The main objective of this report is to analysis Operations of Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited. General objectives of this reports are to fulfill the internship requirement of BBM program, to gain practical exposures in different banking activities, to familiar with the working environment in bank, to apply theoretical knowledge in the practical field. Finally analyze the performance of the specific branch and the bank as a whole and to be acquainted with day to day functioning of service oriented banking business.
Objective of the Report
The primary objective of the study is to meet the partial requirements for the fulfillment of the course ‘practical orientation in banks’. The core objectives of the practical orientation program in banks are as follows –
- To familiar with the working environment in bank.
- To apply theoretical knowledge in the practical field.
- To observe and analyze the performance of the specific branch and the bank as a whole.
- To be acquainted with day to day functioning of service oriented banking business.
- To study existing banker customer relationship
- To learn about foreign trade.
- To learn about loans and advances.
- To learn about general banking.
- To know about the function of administration.
Profile of the bank
Dutch-Bangla bank limited is a Bangladesh-European joint venture commercial bank incorporated in 1995. With the permission of Bangladesh Bank Limited, commenced formal commercial banking operation from the 3rd June 1996.
The Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) of the Netherlands is the international sponsors of the bank. The FMO is the Dutch development bank of the Netherlands specialized in the financing of private enterprises in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe.
Under a technical assistance grant form the FMO, ABN-AMRO bank of the Netherlands provided technical assistance to Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited during the first year of operation of the bank (1996-97.)
Dutch-Bangla bank limited (DBBL), primarily is a public company limited by shares, incorporated in Bangladesh under company act 1994. It is also guided by the bank company act 1991 (and its subsequent amendment) and Bangladesh Bank Ordinance 1972, so as to enable the company for doing banking business. The word DUTCH implies that this is a joint venture company and Dutch involvement is there.
History of DBBL
Dutch-Bangla bank limited is a brainchild of its chairman Mr. Mohammed Shabuddin Ahmed. He dreamed it long back, when he had been trying to arrange fund for Tamijuddin Textile Mills Limited (TTML.) and Kader Synthetic Fibers Limited (KSFL) though the traditional banking system. TTML is a public limited company. Its main business is yarn manufacturing with a conventional spinning mills of 44000-spindles capacity. KSFL is also a public company limited by shares with an investment of about Tk 2.0 billion and now engaged in manufacturing polyester draw textures and twisted yarn. Three international financing agencies like ADB, FMO, AFIC and two local development financing institutions, BSB & SABINCO have their investment in KSFL, both in terms of loan and equity. The projects were implemented, but had to face time and cost over run due mainly to the procedural delay in getting access to credit. Among others this might be a good reason for thinking about a bank wherein the entrepreneurs will have easy access to modern banking services.
Mr. Ahmed has close relationship with FMO, the Netherlands Development Finance Co. Limited since 1983. Nederland Financiering-Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden n.v. (FMO), a well reputed Holland based international financing institution has been extending their services, especially in development of SSE, SME and many other socio-economic activities mainly in the developing countries. Mr. Ahmed however, opened dialogue with FMO regarding the banking project some times in 1989. So far my knowledge goes, the first evidence in black and white was the letter dated January 07, 1990 written to one Mr. D.C. Vender Bijl, the then Manager, South-West Asia Department, of FMO. In a letter dated March 22, 1990 Mr. Groosman, another brilliant offer of FMO visited Bangladesh and wrote to Mr. F.J.Smit, the then Deputy Managing Director, FMO advocating Mr. Ahmed’s proposal. In this way correspondence in writing, discussion over telephone had been going on. Mission came to study the market, to prepare feasibility report and memorandum of understanding. The proposed name of the bank at first was ‘Development Finance and Commerce Bank Bangladesh Limited (DFCBL). At one stage opinion passed by the FMO mission that ‘Bangladesh is not yet ready for such investment’. But Mr. Ahmed did not leave the idea, rather he started exploring the possibility more vigorously.
At last Mr. M.E.H.J. Groot of small-scale department of FMO in his letter dated December 07, 1992 responded positively indicating that ‘Small Enterprises Department of FMO is in a position of finance intermediary Bank’ and accordingly asked for a ‘Business Plan’. The interim reply we are working on it and the document is coming in due course, we sent to FMO on 22-12-92.
