Corruption means committing crime and mischief to the country. It causes great harm to the countrymen. None escape from the harm of corruption. It is a social malady. It spreads its greedy clutches all over the country; each and every government sector of the country is affected by corruption. Government officials, clerks, secretaries and even ordinary peons, security officers and others are engaged in corruption. They take bribe from common people for giving any service. Our country, Bangladesh, has topped the list of corrupt countries five times. There is none to raise voice against the galloping corruption! Even the organizations that collects data about corruption – are themselves corrupted in a very secret way! However there are many reasons behind this corruption. The greed for power, pelf, wealth and money is the root cause of corruption. Avarice, dishonesty, nepotism and favoritism are also responsible for corruption.
Statement of Problem: This paper analysis’s the corruption in Bangladesh. I will discuss the current situation of corruption and its effect. We know that corruption is the main obstruction for development in Bangladesh. This topic is very much related to our social life for that reasons I will try to fulfill the purpose of this research.
Objectives of Research: It is very important to identify the objectives of any research .I will describe all the objectives of this research on corruption in Bangladesh.
The objectives of this study are following-
- To explain the concept of the corruption.
- To explain the present situation of corruption in Bangladesh.
- To find out the effect of corruption in Bangladesh.
- To focus on the ways of combating corruption in Bangladesh.
Research Methodology: Methodology is very important for any research. Without methodology it is difficult to complete a research. I have prepared this research following some methodologies. There are several approaches to research methodologies such as analytical, historical, comparative and empirical method. In this research I will following analytical method.
Sources of materials : For my research I have collected materials from different books, journal, articles, newspapers and Internet.
Importance of the research: The study is the great importance; the study will help to know about Corruption in Bangladesh. Corruption is a widespread phenomenon, which undermine good governance ,erodes the the role of low. And hampers economic growth and efforts for poverty reduction. Corruption is one of the most crucial social problems that developing countries are confronting today. Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries in the world, with an approximate per-capita income of US $350. Typical of any developing country, Bangladesh suffers from over-population, poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy and lack of resources. Similarly, Bangladesh has a backward economy, political instability, and corruption at all levels of society and government. Although Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, it didn’t begin to experience real democratic freedoms until 1991 (limited at that). The country is now run along parliamentary lines, but with low accountability and powerful governmental discretionary powers. The findings suggest that countries serious about improving governance and reducing corruption should redefine the role of government, overhaul the system of incentives, and strengthen domestic institutions to make sure the necessary checks and balances are in place. Such an approach to reform would help attract more investment—both domestic and foreign— and would accelerate economic growth and poverty reduction .Legal research is critically important for initiating reform & change society research can initiate a new theory of verity issues challenge old one or help in clarifying existing theory the finding of research may be helpful to bring about deserve changes in existing institution.
Scope and Limitation: The scope of this study includes the area of information required to collect and analyze material regarding corruption in Bangladesh. The entire study will focus on the information of corruption in Bangladesh. When I do this thesis I face various problem because it is very sensitive issues .Corruption is not identifiable as a single, separate, independent entity, which can be isolated and destroyed. Corruption is a complex set of process involving human behavior and many other variables, some of which are difficult to recognize or measure that’s why the government officials are not want to provide proper information .But there are various books and article are avail able which helps me to make this thesis.
Introduction:- Corruption is not a new phenomenon. What is new and worrying is the magnitude and size of corruption. It has spread its tentacles to every sphere of national life. It is one of the biggest threats to development. It can tear the very fabric of the society and, infect, it is doing so. Corruption benefits the rich and the well-to-do. It enriches the rich and disproportionably affects the poor, unprotected and the underprivileged and thereby it deepens their deprivation. Unless it is checked, the governments and people will have to pay a very heavy price in the consequent result of lower incomes, lower investments and lower developments resulting in volatile economic swings .In recent years, the subject of corruption has received considerable attention. Work on governance has brought it into the light and it is no longer taboo. Corruption is being addressed by financial institutions, government agencies, bilateral donors, international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and development professionals. Its causes have been measured empirically, as have its impacts on human development. Institutions and administrative procedures have been overhauled. Countries have negotiated and signed international anti-corruption conventions.
Concept of Corruption
The word “Corruption” comes form the Latin verb “corrupts” which literally means a broken object . Conceptually, Corruption is a form of behavior , which depart form ethics, morality, tradition, laws and civil virtue.
Corruption has recently been the subject of substantial theorizing and empirical research, and this has produced a bewildering array of alternative approaches, explanations, typologies and remedies. Corruption is understood as everything from the paying of bribes to civil servants and the simple theft of public purses, to a wide range of dubious economic and political practices in which businesspeople, politicians and bureaucrats enrich themselves. The issue of corruption is an old one, that has re-entered the current political and economic debate from the new interest in the role of the state in the developing world, and from the assumption that the state is an indispensable instrument for economic development, redistribution and welfare.
Definition of Corruption:
Defining corruption is important in the context of global efforts to reduce its influence in public life. But is not an easy task to define corruption. Webster Dictionary describes corruption as morality, state of being corrupted and according to the dictionary corruption means a state of decomposition, dishonest, rotten, pollute, immoral and bad. A definition has been found in a publication of the World Bank headed “VIETNAM-Combating Corruption” as “Corruption practice refers to the act of offering, giving, receiving or soliciting
anything of value with the aim of influencing the action of a public official in the procurement process or the contract execution. The easy and artistic meaning of corruption may be an act s sanctity. In the administrative view, corruption has a specific meaning. If a public servant abuses power or designation or does a wrong or refrains from doing justified act with a view to fulfilling his desires or giving undue privileges to his relatives, friends or any person, such act will be considered as corruption. Professor Robert Cligaurd of South Africa gave the following equation regarding corruption:
Corruption = monopoly + Discretion –Accountability – Salary.
From the above quotation it is said that if monopoly and discretionary power of government is increased and on the other hand if there is no accountability and salary is lower standard, the ultimate effect is the promotion of corruption. But in the opposite manner, if the authority of the first two elements is decreased and the authority of the last two elements is increased, corruption will be alleviated.
Corruption is a social, legal, economic and political concept enmeshed in ambiguity and consequently encouraging controversy. The ambiguity and controversy result from the fact that a number of competing approaches to understanding corruption is available. Naturally, definitions of corruption focus on one of several aspects of the phenomenon; various approaches to c corruption can be placed into five groups. These are public-interest centered, market centered, public-office-entered, public-opinion-entered and legalistic. Proponents of the public interest centered approach believe that corruption is in some way injurious to or destructive of public interest. Market centered enthusiasts suggests that norms governing public office have shifted from a mandatory pricing model to a free market model, thereby considerably changing the nature of corruption . Public centered protagonists stress the fact that misuse by incumbents of public office for private gain is corruption.11 those who believe in public opinion centered definitions of corruption emphasize the perspectives of public opinion about the conduct of politicians, government and probity of public servants. Corruption includes moral perversion; imprisonment of virtue and moral principals ;the luxury and corruption among the upper classes; moral degeneracy followed intellectual degeneration; its brothers, its opium parlors, its depravity ;Rome had fallen into moral putrefaction .Corruption includes destroying someone’s honesty and loyalty ;undermining moral integrity;‘ Corruption is a minor”; “the big city’s subversion of rural innocence . Corruption includes inducement by improper means to violates duty. “he was held on charge of corruption and racketeering. Corruption is defined, for instants, as a preservation of power.
