time table, textbooks and materials, classroom situation.
Pronunciation is one of the vital concernable area of language teaching moreover, it is much more essential to know the correct pronunciation of the words in the English language teaching. As English is a foreign language in our country, we are not much aware of the correct and appropriate pronunciation of many known and unknown English words. For that reason the teachers who will teach English at school level, they have to know the correct pronunciation of the English words and accent as well as they have to develop their competences of pronunciation in English.
But the course contents did not include any topic pronunciation of English with correct phonetics, words in the syllabus of the Teaching English course of IER.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of B-Ed program of the National University included a separate unit about “Pronunciation” in its contents. This unit contained various aspect of pronunciation of English language such as, Sounds, stress and intonations pattern etc.
Vocabulary and Structures:
Both oral and written communication in English needs enriched vocabulary and to know the construction of structure of the sentence pattern in oral and written form. It is a vital area in effective English teaching. But the course contents of Teaching English of IER did not include any content about the vocabulary and sentence pattern.
The National University:
The Teaching English course, offered by the National University in the B-Ed program, included a unit on vocabulary and structure in its contents. That unit contained – formation of words, techniques for showing the meaning of visual and abstract words, procedure for teaching vocabulary in the class, revising and expanding student vocabulary, teaching meaning and form contrasting structures and learning how to use a dictionary. By analyzing this sub-contents of this unit, it revealed that, these contents were sufficient to gain and develop the knowledge of vocabulary and structures of English language for the learners.
Use of Audio-Visual aids in Teaching English:
In the course of ‘Teaching English’ of IER, there was content about ‘Teaching aids and its significance and use’, which was included along with other unit as a sub-content of it. Any specific content about use of Audio-visual aids in teaching English, was not included in this course contents. However, the content of uses of Audio-visual Equipments was included in the Microteaching and simulation course of IER. Though the ‘Teaching English course did not include any content about ‘Using of Audio-visual aids in Teaching English”, student however could got a change to learn how to use audio-visual aids in the English teaching process through studying the Microteaching and Simulation course.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of B-Ed program of the National University included two separate units on “Audio Aids in English Teaching” and “Visual aids in English Teaching” in its course contents. The unit which was titled ‘Audio Aids in English Teaching, contained, importance of audio aids, use of radio and audio tapes, classroom practice through audio materials, and the other unit “Visual Aids in English Teaching” contained, importance of visual aids in language teaching, kinds of visual aids and the real objects, picture, textbook, charts, using of black board, black board drawing, as the sub-contents.
. The content of teaching English course should include the content about the preparing of lesson so that trainee teachers of English subject can learn how to prepare lesson plan in English. The course contents of the Teaching English course of IER included a unit on “ lesson plan.” This unit contained the significance of lesson plan, formation of lesson plan, types of lesson plan and development of lesson plan. These contents were appropriate and sufficient to develop the skills needed to prepare lesson plan and use it in the classroom for effective teaching learning.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of B-Ed program under the National University also included the contents on lesson plan. There was a unit in the course syllabus entitled ‘Planning of Works’ which contained, lesson planning, identifying aims and objectives of a lesson, identifying different stages of a lesson plan, providing balance and variety of activities and preparing lesson plan.
The syllabus of “Teaching English” Course of B-Ed (Hons) program of IER did not include any content on teaching grammar or methods of teaching grammar using the set grammar in the text books of the secondary level, in its course contents.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of B-Ed program of the National University included a unit on ‘Teaching Grammar’ in its course content, titled, “Teaching grammar using the set grammar in the text books (S.S.C.)”. But no instruction was clearly mentioned about the methods and procedures of teaching grammar in the secondary level.
No content was included about the methods of teaching English poetry in the content of Teaching English course of IER.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of B-Ed program of the National University included the content about teaching poetry in its course content. There was a separate unit titled ‘Teaching Poetry’ in the course syllabus. But, no instruction was clearly mentioned in it. However, according to the course teachers’ statement that unit included the content about language versus literature and how to teach poetry. They opined that, they do not emphasize on the methods of teaching poetry.
Testing and Evaluation:
In order to evaluate students’ achievement, teacher needs to construct the test and administer the test to the class. For that, the teacher must have clear idea and skill to develop the test items and know the evaluation procedures correctly. Therefore, a course of Teaching English must include adequate content on construction of test items and evaluation procedures. So that the trainees’ can grasps the idea about testing and evaluation and apply that ideas in real teaching learning situation.
After analyzing the teaching English course contents of IER, it was observed that, the course included a unit titled ‘Testing and Evaluation’ in it contents. The unit contained, distinction between testing and evaluation, kinds of test and testing, stages of test constructions, testing four basic language skills, interpreting test score and Norms as the sub-contents. These contents were appropriate and effective to gain proper knowledge about test, testing and evaluation. The last content “Interpreting test scores and Norms” was very much important that enables learners to apply their own judgment in interpretation of the students results. Besides they also got idea about the different types of tests such as, Norm Referenced test..