The vigorous exercise of market and collection of primary data in crude form through ‘questionnaires’ started. The proposed name at that stage changed to ‘Long term credit and commerce bank limited. Thereafter lots of reports were prepared, tons of papers were utilized and not only man-days but also hundreds of man-nights were spent before materializing the dream through convincing FMO, taking approval of GOB, Bangladesh Bank, MOF, RJC, SEC, BOT etc. The result is today’s DBBL. The first European joint venture bank in Bangladesh has established.
Any way, let us now come to the theoretical aspects of the topic that usually requires to follow for formation for a company, in general and a banking company, in particular.
Banking company is also a company like others and required to be formed by way of incorporating it with the registrar of Joint Stock Companies and Firms (RJSC&F) as per companies act. 1994. But unlike others it is also guided by the bank company act. 1991 and Bangladesh Bank Ordinances.
The major steps to follow may be seen on the Screen. During the formation stage several studies including preparation of per-investment feasibility study, strategic plan, business plan, which inter-alia covers setting goals and objectives, formulating strategic plan, forecasting financial profitability, analyzing SWOT etc. The investors required to be convinced and satisfied with the goals, objectives, profitability and risk involvement before making investment.
The authorized capital of bank is Tk. 400.00 million. Total shareholders’ equity capital at the end of June 30, 2002 stood at Tk. 627.27 million consisting of paid-up capital of Tk. 202.135 million, share premium Tk. 11.068 million and reserves and retained earnings Tk. 414.07 million. On close of business on June 30, 2002 the capital adequacy ratio 9.13% as against accepted standard of 8.00%.
Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited has gone into public floatation during the 1st quarter of 2001 and has been listed with both DSE and CSE. Banks total issue is only 10%. Market prices of DBBL share rose up to Tk. 14325.80 average share price on last tr5ansaction day was Tk. 1465 per share.
On June 8, 2008 Dutch –Bangla bank limited has opened its Mirpur branch in Dhaka. It is the 64th branch of the bank. 1 more braches at khilkhat or tongi has been opened shortly.
Basic accounting system of the bank’s branches has been automated to optimize benefits and increase overall efficiency of superior customer services by way of increased speed, accuracy and also to ensure security. The bank has to continuously look for more and more sophistication and efficiency with this end in view, the bank has established information technology (IT) division as a top priority area. The division has been working for early automation of the full ranger of banking operation including launching of plastic money.
DBBL’s profile has been enhanced beyond the industry arena due to its promoting and patronizing sporting and social events in Bangladesh. Dutch-Bangla bank limited had become a part of Test Cricket history by sponsoring the historic inaugural test match between Bangladesh and India. Dutch-Bangla bank Bangladesh open 2001 held on February 2002 also gave a good exposure to the bank.
Bangladesh witnessed a deep crisis of Dengue starting from the Mid of the year, took an epidemic form spreading all over the country and caused death to a significant numbers of patients. This widespread crisis of Dengue had draw the attention of DBBL. The bank extended services to the dengue patients in supporting treatments and crating awareness of the general people through seminar, symposium and newspaper Champaign. The bank has donated dengue detection kits to Bangabandhu Medical University and a centrifugal Machine with refrigerator (Blood Cell Separator) to Sandhani, Dhaka Medical College Unit, including detailed program for blood collection for dengue-affected patients.
DBBL has also played a positive role in flood-relief activity in the last year. The bank donated another most modern and sophisticated blood cell separator to sandhani shahid Ziaur Rahman Medical College unit, Bogra.
Dhaka Ahsnia Mission has started establishment of one cancer hospital in Dhaka at an estimated cost of Tk. 1000 million. Their initial program is to start with few ‘Primary Cancer Detection Centers’. DBBL has donated a considerable some of money for importing full range of laboratory equipment and machinery for one of the centers at Dhaka.
In order to instill an innovative spirit in the people of the society, to stretch helping hands to the distressed humanity, to develop mental faculty through imparting training, awarding scholarship, etc. and also to uphold the mankind by way of Medicare, bank authority formed a ‘Foundation’ by setting apart and establishing a fund generating from the yearly profit @ 2.5% under the name and style ‘Dutch-Bangla Bank Foundation’. It is believed that by rendering such activities DBBL may contribute for the well being of the society in order to create a better world for the future generations in general, and in the banking sector in particular being a trusted partner of the common people. The foundation has started its functioning by awarding scholarships to the deserving meritorious students of different Universities.