Forms and Types of Corruption:
Forms of corruption:-
Bribery: Bribery is the bestowing of a benefit in order to unduly influence an action or decision. It can be initiated by a person who seeks bribes or by a person who offers and pays brides. Active bribery refers to the offering or paying of the bribe, while passive bribery refers to the receiving of the bride. The “benefit” can be virtually any inducement, such as money, company shares, inside information, entertainment and employment of the mere promise of incentive. The benefits gained can be direct or indirect. It can be described as indirect gains when the benefits flow e.g. to a friend, family, private business, campaign funds or political Parties.
Embezzlement and Fraud: These offences involve the taking or conversion of money, property or valuable items by an individual who is not entitled to them but, by virtue of his or her position or employment, has access to them. Employment-related equipment, such as motor vehicles, may be used for private purposes. Those offences do not include “theft’’ per se but only situation involving a public official or where the public interest is crucially affected.
Extortion: Extortion relies on coercion, such as the use or threat of violence or the exposure of damaging information, to induce cooperation. Extortion can be committed by government officials but they can also be victims of it. An example of extortion is when police officers threaten to arrest people to extract money from them.
A conflict of interests: It arises when a person, often a public sector employee or official, is influenced by personal considerations when doing his or her job. Thus, decisions are made for the wrong reasons. This kind of corruption involves, for example, engaging in transactions, selling influence, or acquiring a position that is incompatible with one’s official duties for the purpose of illegal enrichment. An example of this kind of corruption is when a public official, who has access to secret information, uses the information to take decisions concerning personal investments.
Favouritism, Nepotism and Cronyism: Favouritism is a general term used to describe use of power to make decisions on the basis of personal relations rather then on objective grounds. There are several forms of favoritism. Among the most commonly cited are nepotism and cronyism. Nepotism applies to a situation in which a person uses his or her public power to obtain a favour for a member of his or her family. Cronyism is a broader term than nepotism, and
covers situations where preferences are given to friends and colleagues and favoured political supporters. These two kinds of corruption, nepotism and cronyism, can easily overlap.
Political Corruption: Political corruption is the abuse of entrusted power by political leaders for private gain, with the objective of increasing power or private wealth. It need not involve money changing hands; it may take the form of granting favors that “poison politics and threaten democracy”. An example of political corruption is when political parties or candidates receive money in exchange for the goodwill towards the entity or group making the contribution.
Poor governance: poor governance is the underling problem of our country. It creates an environment in which corruption will flourish. Because of poor governance there is no transparency or accountability of the government to the public. As such the politicians, public and private employees all get involved with corruption.
Poverty: Around 50 percent of the people of Bangladesh live under poverty line. They are unable to manage their basic needs. Honesty, morality, virtue etc are meaningless to them. They need two meals a day for them and their family. So they do not hesitate to adopt unfair means or offer bribe to fulfill their needs.
Unemployment: This is a vicious problem for Bangladesh. There are around 140 million people in Bangladesh and most of them are unemployed. It is also not possible for the government of a poor country like Bangladesh to create employment for all its peoples. The demand for jobs is much greater than its availability. So people try to get a job by offering bribe.
Lack of patriotism: patriotism is a divine virtue of human being. It is normal that every citizen would love his/her motherland. A true patriot loves his country and cannot indulge in activities like corruption. But in our country the number of patriotic people are decreasing day by day and the number of corrupted people are increasing due to lack of patriotism.
Lack in rules of law : There are hundreds of laws in Bangladesh but the proper application of law is rare. Also there are lots of ambiguous laws that need to be amended. Besides the law enforcing agencies in Bangladesh is also corrupted.
All these create an environment for corruption and corruption gradually have its roof deep in the society.
Political Unrest : Poly typical unrest is a common scenario of Bangladesh science independence. The political parties in our country want to go power by any means. When they are in power, they indulge in corruption in favour their party rank and files. When the opposition parties go to power they also follow the same path and engage in corruption.
Poor remuneration : The government servants are paid very poor salaries which is barely enough to maintain their families. Although the price of essentials is going up every day their salaries are not increased in proportion to the market price. Besides, there are no arrangement for incentives for efficiency or performance. Failing to maintain there families some of them indulge in unfair means. Of course there are a segment of the government who are by nature corrupted
Global Programmed Against Corruption:
The Global Programmed contributes through programmers and projects that identify, disseminate and apply good practices in preventing and controlling corruption and has produced multiple technical and policy guides, including the Anti-Corruption
The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) creates the opportunity to develop a global language about corruption and a coherent implementation strategy. A multitude of international anti-corruption agreements exist, however their implementation has been uneven and only moderately successful. The UNCAC gives the global community the opportunity to address both of these weaknesses and begin establishing an effective set of benchmarks for effective anti-corruption strategies. The Global Programmed against Corruption (GPAC) is a catalyst and a resource to help countries effectively implement the provision of the UN Convention against Corruption. There are a rapidly growing number of countries that have become parties to the Convention. The primary goal of the Anti-Corruption Unit (ACU)/Global Programmed against Corruption (GPAC) is to provide practical assistance and build technical capacity to implement the UNCAC and efforts will concentrate on supporting Member States in the development of anti-corruption policies and institutions. This will include the establishment of preventive anti-corruption frameworks.