The National University:
The course contents of ‘Teaching English’ course of B-Ed program of the National University also included the content about Evaluation procedures. There wasa unit in the course syllabus entitled “Evaluation: Evaluating Learning Outcome” which contained, concept of continuous and comprehensive evaluation, formative and summative evaluation, evaluation of four language skills, different types of evaluation tools and their strong and weak points. But these contents were not much sufficient and there was not clear instruction about the types of evaluation tools and evaluation procedures of four-language skill. Besides, no contains were included for constructing tests and interpreting test scores.
Managing the English Classroom:
Managing the classroom is one of the important skills for a teacher. After entering in the classroom, the first activity of the teacher would be to manage and organize the classroom properly and make it fit for teaching. If it is a large class then it will be too hard for teacher to control the whole class. In that case, teachers have to know some strategies and techniques to teach the students with confidence and manage classes for learning. Same skills are also be required to English teaching for the English teachers. The English teachers must have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to manage classes for teaching English and facilitate learning activities in organized and efficient ways. All the teaching courses provide necessary knowledge about the development of skills, attitudes, practices and personal awareness relating to the teaching- learning activities. The Teaching English course also have to contained the content on how to manage classroom while teaching English and be able to apply attained skills in actual situation. But, it was observed that, no content were included, in either of two teaching English courses of both institutes.
Assignment / practical work
The Teaching English course, IER included assignment for the student. The course teacher of IER reported that 10 marks were allocated for the assignment. The students of IER reported that they had to present different kinds of assignment, such as, preparing lesson plans and various types of teaching aids and had to submit on a due date.
The National University:
The Teaching English course of the National University also included assignment and the course teachers reported that 4/5 marks were allocated for this. The students who completed this teaching course in the B-Ed program, reported that they were assigned to submit some practical works such as – preparing teaching aids, lesson plans and constructing a objective type items. Those were treated as the assignment .The had to submitted those tasks on stipulated date.
Nature of Assessment:
The following was the assessment system for ‘Teaching English” course of IER –
a) Allocation of Marks:
- In course examinations best two out of three 15´2=2
- Course final examination 60
- Tutorial / Assignment / Project 10
b) Types of tests used:
The duration of each in-course examination was one hour. The course instructor chose the nature of test-items such as, objective types, short essay types or descriptive essay type. The instructor may take more in-course than specified without increasing ratio of marks.
The duration of course final examination was 3 hours. Mark distribution in the course final examination was as follows –
- Objective items – 20 marks
- Structured short Essay items and – 40 marks
Descriptive Essays _______________
Total 60 marks
Test items, both objective and essay types, in final examination covered all the categories of cognitive domain including a few items, which required reflective thinking.
- c) Marking System:
The marking system of the each provided course of IER followed the grading system. The grading system was based on raw scores. Students belonging to different class intervals were graded according to the following table for each course –
Class intervals of score Grade – Grade Grade point
80% and above A+ 4.00
70% to 79% A 3.50
60%to 69% B+ 3.00
50% to 59% B 2.50
45% to 49% C 2.00
40% to 44% D 1.50
Below 40%% F 0.00
F stands for fail. Any student obtained F grade was allowed to retake in the next final examination.
The National University:
The assessment system for ‘teaching English’ course of the National University were as follows-
a) Allocation of Marks
100 marks are allocated for the course
- Internal Assessment 40
- External Assessment 60
Total = 100 marks
Internal assessment had allocation of 40 marks and that marks were divided into two categories, 20 marks for written examination of incourses or class tests and rest of the 20 marks allocated other activities of the student, such as, class participation, personal performance, student creativeness in the different level of assigned tasks, assignment. The authority of teachers training colleges conducted internal assessment and the external assessment was conducted by the direct supervision of the National University. The external assessment meant the formal way of assessment
b) Types of tests used:
The course teachers took at least two incourses for internal assessment, which contained 20 marks. However the course teacher may took more incourses, than specified without increasing ratio of marks. The course teachers chose the nature of test items.
The duration of the external examination of the course (Final Assessment) was 3 hours and the nature of the test items generally descriptive essay type. The final assessment was determined on the basis of the results of the external examination.
c) Marketing system:
The marking system was based on the summation of raw scores that the students obtained in the internal and the external examination. Students had to obtain 36% marks to pass. Below 36% marks was considered as fail.
The course of IER included seven books in its reference. Foreign authors wrote most of them. The students of IER opined that these books were not available in the market and the IER library also.
The National University:
The course of the National University included 20 books of both native and foreign authors in its reference. Besides, the students of B-Ed program of the National University stated that most of the reference books were available in the market and library.
Comparison of the English Teaching Practice Programs
Internship or Practice Teaching is the culminating experience of the first degree in education. It provides the opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge on pedagogies in the actual classroom settings and gain practical experience. The trainees/interns are exposed to an environment where they encounter learners for the first time and face them with multitude of ideas, approaches, techniques and processes. During the internship period the interns/trainees will get ample opportunities to demonstrate the art of teaching in actual situation and participate in all activities at the school level.
Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Dhaka and the National University, both provide the practice teaching/internship programs in their B-Ed and B-Ed (Hons.) programs. The chosen/selected elective subjects of the students of IER and the National University in the B-Ed/B-Ed (Hons.) course program allow them to pursue studies of their particular interest, which may become their chosen field of teaching in school. So, if a student selected “English” as one of the elective subject in B-Ed or B-Ed (Hons.), then she/he will be allowed to teach “English” in the school during the practice teaching or internship. The above information was obtained from the responses of both groups of sample students. All the students (100%) answered that they chose the “teaching subject” for the practice teaching program, depending on the elective subjects they studied in the B-Ed of B-Ed (Hons.) course.
A comparative study of the English Teaching Practice Programs of IER and the National University that was conducted on the basis of selected indicators through documents survey and data analysis is presented below.
Comparison of the English Teaching Practice Programs
The durations of internship/practice-teaching programs of IER was one semester (6 months) with 20 credit hours. During internship the interns had to carry out their assigned responsibilities in schools under the direct management and control of the heads of the respective schools and under the supervision of subject supervisors and a school coordinator assigned by IER.
The National University:
There was no specific instruction about the duration of the practice teaching program in B-Ed (10 months) program of the National University. The course teachers responses of the Teachers Training College, Dhaka – it was gathered that the duration of the practice teaching in B-Ed (10 months) program ranged from two to three months and the students had to complete this in two terms; i.e. they carry out practice teaching twice-in an academic year. At first, trainees went to the practice teaching at the middle of the year and then for the second time at the end of the academic session. But its time schedule depended on the decision of the college authority.
Current curriculum of B-Ed (Hons.) of the National University has no course on ‘Teaching English’ as such, but it includes the opportunity of English practice teaching for those who opt to teach ‘English’ in the school. The Students those had selected “English” as an elective subject in B-Ed (Hons.) were given oportunities to teach ‘English’ subject in the school during the practice teaching. The opinion, which has been gathered from responses of sampled Teachers from TTC Dhaka, revealed that the duration of the English practice teaching was 2 to 3 months in the introduced B-Ed (Hons.) program of the National.
Natures and Scope:
Microteaching and Simulation
Institute of Education and Research conducted Microteaching and simulation a compulsory course to the B-Ed (Hons.) students in order to gain experience in the practice of pedagogies in an arranged situation. The course was meant for preparing internship before they carry out practice teaching in real life situation.
Four credit hours were assigned in the course and it was allocated 2 credits for English teaching and was allocated one semester for Microteaching and simulation. The main objectives of conducting Microteaching and simulation classes for the students to familiarize them with the practical aspect of the learning environment and to enable students to plan, present and evaluate major skills of the teaching effectively.
The instructions were given in the prescribed curriculum of the B-Ed (Hons.) program of IER that, at the initial stage of internship an internee had to observe at least 3 classes taken by the trained teacher of the cooperating school. She/he had to write two reports (one for each subject); highlighting the main features of the lessons observed, strengths and weaknesses of the lessons and possible ways of improving the lessons had to be covered in the reports. Students’ had to submit reports to the school coordination and 1 credit hour was allocated for this.
The responses of the course teachers and students of IER substantiated the above fact.
The National University:
B-Ed (one-year/B-Ed (Hons.)
The teachers of the TTC reported that there was no opportunity for the trainees to observe classes taken by the trained teacher of the cooperating schools and they were not asked to submit any class observation reports as assessment.
The students of the B-Ed (program) under the National University reported that they did not observe any classes taken by the trained teachers of the cooperating schools before starting their practice teaching. Even they were not instructed to observe class teaching by their college authority or from the cooperating schools.
184.108.40.206 Teaching in the classroom:
Each B-Ed (Hons.) students of IER had to take at least 40 classes in each of the two teaching subjects (at least 20 classes for each subject). Students had to prepare lesson plans and prepare/collect necessary teachings aids and conduct class teaching.
During first 30 classes the subject supervisor supervised at least 6 full classes and provided necessary guidance to the internee to make up his/her deficiencies. During last 10 classes respective subject supervisor observed at least 3 classes to assess the classroom performance of the internee.
Use of teaching aids in the classroom teaching:
Use of the appropriate teaching aids make the lesson effective. The students opined that the subject supervisors instructed them to use teaching aids regularly and in appropriate manner to make the teaching – learning process interesting and attractive to the pupils.
Accordingly, the Students prepared and collected necessary teaching aids and conducted classes by using them. Among the 5 students of the sample group (student) of IER, 3 respondents (60%) answered that they used teaching aids in the classroom teaching – learning situation frequently and other 2 respondents (40%) answered that they used teaching aids regularly.
Students had to submit 40 lesson plans with necessary teaching aids in English that they taught in school. Their lesson plans had to be approved by the subject supervisor.
The National University
B-Ed (one year)/B-Ed (Hons):
No specific instruction was given in the prescribed curriculums of B-Ed and B-Ed (Hons.) program about how many classes a student had to take during practice teaching. Students of B-Ed program under the national university reported that they had to take 25 to 30 classes in each teaching subjects during practice teaching. But this numbers may vary for various reasons such as – political disturbance in the country, the internal problems of the schools’ authority and others.