On 3rd June, 2008 DBBL celebrated its 6th Anniversary in a befitting manner. On this grand occasion, the bank donated wheel chairs and prize bond to war wounded freedom fighters, distributed food to the orphanages, donated two modern ambulance to Anjuman Mafidul Islam, planted trees in most the bank financed factories, created public awareness about violence, anti polithene etc.
The relationship between banker and customer begins with the opening of an account by the customer. Opening of an account binds the banker and customer into contractual relationship under the legal framework of the ‘Contract Act – 1872’. But selection of customer for opening an account is very crucial for a bank. In fact, fraud and forgery of all kinds start by opening account. So, the Dutch-Bangla bank ltd. takes highest caution in this regard.
General Banking Department
During my internship I was place in local office of Dutch-Bangla bank ltd. General banking of this branch consists of different sections, namely Account opening section, cheque book issue, dispatch section, remittance section, clearing and bills section, cash section.
General section is considered as the direct customer service center. It is the starting point of all the banking operation. It opens new accounts, remits funds, honor cheques, takes deposits, issues bank draft and pay order etc. General banking is also known as retail banking. Following are the major section in General banking.
- Account opening section
- Clearing section
- Remittance section
- FDR section
- Cash section
Account Opening Section
According to the law and practice the banker – customer relation arises only from contract between the two. And opening of account is the contract that establishes the relationship between a banker and a customer. So this section plays a very important role in attracting customer and therefore should be handled with extra care.
According to the international code of conduct banks should maintain following steps regarding their customers:
- Banks will act fairly and reasonably in all their dealings with their customers.
- Banks will help customers understand how their accounts operate seek to give them a good understanding of banking services.
- Banks should maintain confidence in the security and integrity of banking and payment systems.
Individual or firm intended to open account in the branch applies for opening account in a prescribed form. The form is duly filled in by the applicant himself. The applicant is also required to fill the specimen signature sheet. Applicant must submit required documents with application form. Different kinds of document are needed for different kinds of account. For individual only introduction by another account holder of the bank is sufficient. But for firm and others, relevant documents must be submitted. Then the authorized officer scrutinizes the introduction and examines the documents submitted. If every thing appear satisfactory. Then he opens account.
Types of Account
Types of Account
Following types of account are generally opened by the Dutch-Bangla Bank:
- Current Deposits Account
- Savings Deposits Account
- Short Term Deposit
- Fixed Deposit
- Bearer Certificate Deposit
- Monthly Term Deposit
Savings Deposits Account
Dutch-Bangla bank ltd. Offers interest on every day’s balance in savings account @ 8.50% P.A.
Requirements for opening Savings Deposits Account
- Signature card
To open a saving account customer will have to fill up an application from supplied by the bank. The form contains following particulars:
- Name of the applicant
- Name of father/husband of the applicant
- Profession of the applicant
- Two Photographs
- Present address
- Permanent Address
- Introduction by any account holder or by a person acceptable to the bank.
- Verification by the concerned officer of the branch.
- Signature of the applicant.
After filling the form applicant will have to sign thrice on the specimen signature card. Most important thing is that these signatures must match with the signature on application form. These documents are then checked by the concerned officer and sent to the manager of the branch. Manager rechecks all the information and talk with the applicant to know more about him/her. When he is fully satisfied he put his signature on the form and verifies the signature. If any special instructions are required manager write it down at the end of the specimen signature card.
The form and the specimen signature card then sent to the officer who put an account number on the form and on the card. After completion of the above mentioned formalities a new account is opened with the bank for the new customer. Account can be open in joint name by to or more parties but who will operate the account it should be mentioned in the application. To obtain a cheque book the new account holder must deposit at least Tk. 3000/= in the account. This amount may vary depending on nature of the relationship of the person with the bank.
Short Term Deposit Accounts (STD)
Short term deposit or STD account opening procedure is similar to that of the saving account. The rate of interest on this type of account is 6.5% per annum. The deposits held in STD A/C are payable on short notice.
Requirements for opening STD A/C
- Account opening agreement form.
- Specimen signature card.