Corruption in Bangladesh in Socio-Economic and Political Perspective:
Corruption has gradually increased in this country after the independence. Politics is one of the notable sectors that corruption has seriously invaded. There is lack of transparency in the activities of political parties of Bangladesh. The condition reminds us one of the proverbs: “A person having no principle enters into politics”. It has become literally true in this country. Corruption is increasing here not only due to lack of transparency but also because of poor practice of democracy within the political parties. Grab power by winning votes on giving false hope to the people is the philosophy of the political parties the use of politics for personal interest by government officials, taking advantage of bad politics to adopt unfair means are the signs of corruption. If this vice has seriously invaded its political arena, the country concerned will never turn into a developed one. Negligence in administrative jobs, failure to perform the duties properly, receiving bribe and misappropriation of government money are also the signs of corruption. Poor salary of government officials, discrimination in promotion, absence of appreciation for honesty and punishment for misdeeds also help increase in corruption and inefficiency in the administration. The political conditions and infrastructure positions of political parties of Bangladesh help in increasing corruption. Less meritorious people are actively involved in student politics and the quality of national politics has been deteriorating due to less participation of meritorious people in it. As a result, they have become corrupt in spite of leading the society. So corruption-free political parties are essentials for a fair administration Corruption has increased in the society due to inappropriate and inadequate application of law. There is no effective step to protest crime. No activities are there to protest and remove corruption in Bangladesh. It is not easy to take action against corrupt government officials. So they are being encouraged towards greater corruption.
b) Sociological perspective;
Social corruption is being spread by social organizations. Lack of trust between family members, corruption in educational institutions and involvement in different anti-social activities by social organizations increase social corruption. Social fraternity is being hampered as the social organizations are becoming increasingly corrupt. Religious belief of the people of our country is very high. The Muslims, the Buddhists, the Christians and the Hindus along with some tribes are living together here. So a large number of saints, religious scholars and mosques, temples etc., are there in this country. For this, sometimes religions can be easily misused.
Different unlawful activities in the name of religion are same as anti-social activities. Business in the name of religion, cheating people using the cover of religion, using religion for personal and party interests are among corrupt practices under the garb of religion. To cheat one and use someone in own interests are instances of personal corruption. Receiving money from others in the name of giving jobs or freeing from danger is also corruption at individual level.
Corruption is still present in Bangladesh in the spheres of trade and commerce and construction of economic infrastructure and in the inclination to use politics for own interest.
Since independence, most of those who ruled the country were corrupt. The absence of honest, courageous leadership to guide a nation is the major cause of increase in corruption. The youths of the country cannot meaningfully participate in the development of the country for want of honest and dedicated leadership.
Conclusion : Corruption is a disease that has become so widespread in our society that it pervades all areas of public life. It not only threatens our economic security, it also poses a threat to our national security.
Present situation of Corruption in Bangladesh
Corruption is among the most formidable challenges against development, democracy and rule of law. By international comparison Bangladesh has been ranked amongst the countries where corruption is perceived to highest in the world according to the Corruption Perception Index released every year by the Berlin-based Transparency International. Scoring 2.0 in a scale of 0-101 Bangladesh was ranked on top of the list for five successive years from 2001 to 2005, while it became third in 2006 and seventh in 2007. Research and surveys conducted by Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) have also demonstrated the depth and breadth of corruption affecting the polity, economy and society over the years. The National Household Survey on Corruption, conducted by Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) in 2005, for instance, revealed that Bangladeshi citizens had to pay Tk. 485 on an average in 2004 for receiving services from nine specific sectors. TIB’s diagnostic studies on institutions of public interest at the national level and Citizens report Cards on key sectors of public service delivery at the local level reveal the nature, extent and process of corruption at the level of specific institutions.
Extent of Corruption in Different Sectors:
The survey reveals that households in highest proportion (72.2%)interacted with or received services from education sector, followed by electricity (60.0%), health (44.9%) and NGOs (39.6%). Around 11% households had interactions with law enforcement agencies and the judiciary. Around one-fourth of households interacted with different institutions under land administration.
Forms of corruption:
As earlier mentioned, the survey considered corruption in six common forms – bribery ,negligence of duties, nepotism, embezzlement, deception and extortion. The following figure presents an overview of different forms of corruption experienced by the surveyed households. Bribery and negligence of duties were the two most frequent forms of corruption experienced by the surveyed households, the two together claiming 76.9% of the total. Bribery was reportedly the single most frequent form of corruption with 38.6% of the surveyed households having such experience, followed by negligence of duties experienced by 38.3%, embezzlement by nearly 10%, nepotism by 8% and deception and extortion by 3.5 and 1.7 percent respectively.
Manifestations of different forms of corruption vary among sectors. Bribery as a foremost form of corruption prevails almost in all sectors in svarying proportions. Among different forms of corruption, the distribution of bribery was found most prevalent in land administration (89.1%) followed by judiciary (78.4%), law enforcement (56.1%) and tax(53.0%).
Incidence of corruption in different sectors:
Considering all sectors 66.7% households experienced corruption during interactions with different service providers, with minimal urban-rural differentiation, although proportion of rural households who experienced corruption was slightly higher than their counterparts in urban areas – 43.8% compared to 40.2% respectively. Vulnerability to corruption has been found to vary insignificantly depending on the sex of the household head. The survey showed that 32.6% of female headed household were victims of corruption whereas 35.2% of male headed households had the same experience. Such locational and gender-neutrality of the finding suggests indiscriminately deep and wide prevalence of corruption.
Sector-wise corruption and bribery experienced by households during interaction
In terms of specific sectors a staggering 96.6% of households who interacted with law enforcing agencies experienced corruption, followed by land administration (52.7%) and judiciary (47.7%) as the next most corrupt sectors. Nearly two-fifths of those households who had interactions in education and health services experienced corruption. In electricity, around one-third of the households experienced corruption.
Overall, 42.1% of households paid bribe during their interactions for receiving different services. Vulnerability to bribery has been found to be marginally higher in rural areas (43.8%) than in urban areas (40.2%). Payment of bribes was most prevalent in law enforcing agencies with as many as 64.5% households forced to pay bribe during interaction with or receiving services from law enforcing agencies, followed by land administration (51.1%), judiciary (41.7%) and local government (32.5%). According to this study, an average Bangladeshi household paid Tk. 4,134 in a year for receiving services from different sectors. The corresponding figures for urban and rural areas are Tk. 5,174 and Tk. 3,337 respectively. The per capita bribery rate of bribes paid by an individual is estimated to be Tk. 861 per annum. Using the surveyed data it has been estimated that the total annual amount of bribe paid by the entire population in all sectors of service delivery in the surveyed period was Tk. 54.43 billion (5,443 crores).Bribery is estimated to have claimed 3.84 percent of per capita income of an average Bangladeshi citizen. The incidence of bribery and average bribe amount are found highest in land administration, claiming Tk. 16,063 billion (1,606 crores). The second and third largest collectors of bribe are law enforcement (Tk. 8.790 billion or 879 crore) and judiciary (Tk. 6.710 billion or 671 crore) respectively. The lowest amount of bribe has been claimed by the NGO sector (Tk. 204 million).
Period-wise comparison of prevalence of bribery:
The survey attempted to bring out a comparative picture of prevalence of bribery during July-December 2006 and January-June 2007. As the table below shows, the results are mixed. In some sectors corruption in the form of bribery has increased, while it has decreased in some other sectors. The overall incidence of bribery is found marginally higher in July-December 2006 than January-June 2007. The incidence of bribery increased in education, health, land administration, local government and NGOs. The sectors that showed decline in incidence of bribery include law enforcement, judiciary, electricity, bank and tax. This might have happened due to anti-corruption drive by the caretaker government targeting the second group of sectors.
