Benefits of e-CRM for Banks and their Customers


The customer relationship management (CRM) is essential and vital function of customer oriented marketing. Its functions include gathering and accumulating customer-related information in order to provide effective services. e-CRM is a combination of IT sector but also the key strategy to electronic commerce. e-CRM is a combination of software, hardware, application and management commitment. Aim of e-CRM system is to improve customer service, develop a relationship and retain valuable customers. e-CRM is a concern for many organizations especially banking sector. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the benefits e-CRM to customers and organization in banking industry. To justify the purpose two research questions have been addressed and on the basis literature review, a frame of reference was developed which helped us to answer the research questions and collect data. A qualitative research approach was used for this study. Empirical data was collected through in-depth interviews were conducted with two Swedish banks and a group of their customers. In the last chapter findings and conclusions were drawn on the basis on research questions. Our findings indicate that Swedish banks are well aware of the benefits and applications of the e-CRM and use the system to maintain good relationships with their customers. Our findings also indicate that with the implementation of e-CRM and the latest technologies. We have found that both the banks seem to have same description about the benefits of e-CRM. We found that both banks have maintained good relationships with customers due to the usage of e-CRM. Our finding indicates that with the implementation of e-CRM and the latest technologies banks have ensured full security for the transactions of their customer’s, e-CRM facilitates the organizations to provide one to one services and also maintain the transaction security of the customers.


Under this chapter an introduction of our topic “will be explained, the background is first, presented, proceeding into the problem discussion where the research area is discussed. The problem discussion will lead to the research purpose and the research questions. Finally, demarcations and overview of this thesis are presented.


According to Burke et al., (1999) Changes are taking place dramatically in the marketing environment during the last few years. Information technology has encouraged several new innovations in the fields of marketing and business. Effects of information technology in the fields of marketing and management have emphasized the importance of re-arranging a new plan for marketing that gets benefited from web technology.

In year 1990, many organizations were focusing on how to perform their transactions with the customers, and how they are going to address their strategies for sales promotions effectively. But after 1990 it was found that many companies have diverted their attention towards how organizations can maintain positive and long lasting relationship with customers. At the same time how to raise loyalty of customers. Thus strategies of organization have shifted towards customer-oriented strategies. Important factors like providing added services, recognizing the needs of the customers are termed as factors to decide the fate of companies. (Wayland & Cole 1997)

Organizations investigations have put light on importance of retaining customers is not a great deal than that of attracting new ones. (Desatnick, 1998, Massey et al., 2001.) Relationship marketing has turned out to become important factor in financial services. (Zineldin 1995)

Customer relationship management (CRM)

Bose, (2002) described the customer relationship management (CRM), essential and vital function of customer oriented marketing is to gather and accumulate related information about customers in order to provide effective services. CRM involves attainment analysis and use of customer’s knowledge in order to sell goods and services. Reasons for CRM coming into existence are the changes and developments in marketing environment and web technology. Relationship with customers is a newly distinguished as a key point to set competitive power of an organization. Companies gather data related to their customers, in order to perform customer relationship management more effectively. Web has disclosed a new medium for business and marketing scope to enhance data analysis of customers’ behaviors, and environments for one to one marketing have been enhanced. CRM lies at the heart of every business transaction, (ibid)

Massey et al., 2000 believes that CRM is about attracting, developing maintaining and retaining profitable customers over a period of time. In this increased heightened global competition arena, the new ways of working are firmly shifting into the hands of paying customers and organizations adapting to e-CRM to CRM.

Electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM)

Dyche, (2001) described that e-CRM is combination of software, hardware, application and management commitment. e-CRM can be different types like Operational, Analytical. Operational e-CRM is given importance to customer touch up points, which can have contacts with customers through telephones or letters or e-mails. Thus customer touch up points is something web based e-mails, telephone, direct sales, fax etc. Analytical CRM is a collection of data and is viewed as a continuous process. It requires technology to process customer’s data. The main intention here would be to identify and understand customers demographics pattern of purchasing etc in order to create new business opportunities giving importance to customers.

Vital and important key point is that e-CRM takes into different forms, relying on the objectives of the organizations. It is about arranging in a line business process with strategies of customers provided back up of software’s. (Rigby et al., 2002).According to Rosen.K, (2000) e-CRM is about people, process and technology and these are key paramount to success.

Traditional definition of e-CRM according to Stanton et al., (1994) is to include attitude for entire business. Like identifying and defining the prime goal to everyone in the organization and creating a sustainable competitive advantage. Their study explores how e-CRM enhances the traditional definition of marketing concepts and enabling the organizations to meet their internal marketing objectives.

Dyche (2001) identified that aim of e-CRM systems is to improve customer service, develop a relationship and retain valuable customers. Furthermore added advantage would be that it enhances delineation in customer’s value. Means to motivate valuable customers remain loyal with the enhanced features of e-CRM, where e makes the huge difference.