- Approval of authority
Fixed Deposit Receipt Account
Fixed Deposit Receipt Account deposit is taken for some maturity period
Requirements for opening FDR A/C
- Account agreement form
- Amount and period of deposit must be mentioned clearly
- Specimen signature card
- Approval of the authority
Fixed deposit is the amount deposited by the customer for a fixed period of time. In Dutch-Bangla bank ltd. This time period is minimum three months and maximum three years and above. The duration and the rate of interest on 1,00,000-9,00,000 different time period FDR is shown in the table below:
|Duration||Rate of Interest|
Opening procedure of FDR Account
- Bank provides the interested customer a fixed deposit form.
- Customer fills the form, which contains name of the customer, amount of money, duration, rate of interest etc.
- After filling the form customer pay the money in cash or by cheque.
- After receiving the form from the customer the respected office look for the cash seal or transfer seal. If any of these are present and the form is properly singed the officer provides a specimen signature card to the customer.
- Customer signs thrice on the specimen signature card along with his/her full name.
- At the same time respected officer issue a fixed deposit receipt on the specific FDR block.
This block has two parts, one for customer and another for the bank, containing same information on both parts. These are:
- Name of the customer
- Amount of money deposited
- Date on which the money is deposited
- Due date – on which the FDR will be matured
- Duration for which FDR has been made
- Rate of interest to be paid
When all required information is written on the block it is signed by at least officers and the manager verifies the specimen signature and put his sign on it.
Before taking his/her part of the FDR block the customer must sign on the back of the part to be kept in the bank and the signature must match the signatures on the specimen signature card.
Customer will receive interest depending on the duration of the FDR and will not get any interest if (s) he encash it before three months. Suppose a customer have an FDR account for the duration of 12 months and (s) he wants to encash it 10th month. In this case the customer will receive interest for (6+3) or 9 months. But if the duration is 3 months and the FDR is encashed before the maturity period then no interest will be pain on.
An FDR is renewed automatically for three months if the customer does not come to cash if after the maturity period. It can also be renewed upon the direction of the customer.
The local office of Dutch-Bangla bank ltd. facilitates customers with different types of current account. There are current accounts for individuals, proprietorship firms, partnership firms, Joint Stock Company and corporate body.
Account opening forms for these categories are different. Some terms and documents may differ but the overall process of account opening is similar to that of the saving account. Here I like to state what kinds of information to be furnished in the form and which documents customer should provide.
Requirement of CD account may vary upon individual, legal status of company and clubs, societies and associates.
Individual CD A/C
- Name of the Applicant
- Profession or Business of Applicant
- Address of the Applicant
- Photographs of the Applicant
- Introduction by an account holder of the branch or by a person acceptable to the branch
- Signature on the Application form
- Signature on the Specimen Signature card
- Verification of details and signatures by authorized officer.
Joint CD A/C
All the requirement of individual CD a/c must be fulfilled in addition with the joint account should be mentioned.
How the accounts will be operate.
- Account agreement form
- Trade license
- Specimen signature card
- Rubber-stamp impression
- Partnership deed
- Specimen signature card
- Account agreement form
- Letter of Partnership
- Trade License
Limited Liability Company
- Registration certificate from register of joint stock companies
- Certificate of Incorporation
- Memorandum of Association
- Articles of Association
- Annual audit report
- Copy of Board Resolution containing
- Name of the persons authorized to operate the bank account on behalf of the company
- Specimen signature card
- Account agreement form
Bearer Certificate Deposit
This is transferable by mere delivery. This certificate doesn’t contain any information about the depositor. Opening of such account doesn’t require any kind of document.
Closing of an Account
A customer may close his/her account any time by submitting an application to the manager or to the Branch in charge. The account of the customer is then checked to see how much money is still in it. The customer is then asked to draw a final cheque for the credit amount in the account excluding account close charge and other incidental charges. The customer then surrenders remaining cheques to the respected officer who tear off these cheques. Vouchers are then issued debiting the particular account and crediting incidental charges account.
In case of joint account the application to close the account must be signed by the holders even though the account is operated by either of them. All the joint holders should also sign the last cheque for withdrawal of the available balance in the account.
Cash is the most liquid asset and it should be dealt very carefully. So this department is really handed with intensive care. This department starts the day with cash in vault. All cash receipts and payments are made through this department.