During last 2 or 3 classes respective subject supervisor (internal) supervise and provides necessary guidance to the trainees and assess them for internal evaluation. And at the end of the practice teaching an external teacher observes one class to assess the classroom performance of the trainees for the external evaluation. The later may be termed as the final evaluation.
Use of teaching aids in the classroom teaching:
The students of the National University stated that at the time of supervision and observation of their classes, they were instructed by their teachers to use appropriate and relevant teaching aids in the classroom teaching. Students also prepared and used necessary teaching aids to make the teaching-learning process effective and attractive. Among the five respondents of the TTC, 4 of them (80%) answered that they used teaching aids in the English classes regularly during practice teaching. And one respondent (20%) answered that he/she used teaching aids frequently. It indicates that, the students of B-Ed programs were strongly instructed/directed to use teaching aids for teaching English or any other subject by the course teachers.
The main features of the Teaching English course of IER:
- IER designed the ‘Teaching English Course” as a professional elective course in the Bachelor of Education (Hons.) Program.
- It was meant for the students of language group of Bachelor of Education (Hons) program.
- The duration of the course was 6 months (one semester) and the course was allotted 4credit hours.
- The course was meant to introduce teaching of basic language skills and provide a thorough overview of EFL methodology covering the pre-nineteenth century up to the present time.
- The Teaching English course of IER included six objectives.
- The objectives of the course covered almost every area of English Teaching methods and techniques except the use of teaching aids and the use of lesson plan and their significance in teaching-learning process
- All the objectives of the teaching English course of IER were written in behavioral form.
- Most of the contents of the course were appropriate and effective to attain the course objectives.
- The contents were set up in the course syllabus according to their importance of learning.
- The course consents were not time befitting enough.
- The Teaching English Course of IER did not contain all the required learning contents of the English Teaching Course.
- The course contents did not include the contents about the pronunciation of English, sounds and words, vocabulary and structures, use of audio visual aids in teaching English, the process how to teach grammar and poetry, managing the English classroom.
- There was a scope of internal assessment by incourse examination and assignment.
- In the B-Ed (Hons) Curriculum 100 marks were allocated for the Teaching English course.
- Students were evaluated by the consistency of incourse and semester final examination..
- Submission of assignment by the student was compulsory for all and 10 marks were allocated for it,
- Out of three incourses the numbers of best two were added in the final assessment of the student. The duration of each incourse was one hour. The nature of the test items were objective types, short essay type or descriptive.
- The duration of course final examination was 3 hours and out of 100 marks 60 marks were allocated for course final examination.
- The marking system of the course followed the grading system. Students belonging to different class were graded according to follow the prescribed rules of grade point.
- The course curriculum was theoretical. There was little scope for practicing language skills practically in the course content.
- The Teaching English course of IER was not effective in the development of language proficiency of the learners. The students could not attained full competency even in one skill out of the four language skills.
Strengths of the English Teaching Course of IER:
- The course objectives were clearly stated in the course syllabus.
- All the stated course objectives were written in behavioral form.
- Most of the contents of the English Teaching Course were appropriate and effective to attain the course objective
- All the contents were arranged in the course syllabus according to their importance of learning.
- Contents were organized according to the maxim of learning.
- The course included a thorough overview of EFL methodology from the pre-nineteenth century up to the present time, so that the students could get a first hand knowledge of the chronological development of the EFL methodology.
- The course introduced teaching of basic four-language skills – listing, speaking, reading and writing.
- Students performances were evaluated by the consistency of incourse and final examination.
- In course system helped students to continue their study regularly.
- There was scope of internal assessment by incourse examination and through assignment.
- It was compulsory to submit the assigned work (assignment) in due time.
- Grading system was to be followed in the assessment of the students.
- The evaluation system of the course was time befitting and commensurate with the international standard.
Weakness of the English Teaching Course of IER:
- The course objectives were incommensurate with the contents. Development of lessons plans and teaching aids and their uses and significance in teaching-learning process were not included in the objectives of the course syllabus though it was included in learning materials. It indicated an incongruity between the objectives and the contents of learning materials.
- Contents were not time-befitting enough.
- The Teaching English course of IER did not include all the required contents of the English Teaching Course.
- The contents were almost theoretical with no scope for practicing language skills. The theoretical concepts of the language skills were taught through lecture method.
- The Teaching English course of IER was not effective in developing language proficiency of the learners. Students could not attained full competency even in one skill out of four-language skills.
- Most of the included reference books were written by foreign authors and not easily available in the market or in IER library.
- Content wise learning outcomes were not outlined in the syllabus.
The National University:
The main features of the Teaching English Course of the National University:
B-Ed (one year) Program:
- The Teaching English Course an elective subject in the 10 months B-Ed program of National University.
- The duration of the course was10 months.
- The course included necessary knowledge and skills were required for effective English teaching process at the secondary level.
- The course included seven objectives.
- Most of the objectives of the course were written in behavioral from.
- The objectives of the course covered almost every required areas of English teaching.
- Objectives were stated accurately and clearly, so that both the learners and the teachers could understand those quite easily.