Sector specific overview of corruption:
72.2% households interacted with educational institutions for the education of their family members.
Irregularities in enrollment/admission;
Overall 9% students of surveyed households encountered irregularities during getting admission in all educational institutions. The corresponding figures in rural and urban areas are 9.1% and 8.6 % respectively. Students in primary education experienced highest such incidences (11.2 %).
Donation or unauthorized payments transacted
Of those students, who experienced irregularities, overall 65.3% students had to pay donation or unauthorized payments for admission and they paid on average Tk. 574. In term of residence, students in urban areas made unauthorized payments almost three times higher than those of rural areas ((Tk.1149 compared to Tk.389).
Corruption for receiving Upabritty:
Overall, 25.1% students of surveyed households received upabritty (sub scholarships).Among them 22.0% experienced harassment while receiving this. Harassment is most prevalent in the primary level (25.1%) followed by the secondary level (21.1 %). Of those students who experienced irregularities, 74.6% paid on average paid Tk. 90.72 as bribe/commission for scholarship.
Health Service (public sector)
Interaction with government health centers:
44.9% of surveyed households received services from different government health facilities. Proportion of households interacting with public health facilities is higher in rural areas (50.1%) than in urban areas (37.4%). Among the government health facilities, the Upazila Health Complex (UHC) serves majority of the patients (40.6%), followed by the general hospitals (25.5%) and Upa-Shastha Kendra (20.3%).
Harassment and bribery:
According to the survey, two out of five service recipients faced harassment while visiting government health facilities. 33.4% of the service recipient paid on average Tk.461 as bribe or speed money. Almost all categories of professionals and workers engaged in the health centers are involved in bribery, doctors and nurses being the major bribe takers. Among other bribe takers are the employees, ward boys and brokers. About 13.6% of surveyed households reported that doctors in Government hospitals had taken money for writing prescription during the consultations. In doing so, the doctors collected on average Tk. 95 per consultation.
Private business by public health professionals:
22.7% service recipient from government health facilities reported that they had been advised to visit private chamber/clinic of the doctor. This phenomenon is relatively higher in urban areas, presumably for the existence of more private facilities, then rural areas.
39.5% households were asked to do pathological tests when they consulted with doctors. Among them, 55.8% household members could have the tests from government hospitals while 44.2% had to take the tests from privately-owned hospitals and clinics, nearly all of them compelled to go to specific pathological centre or clinic of the service provider’s choice. 24.6% of service recipients had to make unauthorized payments in addition to official rates. The average additional amount paid for pathological tests was Tk. 260 in government hospitals/facilities.
Interaction with land administration and incidence of bribery:
25.20% of the surveyed households interacted with a land office or received services from various outfits within and administration.
Among those, 53.03% experienced bribery. On average, each of them paid Tk. 4,409.The rate of bribe was reportedly highest for allotment of Khas land, i.e., Tk.5,680 to receive allotment of Khas land, followed by land registration and mutation Tk. 4,237 and Tk. 3,303 respectively. The highest proportion of households (70.0%) experienced bribery for obtaining documents, followed by Khash land allotment (65.6%), land survey (64.7%) mutation (63.4 %) and payment of land tax (26.0%). Tahsilders’ involvement was leading for services like tax payment (77.6%), mutation (56.4%) and withdrawal of documents (36.3%). Deed writers were found in highest proportion in dealing of bribery for services like land registration (48.7%) and selling and purchase of land (80.0%). Involvement of Sub-Registrars was found highest in land registration. In cases of mutation, Assistant Commissioner’s involvement in bribery was found in highest proportion.
Law Enforcement Agencies:
Among the surveyed households, 10.7% interacted with law enforcing agencies.
Harassment/corruption by law enforcement agencies
The survey revealed that 96.6% among the surveyed households experienced harassment and corruption during interacting with or receiving services from law enforcing agencies. Among them, the overwhelming majority of households (93.4%) had the experience of being victims of corruption. Among the victims, 62% are male and 38% female. The households reported bribery (41.5%) as the most prevalent form of corruption indulged by the law enforcement agencies. The other forms of corruption committed by law enforcing agencies include misbehavior (21.5%), threat for torture (10.7%), arrest without warrant or case (8.0%), filing of false FIR/charge sheet (6.7%) and negligence in filing cases (4.3%). Most of these harassments and irregularities were committed by the police. The joint force personnel mostly involved in misbehavior and threat of torture.
Extent of bribery
The survey found that 64.5% households who interacted with law enforcement agencies were forced to pay bribe.
Police verification or clearance certificates and avoiding arrest are the most prevalent occasions that bribes are collected by the police. On an average a household paid Tk. 3,940 during receiving services or interacting with law enforcing agencies.
The survey identified 78 households whose member(s) were arrested by law enforcing agencies. Among them 22.1% were reported to have been tortured physically while in custody. This aspect has also a gender dimension. Among the respondents 34.1% mentioned that women members of their families were harassed by members of the law enforcement agencies.
Interaction with judiciary:
10.7% households received services from judicial system during the surveyed period. Among them 46.0% were plaintiff, 51.9% were accused and the rest 2.1% werewitnesses.More than half of the cases for which the surveyed households interacted with judiciary relate to land disputes (56%). The survey revealed that among the households who received services from judiciary, majority went to the lower courts (41.7% to Magistrates courts and 49.6% to Judges Court) followed by the High Court and the Supreme Court(5.4%) and specialized courts (2.5%).
Incidence of bribery:
The survey shows that 41.7% of the households who interacted with the judiciary had topay bribe for receiving services. This proportion is higher in rural areas (48.3%) than inurban areas (37.3%). The amount of was Tk. 4,825 on an average. Average amount ofbribe paid was found higher in urban households (Tk. 6,104) than in rural households (Tk3,966).
Bribery is most prevalent in judge courts with 47.6% of interacting households having to pay bribes, followed by magistrate courts in which case the ratio was 45.2%.
Actors involved in bribery:
36.9% of households reportedly paid bribe to court officials, followed by middlemen (31.1%), own lawyers (10.7%), public prosecutors (10.7%), opposition lawyer (2.1%)and judges (1.2%). In most of the cases (64.3%), the households reportedly paid bribe directly unless lawyers (22.3%), court officials (5.8%) and middleman (7.6%) functioned as intermediaries.
Interaction with local government:
19% households had interactions with local government bodies. The main services the households members received from them include birth/death registration, trade license issuance and renewal, holding tax payment and VGD/VGF and old age endowment.The highest proportion of households (32%) went to local government bodies to obtain birth/death/citizenship certificates, followed by collection of fertilizer (28.8%), old age support (13.2%) and VGD/VGF cards (11.8%).
