Sociology is the youngest of the social sciences. It is the study of man’s behavior in groups or of interaction among human beings. Sociology and Public Administration are two most important subjects of Social Science Both of these two subjects deal with the society and the people of the society. So, they got relations between themselves.
It seeks to understand the nature and purpose of human association, the number in which the various kinds of association wise, develop, and change and the beliefs and practices that characterize them. The principal task of Sociology is to obtain and interpret the facts regarding human association not to solve social problem.
History of Sociology:
It is necessary to know about the history of sociology when we are about to know the term “sociology.”
For thousand of years men have annual and reflected upon the societies and group in which they live. But, sociology as a modern social science is not very old. Sociology had been treated as social philosophy on the philosophy of history emerged as an independent social science in the 19th century.
August Comte, a Frenchman, is traditionally considered to be the father of sociology. Comte is accredited which coining of the term sociology (in 1839) “Sociology” is compassed of two words “Socitus” meaning science or study. The ‘logos’ meaning science or study. The etymological meaning of “Sociology” is thus science of society. Johan Stuart mill, another social thinker and philosopher of the 19th century proposed the word ethnology for this new science. Herbert Spencer developed his systematic study of society and adopted the word “Sociology” in his work. With the contribution of Spencer and another’s if (Sociology) became the permanent name of new science.
Definition of Sociology:
It is not an easy task to set fixed limits to a field of study. It is true in the case of Sociology. Hence it is difficult to give a brief and comprehensive definition of sociology.
Sociology has been, defined is a number of ways by different sociologist. Infect, there are many definitions of sociology as there are sociology. For over purpose of study a few definitions may be cited here.
Bottom ore says-
“Sociology (with sociology anthropology) was the first science to be learned with social of social institutions and social groups which constitutes a society.”
Professor Giddings says-
“Sociology is an attempt to account for the origin, growth, structure and activities of society by the operation of physical, Vital and psychical causes, working to gathers in the process of evolution which will prove entirely satisfactory through all the changes of a developing science.”
Max Weber’s Sociology definition-
“The science, which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a casual explanation of its course and effects.”
August comet, the founding father sociology, defines sociology as the science of sociology phenomena-
“Subject to nature and invariable laws, the discovery of which in the object of investigation.”
In short, sociology may be defined as the study of man’s behavior groups or of inter-action among human being and a body of classified knowledge relating to society and a number of principles and law. It investigates causes and effects; they’re to discover social forces and formulate laws of control or of action, which shortly means “Study of the Society.”
We say: ‘to study as scientifically as possible’- and this implies a great deal. Complicated question are involved in the effect to construct concepts and formulate procedures for the fasting of theories, in such ways as to ensure accuracy and sufficiency in the study of human society. Now of these difficulties must be evaded. For now, however, we can lay down a set of minimal rules to which we commit ourselves when war is trying to study society as scientifically as possible.
By science we means at least the four following things
1. Agreed concepts for clear analysis:
It is necessary to have clear concepts about ‘social systems’ and their chief elements. How these elements are related to each others, how they are sustained and continue, how they change. Particulars theories and the observation supporting their and relevant to testing thus can thus be expressed quite clearly is trams of this agreed conceptual analysis.
2. Systematic observation and theories:
The second rule is really part of the first and is that our observation of the defined range of facts we are studying should be systematic, not aimless or arbitrary. Strictly speaking, this should be guided by a theory.
3. Impartial Evidence:
A third rule is that is this work- of clarifying concepts, analyzing and describing the distinctive elements of the subject matter, organizing observation to establish knowledge- we must impartial. We must commit ourselves to scientific integrity, to veracity, to the task of establishing the truth about what we are seeking to know, rather thus selecting facts in such a way as to bolster personal belief of prejudice.
4. Presentations and testing:
All these points are bummed up in the final rule that guises clear analysis, description, theorizing and impartial observation- the results of any scientific investigations should be presented an such a clear open and systematic way that they cuss be cheeked by any this qualified observer. This is the crucial distinguishing characteristic of science, that its knowledge is testable.