- All the contents of the course successfully covered all course objectives.
- The contents of the course were not well organized.
- The Teaching English course contents of the National University were not time-befitting enough.
- The Teaching English course of the National University included almost all required contents of the English Teaching process.
- One hundred marks were allocated for the course (Internal=40, External=60).
- Submission of assignment for internal assessment was compulsory and 4 to 5 marks were allocated for the assignment.
- Students were evaluated through internal assessment. Twenty marks were allocated for the class test and other 20marks allocated for personal performances and students’ creativeness in performing the assigned tasks of the course.
- The authority of Teachers’ Training colleges conducted the internal The external assessment was conducted under the direct supervision of the National University.
- The duration of the external examination was 3 hours and the nature of the test items were mostly descriptive essay type.
- The final assessment was determined on the basis of the results of the external examination.
B-Ed (Hons) 4 years:
The 4-years B-Ed (Hons) program of the National University did not include any course of Teaching English in the prescribed curriculum.
Strengths of the English Teaching Course of the National University:
- The course included sufficient knowledge and skills for effective English Teaching process.
- The course objectives were stated clearly and correctly.
- Most of the objectives of the course were written in behavioral form.
- The objectives of the course covered almost every required areas of English teaching.
- The contents of the course were sufficient to attain the all course objectives.
- The Teaching English course of the National University included almost every required contents of English.
- It was compulsory to submit the assigned work in due time.
- There was scope of administering class tests for internal assessment.
- Students were finally evaluated by the external examiner. So impartiality was maintained in the assessment.
- Reference books included in the course syllabus were sufficient and available in the market or in the library.
Weakness of the English Teaching Course of the National University:
- The contents of the course were not well organized. The contents of the first unit needed rearrangement.
- The contents of the course were not adequately time-befitting.
- Content wise learning outcomes were not outlined in the course syllabus.
- The traditional method of the evaluation system followed.
- Assessment system was not time befitting and not coherent with international standard.
The English Teaching Practice Program
The main features of the English Teaching Practice Program of IER:
- The practice program of IER coined as “Internship.”
- The students of language group of B-Ed (Hons) program of IER were allowed to teach English in the school during internship according to their studied English course as an elective subject.
- The duration of the English teaching practice program was 6 months (one semester).
- Students took part in the microteaching and simulation as preparatory course for internship prior to practice teaching.
- Two credit hours were allocated for microteaching and simulation of English teaching practice.
- Participate in at least 10 microteaching sessions and 10-simulation class of English was compulsory for all students of the respective group.
- During microteaching, students were expected to demonstrate at least 5 skills /components in English with micro lesson plan.
- During simulation classes each student had to present three full lessons in English using appropriate methods. During simulation, each student was expected to develop at least five-lesson plans of English and approved by the respective course teacher.
- During internship, each trainee had to conduct at least 40 classes in each of two teaching subject with lesson plan and necessary teaching aids. Classroom teaching was with 6 credit hours.
- During the last 10 classes, the subject supervisor would observe at least 3 classes to assess the classroom performance of the interns and assign mark/grade.
- Students were strictly instructed by the supervisor to retain the lesson plan with them and use teaching aids where necessary.
- Most of the trainees did not use teaching aids regularly.
- Students were supposed to submit 40 lesson plans with necessary teaching aids of English.
- The trainees were expected to construct an achievement test in English consisting of at least 50 objective items and structured essay type items and one descriptive essay type item of 50 marks and administer the tests to the class they teaches and score the answer scripts.
- The trainees had to prepare statistically analyzed reports of the test results of the pupils and submit it to the subject supervisor.
- The trainees had to present an assessment of the cooperating school and submit a report to the school coordinator .One credit was allocated for it.
17 Grading system was followed for the assessment of the performance of the interns. Students achieved particular grade on the basis of acquiring credits in the discerned criteria of assessment of trainees’ performance.
Strengths of the English Practice Teaching Program of IER:
- The duration (one semester) of the practice Teaching period was sufficient.
- Microteaching and simulation course before practice teaching (Internship) served as a preparatory course and it was compulsory.
- The microteaching and simulation classes offered opportunity to practice the art of teaching in actual situation and to enable the trainee teachers to plan, present and evaluate major skills of the English teaching effectively.
- All basic skills and components of classroom teaching of English as well as any other subject were to be practiced and demonstrated by the students in the microteaching and simulations sessions.
- The duration of Microteaching and simulation session was 6 months (one-semester); so students got sufficient time for practice their skills of teaching in the microteaching and simulation sessions.
- At the initial stage of internship internees got the opportunity to observe the classes by the trained teachers of the co-operating school. The opportunity to observe the trained teachers’ classes benefited the trainees to start teaching effectively and confidently.
- Students were strictly instructed by their course teacher to use appropriate teaching aids in the classroom teaching.
- The submission of 40 approved lesson plans with necessary teaching aids of English subject to the subject supervisor was compulsory for each trainee.
- Trainees had to construct achievement tests in English consisting of different types of items and had to administer the tests to the class. It helped trainees to develop and use achievement tools to assess pupils’ performance. The test provided necessary assistance and guidance to the pupil.