Harassment and bribery:
Harassment was reported to be the most prevalent (57%) form of irregularities experienced by households in interactions with local government bodies, followed bribery (41.8%). However, bribery was found more prevalent in urban areas than in rural areas for the services of local government. More that 60% of those who had to pay bribes did so for collection of birth/death/citizenship certificates. For other services like obtaining trade license, fertilizer and old-age allowance nearly one in ten households had to pay bribe.Average amount of bribe paid was the highest for obtaining clearance for a house building plan (Tk. 5005) followed by installation of tube well (Tk. 3120), VGF/FGD card (Tk. 840), collection of fertilizers (Tk. 828) and obtaining trade license (493). Even the senior citizens had to pay Tk. 310 on an average to avail boyoshko bhata (old-age allowance).
Salish (Informal arbitration):
About 51% of the surveyed respondents reported that they experienced irregularities during Salish administered by the Union Parishad. Such irregularities include nepotism, biased decision and bribery. Among them, nepotism is the most prominent, experienced by 43% respondents, followed by biased decision by the arbiters (34%). Incidence of bribery in arbitration was reported by 17% respondents and they had to pay on averageover Tk. 5,000.
Among the households who registered for relief, about 8% had to pay bribe for enlistment. On the other hand, 17% got enlisted through the patronage of the Chairman/Member. The households who had to be registered through bribery paid on average Tk. 399. It was also reported that among the recipient households, 42% got less than allocated amount of relief goods.
Among the income-tax payers, 20.7% paid bribe in the process of tax payment, with the average amount of bribe estimated at Tk. 5,282. Incidence of bribery and amount of bribe was higher for urban households. Most of the households (62.5%) reported that they resorted to paying bribe in order to avoid harassment.
Overall, 14% of the surveyed households paid holding tax during the reference year, the proportion being higher in urban areas (31%). While paying the holding tax, abut 3% of the households paid bribe. The average amount of bribe annually paid by the households was Tk. 619, which is over 79% of the gross amount of tax. The single most important reason mentioned by holding tax payers for paying bribe was to reduce tax amount (41%). Over 18% households mentioned that paying bribe seemed to be mandatory.
The study shows that 38% percent rural households paid Union Parishad (UP) tax. The average annual amount paid as tax was Tk. 151 whereas additional amount paid as bribe averaged at Tk. 56, which is 37% of the amount of tax. The surveyed households reported that they paid bribe in order to pay lower amount of tax, to avoid harassment, or it was imposed as mandatory.
Among the borrowers, 85% received loan from government banks. Urban borrowers have comparatively higher access to private banks than their rural counterparts. Most of the loan recipients took loan for agricultural activities (64%). Among other activities where households invested money borrowed from banks are business (17%), housing (9%) and industry (6%). Government banks provided agricultural loan to 71% of their loan recipients, whereas business loan (36%) was the main financing area for private banks.
Effect of Corruption in Bangladesh
Patterns of corruption vary from society to society and over time. This is Particularly the case when we consider the “South”, the “Third World” of the developing countries like Bangladesh. In order to understand the immense diversity of its origins, forms and effects across developing countries, we should examine the roles of both the internal ‘stakeholders’ in developing societies (such as politicians, business cliques and junior civil servants) as well as external actors (including western multinational companies and international financial institutions). In addition, reform strategies should take account of widely differing economic, legal and political contexts. Effective anticorruption strategies need to be tailored to the social environment in which corruption occurs. As a result of this variety in patterns of corruption, there are problems in evaluating the current diversity of corruption and anti-corruption efforts; many advocate a single universal strategy to fight corruption. I want to discuss in this article in briefly some combating corruption strategies in Bangladesh.
CORRUPTION AND ITS EFFECTS:
“The corruption of government institutions threatens the common aspirations of all honest members of the international as community. It threatens our common interests in promoting political and economic stability, upholding core democratic values, ending the reign of dictators, and creating a level playing field for lawful business activities”(President George W. Bush, Statement to the Second Global Forum, The Hague, May 2001)
Corruption has a wide effect on economics,politics,administration, culture, and social life and over development of a country. When corruption and economic growth coexist in a country, pay off of corruption introduces additional costs and distortions that hit poor hard and worsen bureaucratic inefficiency (Modal: 2002). There have been claims that not everything is bad about corruption. Its effects can be positive too. Corruption, among other things, assists in capital formation; fosters entrepreneurial abilities, allows business interest to penetrate bureaucracy and permits the logic of market to insinuate itself into transactions from which public controls exclude it (Theobald,1990). But overwhelming evidence in recent decades suggests that the impact of corruption has been and continues to be negative on all fronts. Corruption has a negative, deleterious and divesting influence on investment and economic growth, administrative performance and efficiency and political development. Continuance of corruption in a country leads to economic malaise and squandering of public resources, lowers governmental performance, adversely affects general morale in the public service, jeopardizes administrative reform efforts and accountability measures, and perpetuates social and economic inequalities (UN, 1990). Corruption reinforces political instability and underdevelopment (Ouma, 1991). In short, corruption impedes economic growth, stifles entrepreneurialism, misuses scarce national resources, weakens administrative capacity, contributes to serious political decay and undermines stability, democracy and national integration.
Corruption is a majored international problem that demands attention it is also the number one obstacle on the way to national development of Bangladesh. Corruption has breakout as an epidemic in every socio economic fled Bangladesh. The grip of corruption has reached even at the grass-root level. However, the major effects of corruption are discussed bellow:
Corruption deprives the poor from government services : The greatest impact of corruption is on the poor – those less able to absorbed its cost. Illegally diversion of the scarce resource corruption undercuts government ability to provide basic services, such as health, education, public transportation or local policing to its citizens. Petty corruption provides additional cost for citizens for delivery even the most basic government activities. Moreover it can jeopardize the health and safety of citizens through, for example poorly designed infrastructure projects and scarce or outdated medical supplies.
Corruption lowers investment: Corruption increases the cost of investment and lowers the returns of investment. Investment is essential for the socio- economic development of the country. The Reduced level of investment retards economic growth and thus hampers national development.
Corruption hampers government activities: Corruption like bribery, embezzlement, negligence in duties, nepotism etc reduces the efficiency and competency of the concerned government officials. This in turn slow downs the normal speed of government activities.
Corruption destroys the morality: Wholesale corruption destroys the moral base of the people. The citizens forget about their duties and responsibilities their motherland. They only think about their personal gain and benefit, which damages the natural qualities of the people.
Corruption is wastage of public money: Corruption is rampant in Bangladeshs. In a poor country like Bangladesh the effect of corruption is devastating. A large amount of the founds allocated for various development programmers is wasted because of corruption.