Importance of Sociology:
We have seen that sociology is closely connected with other subjects, which study different aspect of the same subject matter. Sociology studies societies of the post, and so does history. Sociology studies the simpler societies and so does anthropology. Society and so does ethics. Sociology studies the nature of power and authority in society, and so does politics. Sociology studies the division of labor in society, and property, and so does economics. In all these cases, too, we have seen that the relationship between the subjects may be very different from what they are popularly supposed to be.
Same points are given below about why sociology is essential:
- The total nature of social and political reform.
- The growing awareness of other people.
- Industrial capital son and a global sociology
- The existence of competing theories.
- The danger of idealism without knowledge.
Nature of Sociology:
Generally sociologist instead of giving a formal definition of sociology has entered into an extended discussion of its nature. Thus, Luster Frank Ward and WILLT AM GRAHAM SUMNER defined “sociology simply as the science of society.” Frenklim Henry Giddings as” the science of special phenomena. Sociology has also been defined as “the science of institution.” (Durkheim) ad as “the science of social organization and social change. (KOVALEVSKY). Others have concerned of sociology as the science that studies human relationship (summer) as the study of “Social action” (WE BER) or of “Social process”. (SMALL), or as the science of collection behavior. (PARK)
Hiller states clearly the nature of sociology and the specific types of data, which come within its scope. Sociology is particularly interested in social groups and their organizations, the means, i.e. communication where by individuals are able to deal with one another, the bends of interest and mutual dependence through which groups are held organizations to gather the condition and rivalries where by individuals are assigned to a place in their group, the connection between personality and culture and the structure and organization of a given society, the nature causes, sources and consequences of social change and social control or the environment of rules and the maintenance of social order.
Generally, sociology may be defined as the scientific and objectivities study of the society. It is important and relevant here to discuss the meaning of “Society objectivity” and “Scientific” “explanation” for the better order standing and clear meaning of the discipline of sociology.
As regards the meaning of the term “Society” we find difference of opinion, same sociologists have looked upon society as merely another term of humanity or mankina. Others have treated it as synonymous with the term nation. But, these are not the commonly accepted view. There are rather discarded by the modern sociologist. It is now ever becoming the accepted practice in sociology to consider society as meaning the group, ass indefinite number of persons who are bound together by some tie even through that the be weak and transitory. Thus a society is composed of complicated network of social relation with fellowmen. Now, there again the term social relations need classification. Social relations imply, the reciprocal awareness between two or more men and the sense of their having something common. So, the perceptional are characteristic features of social relationship.
Before we try to explain the term objectivity one thing must always be dept. in mind that it is method of a tool to find the truth and it used by men who have love for wisdom, reason and reality. It is only through knowledge and reason, reality and unbiased attitude to different problems we can find out the truth. Irony sort of observation in sociology it societies objectivity without which no proper sociological study is possible. It may be argued that as the sociologists are human being and live in different types of societies. With May types of cultures and social environment. It is very difficult for them to observe objective and value free in treating the problem.
By scientific explanation we mean the knowledge, which is obtained by dispassionate and detached mind. It does not only give a precise account of events as they actually occur, but also seeks, for the cause of the occurrence and gives a new perspective an the effect of it. A scientist avoids personal and emotional aspect of data. He is not a debate taking issue with a side, he maintains an open mind and lists his findings and assumption he look for the find which may become theory as well as for the facts which would substantiate and give the meaning and causaunon in terms of impersonal phenomena, correlation and sequence is essential in scientific inequity.
Once sentence definitions are desirable particularly in textbooks, but in case of public administration they have proven inadequate. Indeed a review of the literature shows that there a one sentence definition is attempted, the writer usually hastens to add to it is subsequent paragraphs. As Dwight Waldo has said
“The immediate effect have all one sentence or one paragraph definitions of public administration is mental paralysis rather than eslightessment and stimulation. This is because a serious definition of the term…………. inevitably contains several abstract wards or phrases. In short, compass these abstract wards and phrases, and in the process the reality and importance o fit become togged and lost.
We get a clear conception about public administration of Nigro According to him Public Administration:
Is co-operative group effort in a public setting?