Cash section is a very sensitive organ of the branch and handle with extra care. I was not authorized to deal in this section because of its sensitivity. But I was fortunate enough to know the procedures of this section. Operation of this section begins at the start of the banking hour. Cash officer beings his/her transaction with taking money from the vault, known as the opening cash balance. Vault is kept in a very secured room. Keys to the room are kept under control of cash officer and branch in charge. The amount of opening cash balance is entered into a register. After whole day’s transaction, the surplus money remains in the cash counter is put back in the vault and known as the closing balance. Money is received and paid in this section.
Depositors deposit money in their account through this section by deposit slip. This section also receives cash from customer for opening pay order, bank draft, telex transfer etc. This is bank’s all cash receipts are taken by this department.
- At first depositor fill up the deposit in slip. There are two types of deposit in slip in this branch. One for saving account and another for current account.
- After filling the required deposit in slip, depositor deposits the money.
- Officers at the cash counter receives the money, count it, enter the amount of money in the scroll register kept at the counter, seal the deposit in slip and sign on it with date.
- Then this slip is passed to another officer who enter the scroll number given by the cash counter in his/her register along with the amount of the money, sign the slip and keep the bank’s part of the slip. Other part is given to the depositor.
- In this branch, two different officers maintain two different scroll books for entering such entries. But cash counter maintains one scroll book.
- All deposits of saving account are maintained by one officer and other accounts by another officer.
- All the end of the day entries of both of these registers are cross checked with the register kept at the cash counter to see whether the transactions are correct or not.
This section accepts the cheques from the depositors for payment in cash. After receiving cheque, first the cheque is scrutinized whether it is a valid one. Cash officer judges the amount both in figure and the word, date of the cheque and signature etc. Then finally authorized officer compares the signature on the cheque with the specimen signature, and check whether the balance in the account is sufficient. If very things is satisfactory, then payment is made against the cheque. This department is also make payment against various debit vouchers for various miscellaneous expenses of the branch.
- When a person comes to the bank to cash a cheque, s/he first gives it to the computer desk to know the position of the check and posting of the cheque. If the account has sufficient fund the computer in charge will post it into the computer, will sign it and seal it.
- This cheque is then sent to the concerned officer. There are two officers who verify the cheques – one for savings and similar types of account and another for current and similar types of account
- After receiving the cheque respected officer first checks it very carefully for any kind of fraudulent activity. S/he also checks the date of the cheque, amount in word, amount in figure and signature of the drawer.
- If the instrument is free of all kind of error the respected officer will ask the bearer to sign on the back of it.
- S/he will then put his/her initial beside the bearers’ signature. S/he will also sign it on its fact, will write down the amount by red pen and will put on a scroll number from his/her scroll register.
- Then the cheque will be sent to the cash counter. At the cash counter bearer will be asked again to sign on the back of the instrument.
- The cash officer will then enter the scroll number in his/her register and will pay the money to the bearer.
- At the end of the day these scroll numbers of the registers will be compared to ensure the correctness of the entries.
Clearing & Bills Section
Local offices branch of DBBL receives different types of instruments, such as cheque, PO, DD etc from its customers for collection. It also pays on behalf of its customers for those instruments that come to it through clearing house. When instruments of DBBL are sent for collection or received for payment through clearing house it is called Inter Bank Clearance or IBC. These are treated in a little different manner than instruments of other banks.
When the cheques are presented to a bank by the other banks for collection of fund and to credit that into the party’s account, the instrument must be cleared through Bangladesh Bank clearing house. Receiving officers, receiver check by a deposit slip over the counter.
When instruments are sent to the bank vie clearinghouse, it entered into the clearing in register. The officer checks the instruments thoroughly before it is sent to the computer section for posting. If any kind of error is found in any instrument it is dishonored and sent back with appropriate reason for doing so. Instruments are also dishonored for insufficiency of fund. The information is then sent back to the clearinghouse for taking appropriate action.
- The instruments drawn on Dutch-Bank are received from other banks in the clearing house.
- The amount and numbers of instrument received are entered in the house from the main schedule of respective banks.
- The instruments with schedules are arranged branch wise.
- The instrument sent to branches concerned for clearance and IBCA’s are collected from them for honored cheques.
- The instruments are sent to the respective departments and the schedules are filled.