Corruption is a complex multi-faceted social phenomenon with innumerable manifestations. It takes place as an outcome of deficiencies in the existing public administration apparatuses and systems as well as cultural, economic, political and social factors. Differences of opinion still exist as to the meaning of the term corruption. This is primarily because individuals look at corruption from their own vantage points influenced by surrounding environment. But what is heartening is that in recent years corruption is viewed from a much broader perspective rather than looking at it from moral and functional angles only. The causes of corruption are as varied as the phenomenon itself. Corruption results from the presence of a number of factors. There are many forms of corruption. To understand the dynamics of so many types of corruption attempts have been made to classify different forms of corruption into broad categories. What transpires from such a categorization is that outsiders can sponsor corruption resultant of political scandal, institutionalized and administrative malfeasance. Thes government needs a well-coordinated, well-understood overall strategy that limits opportunities for abuse of public office, increases the likelihood that individuals will be able to profit from corrupt acts, whether they are giving and receiving bribes. Moreover, the civil societies of the country should come forward to establish the right of the people and to ensure the rule of law in Bangladesh. The professionals, the intellectuals through meetings and sittings, attending and participating the seminars and symposium and writing and contributing to the media can raise a general awareness to build up a corruption-free prosperous Bangladesh in future
Ways of combating Corruption in Bangladesh
Combating corruption is not easy task. Still no one denies the need to check corruption effectively. It may not be possible to eradicate corruption completely but then vigorous and determined actions will go a long way to minimize it. It also requires Courage and long-term commitment by a variety of anti-corruption actors. Political Leaders, champions amongst public servants, civil society, media, academics, the private sector and international organizations all play important roles in addressing corruption. To reduce the corrosive impact of corruption in a sustainable way, sit is important to go beyond the symptoms to tackle the causes of corruption.
COMBATING CORRUPTION STRATEGIE:
Since 1996, the World Bank has supported more than 600 anti-corruption programs and governance initiatives developed by its member countries .We believe that an effective anti-corruption strategy builds on five key elements which is given blew-
Increasing Political Accountability : A Political accountability refers to the constraints placed on the behavior of public officials by organizations and constituencies with the power to apply sanctions on th Sem. As political accountability increases, the costs to public officials of taking decisions that Benefit their private interests at the expense deferent disincentive to corrupt practices. Ensuring political accountability the following steps should be taken-
Effective sanctions on politicians can be enhanced most effectively through a meaningful degree of political competition in the electoral process. Such competition increases the likelihood that alternative candidates and parties will seek to expose corruption in government of hold politicians accountable for the poor performance associated with high levels of corruption. Historically, anti-corruption and accountability measures were a by-product of these political struggles. While perceived corruption of a particular party of candidate has shown to influence voters’ decisions considerably and therefore exposure of cases of political corruption is an effective deterrent to corrupt behavior, there are limits to the benefits of political competition. Excessive political competition can become a destabilizing factor if it undermines the legitimacy of existing state institutions. Excessive political competition can undermine state can undermine state capacity and thus create conditions especially conducive to administrative corruption. Political competition is most effective in promoting accountability when it is channeled through organizations that provide broad constituencies with vehicles such as mass-based political leaders. Political parties than lack broad-based support are more likely to be dependent on powerful firms and financial interests for sources of financing and no electoral tactics such as vote-rigging, intimidation, and acquiring a monopoly over election coverage by the media. It is thus imperative that political parties be held to high standards of accountability.
Transparency via public scrutiny has proven to be one of the most powerful forms of monitoring public officials. Such transparency can be fostered by a number of measures, including: opening sessions of the parliament, government, and the courts to the public; registering lobbying activities; and publishing the voting records of parliamentarians, annual reports of government bodies, A free and vibrant media is another important factor in making transparency work for the general public.
(C)Political Party Financing
Many Countries have established partial public funding, recognizing that political parties play a public interest role; they make an essential contribution to political contestability and the decentralized expression of divers values and interests. Public funding reduces the scope for private interests to “buy influence” and can also help reinforce limits on spending, because of the electorate’s resistance to excessive public expenditure. Ensure oversight. Set up an authoritative and independent Electoral Commission of Court to be responsible for the integrity of all issues regarding party finance and electoral rules,Such commissions have been set up in Canada, India, and South Africa.
(D)Rules and Legal Instruments
There is a range of legal instruments as well as agency-specific rules which can be effective in deterring corrupt behavior. Ethics codes, regulations on lobbying disciplinary committees, prohibitions on and disclosure of conflict of interest, including the receipt of gifts and other benefits received form private resources, asset declaration laws, procurement laws and party financing laws are amongst the most prominent ones. Freedom of information laws, whereby citizens can demand the disclosure of information regarding government activities and a whistle-blower protection law in order to encourage the reporting of corruption cases can further reinforce the impact of increased transparency on accountability.
Strengthening Civil Society Participation:
As stakeholders in good governance and institution mediating between the state and the public, the organizations that comprise “civil society”- citizen groups, nongovernmental organizations, trade unions, business associations, think tanks, academia, religious organizations and last media- can have an important role to play in constraining corruption. This is true at the country level as well as internationally. Civil Society Organizations (CSO), with Transparency International spearheading the fight against corruption is the most prominent example of what an international civil society organization can achieve in awareness- raising, pressuring government as well as international organizations for change and pressuring governments as well as international organizations for change and working with various sectors to implement innovative anti-corruption reforms. Civil society as a third sector in a new governance structure can play a vital role in limiting corruption but they also have their limits. Without being elected democratically they lack formal legitimacy of political parties as well as accountability measures – a potential entry point for various civil society groups with questionable motives. A high degree of public scrutiny is thus important to hold civil society groups to the same accountability standards as the following steps-
(A)Civil Society’s Role in Fighting Corruption
Since most cases of corruption involve public officials and private companies, Civil Society as an independent actor representing the interests of the general public is uniquely positioned to investigate and bring to light cases of corruption.
(B)The Role of the Media
A free and open media help expose levels of corruption by uncovering and shedding light on abuses. In transition economies on Eastern on Eastern and central Europe, greater openness felt by the media since the rail of communism has brought with it a plethora of stories of fraud, corruption, and criminal activity, making the media perhaps the most persistent institution in the fight against corruption. The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities of disseminating knowledge and increasing transparency across national borders in a timely fashion at low cost.
(C)Empowering civil society
For Civil society to realize its full potential it requires an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, including basic human rights such as the freedom of expression, association and the freedom to establish non-governmental entities. Requirements for registering should be reasonable and not constitute a serious hindrance in setting up a new CSO. In addition to the necessary breathing space, CSOs must further have the opportunity to mobilize funding. Tax exemption for donations is one way in effectiveness of CSOS is a function of access to information and knowledge as well as the ability to attract talent. Capacity constraints such as a lack of well-educated and highly motivated people can severely compromise the positive role civil society can play in combating corruption.