Covers all three branches-executive, legislative and judicial and their inter-relationship.
Has ass important role in the formulation of public policy and is thus a part of the political process.
Is different in significant ways from private administration.
Is closely associated with ……………. groups and individuals in providing services to the community.
Is cooperative group effort in public setting?
Interpretation of the word “public administration”
According to constitution we can analyze if in the following way:
The people who appointed under control of the government for the welfare of the public is called civil servant. The syndicate, which is formed by a few persons who are appointed for the welfare of the country, is called government. Government is the organization or machinery of the state.
The civil servants and government are appointed for the general people who are the major or leading part of the country.
Subject matter of public administration & sociology:
Corsin and Harris has given a very wonderful summery of public administration which portrays the subject matter of public administration.
According to him-
“Public administration is a decision making, planning the work to be done, formulating objectivities and goals, working with the legislative and citizen, organization to gain public support and funds for government programs, providing leadership, communicating and receiving communications, determining work methods and procedures apprising performances, exercising controls and other functions performed by government executives and supervisory. It is the action part of government, the means by which the purposed of government are realized.”
The main concern of sociology is sociological analysis, such as human culture and society, sociological perspective, scientific method in social science. Sociology has given sufficient interest to study of primary units of social life. The primary units of social life are social acts and social relationships, the individual personality, groups (including Ethnic and class), communities, associations and organization and population and society. No sociologist can afford to ignore the fundamental social process such and differentiation and stratification, co-operation accommodation, assimilation, social conflict including revelation and war, communication socialization and indoctrination, social evolution, social control, social deviance like crime, suicide, social integration and social change and the base social institutions such as family and kinship, economics, political and legal, religious, educational and scientific, recreational and welfare aesthetic expressive and progress.
The causes to verify relation between sociology and public administration:
It is impossible for public administration to manage the factor without sociology public administration is and included part of sociology. Hence, arises the necessary to seller relation between sociology and public administration.
Relationship between sociology and public administration:
There is a deep relationship between sociology and public administration from various aspects. Whereas the main subject of both public administration and sociology is the mass people. It is very natural to have relationship between them. The relationship between sociology and public administration can be describe in the following ways:
Bureaucrats and society:
As the behavior and attitudes of the Bureaucrats do not differ from the general mass of the society. The beachscape must have without conception about society. Public administration involves the “Bureaucrats” for bringing reform in the society.
Social structure and policy implementation:
Public administration is called the process of policy formulation and implementation. Policy can only be formulated if one has a through idea about the social structure. Social structure determines the behavior of the individual of the society whereas the society not only deals with the individual but also it reflects the feelings, hopes, aspiration and inter conflicting attitude of the concerned people.
Socialization and public administration:
If there is no idea of socialization there begins exploitation in the society, which will breakdown the social bandage. The exploitation comes from cultural dualism in the society. It also occurs by prestige. There is a close relationship between social stratification and exploitation and social stratification breaks the has many of the society as well as its development.
The following structure shows how “Stratification” rains the whole social systems:
Cultural dualism ® Stratification ® Exploitation ® Under development For the development through public administration. It is necessary to know that behavior and attitudes of the people of society that is why sociology and public administration are inter related.
Welfare of the people:
Public administration called the welfare based work. When the public administration decides to endeavor any project they give emphasis of the following priorities.
- For whom project in need for?
- Why this project need?
- How the project gives a profile?
From the above discussion. It is district that public administration and sociology is chiefly concern with needs, problems hopes and demands of the people of the society and administration controls the activities done by the people of society. The decisions and plans taken by the administration are very social issue obviously has a great impact on the people as well as society.
1. S. Sociology
2. Sociology page (11,18,19,20)
3. L.G. Modern Public Administration (Page-3-11)
NIGRO and NIGRO
4. Principles of Sociology (Page 1-7)
5. DAINIK JHOKONTHO
10th, 23rd, 24th Oct. 03
6. Introduction to Sociology
7. The study of Public Administration, (1995 Page-2)
8. Sociology its nature
Scope and elements