After filling the deposit in slip bearer of the instrument deposits the instrument to the respected officer. Upon receiving the instrument the respected officer checks the essential features of the instrument and whether the deposit in slip is filled accordingly or not. Then (s) he crosses the instrument with a sea containing banks and branch’s name, signs the deposit in slip and provides the customer with counter foil of the slip. Then both the instrument and slip is sealed with ‘NIKASH’ seal and date seal containing the date of clearing. An endorsement seal is also sealed on the back of the instrument and the officer endorses it on behalf of DBBL Foreign Exchange Branch.
It is then given entry in the clearing out register mentioning the name of the bank and branch of it, amount of money in deposit in slip, amount of money in the instrument, number of the instrument and date of then it. In case IBC only name of the bank is omitted. Then the officer separates the instrument from the deposit in slip. Deposit in slip is kept in the bank and the instrument is sent for clearing.
Non-IBC instruments are sent to the clearinghouse with two different forms. Both the forms contain almost similar information. Form F-52 contains clearing date, name of the bank and its branch, number of instrument on each branch, amount of each instrument and summation of the amounts. Other form F-54 had the name of different banks printed on it and requires the clearing date, total number of instruments to each bank and total amounts. IBC instruments are sent to the clearinghouse with one form, form F-54/A. These instruments are sent to the clearinghouse by messenger.
- The instruments are received duly signed vouchers.
- The clearing stamps are affixed on the instrument and it is endorsed with the checking of in charge.
- The particulars of the instruments and the vouchers are entered in the outward clearing register.
- The instruments with schedules received from branches and sent to the clearing house to deliver them to the respective bank.
- These sorts of things are submitted in the first houses or delivery house of Bangladesh Bank.
Short Collection (SC)
DBBL has many branches, which are not member o clearing house. When instruments of these branches come to the branch for collection, a different procedure is followed known as short collection. When an instrument arrives for short collection following procedure is applied:
- The instrument is crossed with crossing seal.
- Sealed with SC seal on its face.
- Endorsed by the officer and ‘The account will be credited on realization’ is written on the back of it by the officer.
- The instrument is then sent to the drawee branch.
- Upon receiving the instrument the drawee branch debits the account and sends a debit TRV with LSC number.
- After receiving the LSC branch enters it in the LSC register and credits the party’s account issuing a credit voucher.
Dispatch section plays a great role in banking business. Because all documents coming in the branch or going out of the branch must pass this section. This section maintains all records of the documents send to other branches or banks and makes best effort to send these documents safely and correctly. This section also receives documents come through different medium, such as postal service, courier service, via messenger etc.
After receiving the document the officer inters them in a register kept in his/her desk and distribute them to the appropriate sections. When papers or documents are sent for official purpose the officer enters them in another register, write down the address on the envelope and send them through proper channel.
Dispatch section of local office branch performs another duty. It enters the transfer instruments in the scroll book and then sends those to the computer section.
Inward Bills for Collection
- All clearing cheques are not received on the counter. Some cheques are received from other source for collection. This cheques are received –
- From other branch of Dutch-Bangla bank. These are settled by sending Inter Bank Credit Advice (IBCA).
- From another bank outside the clearing house. These are settled by debiting depositor’s account and sending DD, TT, MT in favor of the sender bank.
- These cheques are called IBA.
Like every other business activity banks are profit oriented and profit is the central point on which the entire business activity rotates. A bank invests its funds in many ways to earn income. The bulk of its income is derived from loans and advances. Since major part of bank’s income is derived from credit and since the money banks credited is customer’s fund, banks should follow a cautious policy and sound lending principles in the matter of lending.
Banks are the principal source of credit for borrowers. Banks provide loan able funds for millions of households, for most local units of government and for agricultural, commercial and industrial activates of a nation. Worldwide, banks grant more installments loans to consumers than any other financial institution. Bank credit is a catalyst for bringing about economic development. Without adequate finance there can be no growth or maintenance of a stable output. Bank lending is important to the economy, for it makes possible the financing of different sectors. At the same time, a bank will, therefore, distribute its funds among various assets in a manner as to derive sufficient income. But as liquidity and profitability are conflicting considerations. Dutch-Bangla Bank Ltd. as a bank, while employing the funds pays due regard to both profitability and liquidity.