(D)A Word of Caution: Accountability and Legitimacy Issues
Civil Society Organizations (CSOS are not democratically elected. It should be in the interest of CSO to adhere to high standards of accountability, transparency and democratic management structures. The increasing availability if donor funding for CSO but it can also set wrong incentives. Some CSO are founded to attract donor funding for the personal benefit of founders and stuff. It would further be naive to assume that CSOs are immune to corruption. If co-opted by businesses of powerful elite’s they can be part of the problem, too. The public as well as donors should apply scrutiny in funding and working with CSOs. A strong track record and transparent business practices are usually good indicator of serious commitment and trustworthiness.
Creating a Competitive Private Sector:
The degree to which powerful elite’s influence decisions and policy-making of the state constraints the implementation of a fair, competitive, honest and transparent private sector and thus hinders broad-based economic development. The ability of powerful economic interest to capture the state can be constrained by:
(A)Economic Policy Liberalization
Deregulation of process of other aspects of production of trade are important steps toward reducing opportunities for corruption. Implicit price subsidies, in the form of tax and utility arrears, provide politicians and bureaucrats with discretionary power that is highly subject to abuse. Liberalization can help to reduce this discretionary power, but only if reform is undertaken in a transparent and non-discriminatory power, but only if reform is undertaken in a transparent and non-discriminatory way; otherwise there is a risk that the reform process itself will be corrupted.
(B)Enhancing greater competition
Enhancing competition, especially in concentrated sectors, by lowering barriers to entry, requiring competitive restructuring and clarifying ownership structures are important elements toward creating a vibrant and corruption free private sector. Competition can also be strengthened by introducing greater transparency in the ownership structure and operations of firms and banks, through requirements of financial disclosure and arm’s-length relationships, efficient registries, and better supervision of their operations by independent regularly bodies.
Proper regulation of utility companies and other industries in which competition remains. Imperfect is important to reducing corruption. The establishment of independent regulator agencies, both at the central and at the local level where regulatory capture is most pronounced, can be effective in promoting efficiency and limiting opportunities for corruption,as long as such institutions operate with transparency simplicity and accountability. Similar practices for regulating more routine aspects of business operations, such as registration and workplace safety are crucial limiting harassment of businesses by bureaucrats and promoting new entry and growth. For all types of regulation, firms should be provided with low-cost methods of disputing administrative decisions.
(D)Good Corporate governance
Weak institutions for corporate governance not only result in inefficiency they encourage corruption. Poorly governed managers often use their positions to extract favors from the state which they can later expropriate, rather than reinvest into restructuring their own firms, to avoid sharing their gains with other stakeholders. Corrupt behavior is often difficult to detect, especially in countries where transactions are obscured through the use of barter and other money surrogates as the means of payment. A wide array of corporate governance reforms have proven directive in curbing both incentives and opportunities for corruption, including: public disclosure of share ownership and cross-holdings; strong penalties for insider trading and pyramid schemes; the appointment of outsiders to boards of directors; the introduction of regular published independent audits of financial accounts based on standardized rules; the establishment of an effective legal framework for the exercise of creditors rights; and the strong enforcement of ethical standards.
Institutional Restraints on power:
The Institutional design of the state can be an important mechanism in checking corruption. Of particular importance is the effective development of institutional restraints within the state, which is most effectively achieved through some degree of separation of powers and establishment of crosscutting oversight responsibilities among state institutions. Effective constraints by state institutions on each other can diminish opportunities for the abuse of power and penalize abuses if they occur. For ensuring institutional restraints on power the following steps should be taken-
(A)Independent & Effective Judiciary
” Obey justice and restrain reckless wrongdoing, for such wrongdoing harms the poor, and even the noble find it an unwelcome burden that weighs them down and brings them ruin.” ( Hesiod, cirea 800 BCE) Corruption has a devastating effect on the legal system. It distorts law making, court ruling and law enforcement and in the end, erodes the rule of law. This has devastating consequences for the society as well as economic activity. The legal system is one of the fundamental Polaris of a market economy whose role as arbiter of the law encompasses both the formulation and implementation of public policy. In addition to deciding criminal cases the courts are responsible for upholding property rights enforcing coruscates, and settling disputes. Failure of any of these roles is costly, reducing incentives to invest or forcing firms to resort to more costly private means of contract enforcement and protection. In addition to these direct economic costs, a corrupt legal system has a wider impact, undermining the credibility of the state and making the implementation of public policy more difficult. Paradoxically, any anti-corruption strategy needs a functioning legal system to build on if it is to introduce real change. The challenge is therefore to clean up the legal system and turn it from being an arena of corruption into an effective tool for can be used as an effective first step within broader governance reform is outlined. An independent competent and clean legal system is key in every anti-corruption strategy.
While a well-functioning, competent and clean judiciary is key in upholding the rule of law on a day-to-day basis, anti-corruption laws turn out to be an effective means prosecute of an anti-corruption strategy. Anti-corruption laws work to deter corrupt actions, prosecute and resurrect a sense of justice, which has become a rare commodity in endemically corrupt countries. Legislation supporting the transition towards a corruption free society includes a freedom of information law, whereby citizens can demand the disclosure of information regarding government activities; a whistle-blower protection law in order to encourage the reporting of corruption cases; conflict of interest law, procurement laws and party financing laws. Anti-money laundering regulations also contribute towards curbing fraudulent practices.
(C)Independent prosecution and Enforcement
Independent prosecution remains a crucial challenge for many developing countries. Often the legal framework for anti-corrupt acts is often difficult to obtain, many countries have criminalized activities that are often associated with corruption, such as laundering proceeds from corruption and other crimes.
Audit organizations can also have an important role. For full effectiveness, State Audit Offices should be backed by parliamentary committees that review and follow up on their reports. By contrast, watchdog enforcement agencies have a mixed record and have too often been subject to capture themselves. A condition for their effectiveness is the prior establishment of a core of strong, independent and credible professionals in the judicial, prosecutorial, and police arms of the state.
(E)Transparency and Recourse in Administrative Decision making
A frequent complaint is favoritism of the state in cases brought by citizens. Government decisions are less prone to corruption when they are predictable, transparent, and accountable. Administrative procedure law provides the legal foundation for sound government decisions providing rules for the way government bodies behave. These procedures protect the rights of citizens by guaranteeing participation in government decisions by interested parties, openness and transparency of decisions, adequate responses to public inquires, and the availability of recourse. Mechanisms of recourse include appeal within government bodies, judicial scrutiny and ombudsmen. Explicit administrative procedures allow citizens who are affected by administrative decisions to know that decisions will be made according to predictable rules rather than the will of theadministrator.
Prevention of corruption under International Law:
To prevent Corruption international community has taken steps in recent time .The 1988 UN Convention against Drug Trafficking established that illicit trafficking is drug and laundering of the proceeds from such trifling shall be criminal offence in the state parties and require the state parties to render the mutual legal assistance with respect to prosecution of such offence .On Dec 1996 the UN General Assembly adopted the United Nation Declaration Against corruption and bribery in International Commercial Transaction. The Declaration highlights the economic cost of corruption and bribery and points out that a stable and translation environment for international transactions in all countries is essential for the national borders.