- Trainees had to prepare statistically analyzed reports of the performances of the pupils. It helped the trainees to develop their skills and attitude of result analyzing techniques that were essential for the teacher.
- Trainees had to organize co-curricular activities for students in the school. It was helpful for harmonious development of the pupil.
- Trainees had to submit report on the cooperating school and that included brief history of physical facilities, profile of teachers and students, results of public examination for last 5 years, strengths and weakness of the school system, areas of concerns and suggestions for overcoming the problems and guideline for further improvement of the school. It helps the trainees to develop a commitment to the profession through harmonization professional ethics and materialization of professional responsibilities.
- The assessment system of the internship was time-befitting and followed the international standard. Assessment criteria are clearly stated in the curriculum.
Weakness of the English Practice Teaching program of IER:
Most of the trainees did not use teaching aids in the classroom teaching regularly during practicum.
The National University:
The main features of the English Teaching Practice Program of the National University:
B-Ed (one year)
- The students those who took English as an elective subject got permission from the college authorities to teach English in the school during the practice teaching.
- There was no specific instruction about the duration of the practice teaching program in the curriculum of B-Ed program. Both teachers and students opined that the duration of this program was at least two to three months. The practice teaching programs conducted twice in the whole academic year. First time it was conduct at the middle of the year and then at the end of the academic sessions. The respective authorities of the TTC fixed the schedule.
- Before going to practice teaching the students attend simulation class for at least 5 or 7 days.
- Participation in the simulation classes was not compulsory for the students.
- The duration of the simulation period was insufficient for them to practice the required skills before starting the practice teaching.
- The simulation classes were not compulsory and no marks were allocated for it.
- The trainees did not get any scope to observe the classes of the trained teacher of the cooperating schools by the trainee teachers.
- No specific instruction was given in the curriculum about number of classes a student had to take during practice teaching. Generally, each trainee had to conduct 25 to 30 classes about for each teaching subject.
- During last 2 or 3 classes respective subject supervisor supervised the classroom teaching of the trainees to assess them for internal evaluation.
- At the end of the practice teaching an external teacher observed one class of English teaching of each trainee to assess the classroom performance for final evaluation.
- Trainees were strictly instructed to use relevant teaching aids for English teaching and prepare lesson plan for each lesson.
- Trainees had to submit 30 approved lesson plans in English subject with relevant teaching aids for final assessment.
- There was no specific instruction in B-Ed curriculum to construct and administer the achievement tests to the class by the trainees during the practice training. However, if the trainees were personally interested or the school authority demanded then trainees were permitted to administer test to the class. But it was not compulsory.
- Trainees were not supposed to prepare any report with statistical analysis of the test results if they administered in the class during practice teaching.
- There was no scope to arrange co-curricular activities in the school by the trainees and no marks were allocated for that.
- There was no scope to prepare any report on the co-operating school by the trainees.
- In total 200 marks (100 for the internal assessment and 100 for the external assessment) were allocated for the practice teaching.
B-Ed (Hons) Program :
- Students those had English as an elective subject in B-Ed program under the National University got chance to teach English in the school during the practice teaching.
- The duration of the practice teaching period was at 2 to 3 months.
- The students of B-Ed (Hons) program participated in the practice teaching with the students of B-Ed (10 months) program. The TTCs authority unified the time schedule of practice teaching for both groups.
- Microteaching and simulation sessions were conducted for the students of B-Ed (Hons) to practice English teaching skill and procedures in order to prepare them for actual classroom setting.
- The duration of Microteaching and simulation session were at least 2 to 3 weeks, before starting the practice teaching program.
- Participation in the microteaching and simulation classes was compulsory for B-Ed (Hons) students’ and 50 marks were allocated in the final assessment for this regard.
- There was no scope of observing any class taken by the trained teachers of the cooperating schools by the trainees before starting their practice teaching.
- Usually trainees had to take at least 25 to 30 classes in English subject during practice teaching.
- During last 2 or 3 classes subject supervisor observed class teaching conducted by the trainees for internal assessment. Fifty marks were allocated for internal assessment.
- At the end of the practice teaching an external teacher appointed by the National University observed one class of each trainee to assess the classroom performances and scored them for final and formal evaluation. One hundred marks were allocated for final assessment.
- Trainees had to submit 30 lesson plans of English subject along with necessary teaching aids for the final assessment.
- Construction and administration of tests to the respective teaching classes were not compulsory for the trainees. Nevertheless, trainees often do so from their own interest to judge the merits and achievement of the students.
- Trainees did not have to prepare any reports with statistical analysis of test results, which was administered in the class during practice teaching.
- Trainees had to organize co-curricular activities for pupils in the school during practice teaching and 12.50 marks were allocated for it in the final assessment.
- Trainees had to prepare an assessment report of the co-operating school and submit it for the final assessment of their performance in the practice teaching. Assessment report about school was allocated 12.50 marks.
- 250 marks allocated in total for the practice teaching. Out of 250 marks 150 marks were allocated for performance of classroom teaching of the trainees.