Kinds of Advances
There are various kinds of borrowing facilities provided by banks to their clients. These facilities can be broadly classified into following categories:
The bank advances a lump sum for a certain period at an agreed rate of interest, in case of loan. Loan may be a demand loan or a term loan. The entire amount is paid on an occasion either in cash or by credit in his current account, which he can draw at any time. The interest is charged for the full amount sanctioned whether he withdraws the money from his account or not. The loan may be repaid in installments or at expiry of a certain period.
Overdraft is a temporary accommodation usually granted to an operating account subject to the limit sanctioned. This is a permanent arrangement and the customer need not to draw the sanctioned amount at once, but draw the amount as and when required. This interest is charged on the amount, which he withdraws, not on the sanctioned amount. OD is of two types practiced in Dutch-Bangla Bank Ltd. Foreign Exchange branch. These are as follows –
Secured Overdraft (Sod)
Branch sanctions SOD against different securities like FDR, Sanchaypatras and work orders.
Temporary Overdraft (TOD)
It is given to the valued customers only. It is not that much secured. Usually it forwards without any security or sometimes exercise lien against the instrument, deposited in the bank. The processes of extending SOD are as follows –
The party must have a current A/C with the branch if the ownership of the firm is proprietorship, then a trade license must be submitted and in case of a limited company, all the documents required to open a current A/C, should be submitted. The financial statements of the concerned firm should also be submitted. The party must maintain a good transaction with the branch and have a good turnover rate. The party will apply to the officer in charge of credit department of the branch for SOD arrangement.
The concerned officer of the branch will give him a credit application form and the party will have to fill up this form. In this form he discloses all the information about his concern, purpose of the loan, description of security, etc. The concerned officer will prepare a ‘Credit Proposal’, where he writes about the business concern, details of proprietors/directors of the concern, management structure, the existing credit facilities, the particulars about the facilities that asked for – such as margin limit, date of expiry, details of security, and any other relevant information. Then the proposal is sent to the Head Office, Credit Division for approval. The responsible department of the Credit Division will appraise the proposal and if it seems to a viable then the loan will be sanctioned.
After the loan is sanctioned, the branch will issue two copies of a sanction advice, where all the terms and conditions set by the bank is mentioned. The borrower is advised to write, ‘accepted’ on the original copy if he is satisfied with the terms and conditions of the bank and retain the duplicate one as record.
By this arrangement, a banker allows his customer to borrow money up to a certain limit. CC is a favorite mode of borrowing by trades, industrialists, etc. for meeting their working capital requirements. It is operated like overdraft account. Depending on the needs of the business, the borrower can draw on his cash credit account at different time and when he gets money can adjust the liability. Dutch-Bangla Bank Ltd. charges interest on the daily balance of the account. Based on charging securities, there are two forms of cash credit.
Cash Credit (Hypothecation)
Hypothecation is a legal transaction whereby goods are made available to the lending banker as security for a debt without transferring either the property in the goods or possession. The banker has only equitable charge on stocks, which practically means nothing. It is given against registered mortgage of land and building, hypothecation of goods and personal guarantee of Directors.
Cash Credit (Pledge)
Pledge is the bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise. Transfer of possession is the judicial sense. In case of pledge goods the bank acquire the possession of the goods or a right to hold goods until the repayment for credit with a special right to sell after due notice to the borrower in the event of non-repayment. It is not applicable in foreign exchange branch.
The processes of opening a CC a/c are as follows –
The interested party must have a current A/C and good transaction with the branch; applies for CC pledge or hypothecation arrangement; fills up the ‘Credit Application form’ as provided by the respective officer; the concerned officer prepares a ‘Credit Proposal’ detailing all relevant information; sends the credit proposal to the Head Office, Credit Division for necessary action, Head office, Credit Division examines the proposal and if finds it viable then sanctions it and sends it to the branch; the branch issues two copies of ‘Sanction Advice’, one for its own record and the other for the party to keep.
After getting the cash credit arrangement, the banker will issue a cheque book for withdrawing cash from the account. Whenever the CC account holder wants to withdraw cash from the account, the cash officer will scrutinize the amount of cheque in order to make sure that the total drawings do not exceed the sanctioned limit.
It is given against personal guarantee, hypothecation of goods and land & building.