The Anti-Corruption Commission: There has been major changes recently brought about the anti-corruption regime in Bangladesh pursuant to the enactment of the Anti-Corruption Commission Act,2004 which has come into force on 09-05-2004 vide serial no-126-Law/2004dated9-5.2004 published in official gazette .An indefinite commission has been established there under for the purpose of effecting detection ,enquiry ,investigation and conduct of the corruption cases before the court.On the commencement of the Anti-Corruption Commission Act 2004,Anti –Corruption Act 1957 has been repealed and the Bureau of Anti-Corruption BAC has been abolished with the powers there under hitertho before exercise by the BAC and the government have been vasted in the Anti Corruption commition. Corruption has been marked as a great problem in the public administration and in the society. In this reason the present government had an election promise to check corruption and accordance to this forming a self Anti corruption Commission. At present to prevent the corruption and other offences more effectively, there is a govt. organization named Bureau of Anti corruption to investigate and inquiry under the Anti corruption Act, 1957 (Act No. XXVI of 1957). But for the reason of application and legal complexity, it is not possible to carryout perform its duty of Bureau of Anti corruption. Consider to all to check and prevent corruption, it has been seemed to need more firm, strong of the prevailing law system. So that, it will possible to prevent and check the corruption from the administration and in the society if there establish a self Anti corruption Commission. A bill titled ‘Anti corruption Commission Act 2003′ has been proposed instead of abolishing the prevailing Anti corruption Act, 1957 (Act no. XXVI of 1957) to prevent the corruption and correctional act and investigating of the definite offences in the country. It will possible to prevent and check the corruption from the society if the proposed bill become an Act and establish the Anti corruption Commission under this Act. Moreover this Act will keep an important role in the society to build good governance and conforming transparency in the administration along with preventing prevailing corruption. At the described situation, the bill titled ‘Anti Corruption Commission Act, 2003’ is presented at the great National Assembly.
A. establish the office of Ombudsman for curving corruption fairly;
B. reform the anticorruption bureau of Bangladesh for active against corruption;
C. develop comprehensive national strategies for combating corruption;
D.strengthen law enforcement mechanisms, including the role of the judiciary and provide witness protection programmes;
E. increase transparency through the establishment of competitive public procurement procedures and encourage the adoption of international rules in this area;
F. improve conditions for international investment through simplification of government procedures,
G. improve transparency and accountability in budget preparation, execution, and oversight of expenditure,
H. develop codes of ethics in public administration to be enforced by strong sanctions;
I. strengthen procedures for an effective and merit-based civil service, particularly recruitment, promotion and pay,
J. adopt “Freedom of Information” laws and provide access to public information,
K. strengthen parliamentary oversight, independent audit and investigative bodies to be backed by sufficient human and financial resources.
A. establishing public-private partnerships to develop anti-corruption strategies, goals and processes;
B .promoting good corporate governance on the basis of international standards and principles;
C. strong commitment by top management of companies to implement anticorruption strategies;
D. developing and implementing codes of ethical conduct and ensuring their effectiveness through internal control mechanisms, training of personnel and sanctions;
E. accounting and auditing rules and standards to ensure transparency in business transactions;
F. building coalitions for business integrity, including business ethics centers.
Media and Civil Society:
A. mobilizing civil society (media, NGOs, business, labor, and professional associations) to monitor good governance;
B. creating an anti-corruption network of NGOs to share information on regional/country anti-corruption initiatives;
C . conducting surveys of businesses, consumers and public opinion to provide feedback for delivery of public services and fostering competition;
D. implementing education programmes aimed at fostering an anti-corruption culture in society;
E. enabling the media to effectively exercise public scrutiny;
F. improving ethical and professional standards of journalists and promoting training in investigative journalism.
Recommendations for Minimizing Corruption:
Corruption is criminal activities; it taints the giver and the taker in equal measure. Corruption has permeated the entire social system in our country. So, alleviating corruption is the prime concern for not only the government but also the nation as a whole. A single measure is not sufficient to remove existing corruption and prevent corruption. So the following measure can be adopted in this regard:
A. Political commitment is the sine qua non to prevent corruption. Democracy is the basic requirement of good governance. At present, democracy is passing miserable days. Long practices confrontational politics and political repression have made democracy paralyzed. But elected and effective parliament can play effective role in preventing and removing corruption. For that reason national consensus and restoration of democracy is needed without making any delay.
B. Independent and strong judiciary is the most effective safeguard against corruption. Independent judiciary is the indispensable requisite of a free society under rule of law.
C. Sometimes the National Human Rights Commission can play a role on the work of government officials with its watch dog mechanism. But for the last one decade, the bill relating to establishing NHRC has been pending with the hand of government high ups.
D. Departmental accountability of the government servant must be ensured. Corruption technology should be quickly introduced in public administration to assist in efforts for ensuring transparency and accountability and reduce red-tapism. Coordination between different departments at the district level should be strengthened. Attendance at the district coordination meetings should be made compulsory for all departmental heads. The local governments should be made stronger and the power of the administration should be effectively decentralized.
E. Effective parliament can be the vital mechanism against corruption. A special parliamentary standing committee on corruption can be formed headed by an MP from the opposition so that parliamentary control can be effectively ensured against the corruption activities of government officials.
Conclusion: Corruption is a complex multi-faceted social phenomenon with innumerable manifestations. It takes place as an outcome of deficiencies in the existing public administration apparatuses and systems as well as cultural, economic, political and social factors. Differences of opinion still exist as to the meaning of the term corruption. This is primarily because individuals look at corruption from their own vantage points influenced by surrounding environment. But what is heartening is that in recent years corruption is viewed from a much broader perspective rather than looking at it from moral and functional angles only. The causes of corruption are as varied as the phenomenon itself. Corruption results from the presence of a number of factors. There are many forms of corruption. To understand the dynamics of so many types of corruption attempts have been made to classify different forms of corruption into broad categories. What transpires from such a categorization is that outsiders can sponsor corruption resultant of political scandal, institutionalized and administrative malfeasance. The government needs a well-coordinated, well-understood overall strategy that limits opportunities for abuse of public office, increases the likelihood that individuals will be able to profit from corrupt acts, whether they are giving and receiving bribes. Moreover, the civil societies of the country should come forward to establish the right of the speople and to ensure the rule of law in Bangladesh. The professionals, the intellectuals through meetings and sittings, attending and participating the seminars and symposium and writing and contributing to the media can raise a general awareness to build up a corruption-free prosperous Bangladesh in future trial records, an the decisions of judges.