Strengths of the English Teaching Practice Program of the National University.
B-Ed (one year)
- The Practice Teaching Programs was conducted twice (in two terms) in the academic sessions.
- There was scope of simulation classes before going to practice teaching where students had opportunity to effectively practice the art of teaching and relevant skills.
- Trainees were strictly instructed by their teacher to use teaching aids and prepare lesson plan for each lesson of English, which they were to teach.
- Trainees were evaluated through both internal and external assessment.
B-Ed (Hons) 4 years
- Trainees got chance to participate in the simulation classes as preparatory activities before starting actual practice teaching.
- Participation in the simulation class was compulsory and 50 marks were allocated for it.
- Trainees were evaluated through both internal and external assessment.
- Students were strictly instructed to use teaching aids by their teacher.
- The process of evaluation system and criteria of B-Ed (Hons.) were more systematic than the B-Ed (10 months) program.
- Trainees had the opportunity to organize co-curricular activities for pupils in the school for harmonious development of pupils. It was compulsory and 12.50 were allocated for this activity.
- Preparation of assessment report of the cooperating school and it was compulsory for all and12.50 marks were allocated for it.
- Assessment criteria of the trainees’ performances in the practice teaching were clearly stated in the curriculum.
- Though there was no instruction in the curriculum, the trainees administered some achievement tests in their classes out of their own interest.
Weaknesses of the English Teaching Practice Programs of the National University:
B-Ed (one year):
- The duration of the practice teaching was not clearly stated in the curriculum. The time schedule depended on the decision of the TTCs authorities.
- Participation in the simulation classes was not compulsory for the students.
- The duration of the simulations periods were not sufficient to the students for their preparation of practice teaching.
- Trainees did not get any scope to observe the classes of the trained teacher of the co-operating schools.
- There was no specific instruction has given in the curriculum about the number of classes that trainees had to take in English subject or any other teaching subject during practicum.
- The number of observing classes for the internal and external assessment was not sufficient to judge the trainees teaching performances.
- As the trainees did not get any scope for conducting and administering any achievement tests to the class and preparing statistical analysis report of the tests result during practice teaching, they did not learn effectively how to develop and use achievement tools to assess pupils performance and to provide necessary assistance and guidance to the pupil.
- There was no scope to arrange any co-curricular activities in the school by the trainees and they were deprived of creating any scope for harmonious development of the pupils.
- There was no scope to prepare any assessment report on the co-operating school by the trainees, so, they could not create enough professional responsibilities in themselves as a member of any educational institute.
- The assessment procedures of the English Teaching Practice Program as well as the whole practicum were traditional.
- The internal and the external evaluation criteria for trainees’ performance in the practice teaching was not clearly stated in the curriculum.
B-Ed (Hons) Program:
- The duration of the practice teaching periods was not so sufficient for the student 4-years B-Ed (Hons) program.
- Trainees did not get any scope to observe the classes of the trained teacher of the co-operating schools.
- There was no specific instruction given in the curriculum about the number of classes a trainee had to take in English or any other subject in the school.
- The number of classes for the internal and the external assessment were not sufficient to judge the trainees’ performance.
- There were no specific instruction in the curriculum of constructing tests items and administering tests to the classes and even preparing any statistical analysis report of the test results by the trainees.
- The assessment procedures of the English Teaching practice program as well as the whole practice teaching program were traditional.
Recommendations of the study:
On the basis of the findings some recommendations for the English Teaching courses and the English Teaching Practice Programs of IER and the National University are presented below:
Recommendation for the English Teaching Course of IER:
- The objectives about the use of teaching aids and lesson plans and their significance in the teaching learning process should be included in the course syllabus.
- More time befitting contents, such as Teaching approaches to developing learner competencies structure and basis of English, use of audio visual aids in English teaching, development of basic areas of language learning- pronunciation, sound, word, structure and vocabulary, managing the English classroom, quality and attitude of the English teacher, independent learning in English are suggested to include in the course contents.
- More activities and scopes should be included in the course syllabus and should be practiced in the classroom for developing the four language skills of the learners.
- At the time of teaching basic language skills to the learner, teacher should give emphasize not only on the theoretical concept of them but also on their practical uses in the real life situation.
- Activities and contents that would be taught in the development of the four language skills should be specified clearly in the first unit.
- Unit-wise learning outcomes and teaching learning process should be added in the course syllabus.
- Teachers should be urged to apply different types of teaching learning methods in the classroom to develop the language proficiency of the students.
- More reference books of the native writers and publishers should be included in the references and IER administration should ensure availability of all reference books in the library that are included in the English Teaching course syllabus.
- Finally, English Language teaching and learning is a skill-based subject. This belief should be established among the students and teachers through intensive practice of different language skills in the classroom.
Recommendation for the English Teaching Course of the National University:
- There is need of re-organizing of the contents in the first unit.
- The contents of English Teaching methodology should be placed in a separate unit.
- New contents such as, managing the English classroom, language awareness, independent learning in English, quality of a good English teacher should be included in the course contents.
- More activities should be included in the course contents to practice and develop the four language skills of the learners.