Local office branch provides advances to the staff for purchasing house, building, sanchaypatras, and meeting up certain requirements like family medical, personal medical, wedding purposes. Bank provides this facility under installments, loan able amount varies on the basis of purpose.
Local Office branch purchases demand bills of exchange that are called ‘Draft’ accompanied by documents of title to goods such as bill of landing, railway receipt, truck receipt. The purchase of bill of exchange drawn at an issuance, i.e. for a certain period maturing on a future date and not payable on demand or sight.
Dutch-Bangla Bank Ltd. is advancing both short and medium term credit to the commercial sector on the basis of their capital structure, constitution and liquidity consideration. It is given against land and building along with machinery, personal guarantee of Directors and hypothecation of raw materials.
Bills Purchased and Discount
Banks grant advances to their customers by discounting bill if exchange.
Loan against Imported Merchandise (LIM)
Advances allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of good imported through L/C taking effective control over the goods by pledge fall under this type of advance. When the importer failed to pay the amount payable the exporter against import, L/C, then DBBL gives loan against imported merchandise to the importer. The importer will bear all the expense i.e. the godown charge, insurance fees, etc. and the ownership of the goods in retain to the bank. This is also a temporary advance connected with import, which is known as post import finance.
Payments against Documents (PAD)
The importers are to open letter of credit through any bank for importing goods. Most of the time, the banks are to extend credit to the importers, without violating the rules and circulars of Bangladesh bank, for buying required foreign exchange. This loan on receipts of the shipping documents from the negotiating bank is transferred and lodged to PAD. PAD is associated with import and import financing. This kind of loan is issued in favor or the exporter to fulfill the commitment of issuing bank of L/C to the exporter.
Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR)
Advance allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through L/C falls under this head. The goods are handed over to the importer under trust with arrangement that sale proceeds should be deposited to liquidate the advances within a given period. This is post import finance by DBBL.
Inland Bill Purchased (IBP)
Payment made against documents representing sell of goods to local export oriented industries, which are deemed as exports and which are denominated in local currency/foreign currency falls under this head. The bill of exchange is held as the primary security. The client submits the usance bill and the bank discounts it. This temporary liability is adjustable from the proceeds of the bills.
IBP is one of the moods of advancing money by bank and it is a profitable way of deploying banks fund for short period. The party himself must draw genuine trade transaction and the bill and he is not the purchaser of the bill. ILC and mother L/C of export is needed to sanction the loan. The banks scrutinize the shipping document of ILC and asked the ILC opening bank for acceptance of the bill with maturity date. The bill will purchase up to 80% of the accepted value.
Credit Policy of Dutch-Bangla Bank Ltd. (DBBL)
The credit policy of any banking institution is a combination of certain accepted time tested standards, and some other dynamic factors determined by the realities of varying and changing situations in the market place.
Credit policy lays down the DBBL principles and broad parameters of the lending operations. The key is to a sound, healthy and profitable credit operation, however, lies in the quality of judgment and sense of proportion of the officers making lending decisions, and their knowledge of the borrowers and the market place.
DBBL considers the loans that are sanctioned for more than one year as term loans. Under this facility an individual or enterprise is financed for various purpose.
4 P’s in DBBL:
DBBL is using 4 P’s (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) in there marketing in a broad sense.
Product: DBBL is providing several products and services as follows.
- Saving a/c
- Current a/c
- Short Term Deposit [STD] a/c
- power a/c
- Excel a/c
- SMS Banking
DBBL always try to keep low charge for all it’s services. The advantages of DBBL Pricing system are as follows.
- All the services are lowest in cost compared to other banks.
- Various types of lone facilities in a low interest rate
- Charges of Bank solvency certificate, Bank statement, Balance transfer, Bank draft, Pay order etc are very low.
- Letter of credit [L.C.] – DBBL provide various types of L.C. related facilities. Even they
DBBL allows trey to provide vest customer service. That’s why they have the largest ATM network all over the country. You don’t need to carry cash if u has any card of DBBL.
- Available ATM booth in every popular location. Total number of ATM booth all over the country are 449 *
- There are 64 branches all over the country.*
- There are a number of PSO in important shaping malls. The total number of PSO all over the country are 634 *
- They took a part in the “Dhaka International Trade Fare” on 2009.
- They are offering account opening by take 500 only.
- Advertisement & calibration.
- DBBL takes lots of promotional activities for there internal employees.
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