- Unit wise learning outcome and teaching learning methods should be added in the course syllabus.
- The Traditional Assessment System should be changed and it should be necessary to introduced grading system in the students’ assessment procedures.
- More importance should be given on the application of the taught skills rather putting importance on the theoretical aspects of the contents.
B-Ed (Hons) 4 –years program:
- Considering the present demand of English language teaching at the secondary level of Bangladesh the English Teaching Course should be introduced in the B-Ed (Hons) program of the National University.
Recommendations for the English Practice Teaching Program of IER:
- IER should take appropriate measure for using necessary teaching aids by the trainees in the English classroom during internship.
- Subject Supervisors and school coordinators should be more urged to impel the trainees in teaching sincerely.
- More systematic and effective procedures and steps should be taken by the IER to improve the standard of internship in further.
Recommendation of the English Practice Programs (B-Ed and B-Ed hons.) of the National University:
- The duration of the practice teaching program should be clearly stated in both curricula of B-Ed and B-Ed (Hons) program of the National University.
- Participation in the simulation classes should be made compulsory in the B-Ed (10 months) program.
- The duration of the simulation class of B-Ed (10 months) program should be extended up to 2 weeks.
- Scope of observing the classes of the trained teachers of the co-operating school should be conducted before stating practice teaching. It will give an opportunity to the trainees to observe the process of classroom teaching and gain experiences to develop their teaching skills. In both B-Ed programs this system should be included.
- Clear instruction should be stated in the both curricula of B-Ed program about the number of classes each trainee will take on the particular subject during practice teaching.
- The number of class observation (assessment classes) by the internal and external examiner should be increased to judge the performances of the trainees more effectively.
- In order to learn how to develop and use achievement tools to assess pupils performance, the scope of conducting tests items and administering those in the classes by the trainees during practice teaching should be included and made compulsory.
- Preparing and submitting the statistical analysis reports on the test results should be made compulsory for all and marks should be allocated for it in the final assessment of the trainees of both B-Ed and B-Ed (Hons) program.
- Arrangement of co-curricular activity in the school by the trainee teachers should be included in the B-Ed (10 months) curriculum for harmonious development of the pupils and trainees.
- The assessment system of the teaching performances of the trainees of both programs should be reviewed and clearly stated in the curricula.
- The rules and procedures of the English teaching practice as well as the practicum should be written in the curricula of the programs separately and clearly.
- In short the system of English, as well as, whole Teaching practice program of B-Ed and B-Ed (Hons) of the National University should be made more time befitting.
Discussions and Conclusion:
This research has revealed the main features of the English teaching courses and the English Teaching Practice Programs of IER and the National University along with their some strengths and weariness and some well thought recommendation for each courses and practice teaching programs has proposed for the further development of them.
The main purposes of the person research were to identify the main features of the English Teaching Course and the English Practice Programs of IER and the National University and compare the qualitative standard between those courses and practice programs of two institutions. From the finding of the study, it has been revealed that in the view of judging the qualitative standard, both the teaching English courses of B-Ed program of IER and the National University are almost stand in same scale. Both of them are not time befitting enough to fulfill the present demand of teaching English. But the contents of the teaching English course of IER are comparatively better than the course contents of the National University in the standard of quality. Besides, there should be needed to include the Teaching English Course In The B-Ed (Hons.) of the National University immediately. Moreover, both courses should to be more reviewed according the following recommendations and present demand of English Teaching at the secondary level. There are no importance lessons that one can learn or achieve from other.
Besides, the English Teaching practice program as well as the internship of IER is more effective and having qualitative standard that the English Teaching Practice programs of B-Ed (10 months) and B-Ed (Hons) programs of the National University have. The practice teaching program of IER is well organized and systematic where the practice teaching programs of the National University are not well so organized and time befitting. Beside there are some limitations in the programs. Traditional procedures and methods are to be followed for practicing the teaching skills. In addition, the English practice teaching programs as well as the whole program of IER has some strengths which are the important areas of practice teaching such as- systemic way of conducting the practice program, adequate scope teaching preparations the micro teaching and simulations classes, scope for acquiring experiences to develop and use achievement tools to assess pupils performance, scope of developing attitude and skills to adapt innovative techniques and measures in solving pedagogical problems by conducting some co-curriculum activities in the school, scope of developing one kind of professional responsibility among the trainees and above all a written curriculum of the practice teaching programs. If the National University will follow the system and procedures of English as well the whole practice teaching programs of IER, in the further revision of it practice teaching programs of B-Ed and B-Ed (Hons), then it would provide an effective and time befitting practice teaching program in future.
Though this study has been conducted of fulfill the partial demand of the researcher’s academic work, but the researchers believe that this research work is not sufficient to identify the qualitative standard between the English Teaching courses and the English Practice Teaching Programs of IER and the National University. The researcher concludes that more in depth research studies should be conducted in the broad aspects for the further improvement of Teaching English Curriculum of B-Ed programs of IER and the National University also. The researcher further feels only the authorities of IER and the National University can take the initiative to increase the qualitative standard of the courses and practices teaching programs.