Benefits of e-CRM

Scullin et al., (2002) believes that increased customer loyalty, information accumulated by e-CRM system helps organizations to identify the actual input cost of wining and retaining long lasting relationships with customers

Difference between CRM and e-CRM

Internet and e-business are accountable for e in the e-CRM. It is essentially about conveying increased value to customers and to do business through digital channels. Dramatically all business are becoming a part of whole business. At present new things are possible which are in need of new technologies and skills. (Friedlien, 20031

Problem area discussion

According to Feinberb (2002) an important and valid advantage of web- based e-CRM is amount of information available to customers browsing. At the same time this can be viewed as a weakness of web based e-CRM. The furure of web based e- CRM is completely in the hands of one to one websites.

Different ways to contact the company are offered, for instance, e-mail, fax, toll-free numbers, postal address, call back button and voice over IP, bulletin board, local search engine, Allows the customer to search on keywords to locate quickly specific answers on the Web site. Mailing list, to receive more information, the visitor can add his/her e-mail address to a list to receive automated e-mails. Often, this is called a newsletter. Site tour, the customer can follow a tour through the Web site. This page contains information about how to use the site most efficiently? Main advantage of the Internet is its self-generating advantage. By allowing visitors to interact with each other and with the site, they create content for the site. The chat feature allows a customer to enter a real-time conference between two or more users on the Web site. Finally the Electronic bulletin boards, with script-driven forums allow visitors to share information with others and can help shape a Web site to serve effectively the customer needs. A visitor/customer can post a message or can respond to a posted message on a special Web page, (ibid)

The paper expands on the basic research issue for markets on how best to integrate e-CRM to be both effective and efficient (Romano, & Fjermestad, 2003).In addition, marketing strategies, forming a strategic alliance, customer strategy and product differentiation will be discussed in terms of an e-CRM implementation and the goal keeping in view of customer centric.

Banking has been a pioneer in adopting e-CRM, but not so much empirical data is available on the benefit that it creates both for the banks and the customer and that is why it addresses the topic in our study. As customer is centric to all businesses and important that’s why companies are customer oriented and it is an art of company providing his expectations, both benefits to customer and company areas taken into consideration for this study.

Overall Research purpose

Considering the discussion above, the purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the benefits of e-CRM to customers and organisation in banking industry.

To justify the purpose the following questions are addressed:

RQ1: How can the benefits of e-CRM for banks be described?

RQ2: How can the benefits of e-CRM for bank customers be described?


Due to the fact that research in benefits of e-CRM is a vast topic we concentrated on a specific industry i.e. banking industry that relies heavily on the internet and online customer relationship. So we have chosen to conduct our area of research in the banking industry.

Literature Review

In the previous chapter, an introduction and background to the research area of this study was presented as well as overall purpose and research questions. This chapter presents a review of literature relating to each of the 2 mentioned research questions.


Computers, information technology, and networking are fast replacing labor-intensive business activities across industries and in government. Since the early 1990s, the computer, the Internet, and information technology have been merged to become a viable substitute for labor- and paper-intensive banking processes between and across commercial banks. This has been seen in the widespread use of the ATM, credit cards, debit cards, smart cards, and lending through e-CRM via the Internet. This type of computer-based bank-to-bank, bank to consumer and consumer-to-consumer transactional and informational exchange has been referred to as Electronic Commerce (EC). The term EC which taken place out of e-CRM and benefits of e-CRM to bank and its customers presented below. Elias M. (2000)

Relationship with customers

According to Aihie & Eddine (2007), A CRM is an idea, which has its heredity line in the technology. In the earlier days relationship marketing’s sole aim was to get information about the preferences of the customers and the information, which was stored by them in their databases, So as to protect and deal with one to one relationship with customers CRM was developed. Once when the organization acquires the customers and is able to have them lastingly forever, this implies that the customer becomes more loyal and making good use of the services of the organization. Trust, cooperation and satisfaction have to be seen as the face of assurance between both the parties, for a long lasting relationship with customers. Organizations need to be in constant touch with their customer’s in order to build up long-term relationships.

Using e-mail for business communication

According to Elias M. (2000), the most popular tool for customer service is e-mail. Inexpensive and fast, e-mail is used to disseminate information (e.g. catalogues), to send product information and order confirmations, to conduct correspondence regarding any topic with customers and business partners, and responding to enquiries from customers. To answer a large number of e-mails quickly and cost-efficiently automated e-mail reply systems are increasingly implemented. Automated e-mail reply responses to customer inquiries are developed using intelligent agents that recognize key words and quickly respond to common queries. However, the greatest advantage of e-mail as a communication tool is providing quick and accurate information to all customer queries. E-mails can include forms, reviews, referrals and new contacts sent to customers as attached files and how e-CRM bringing bridge between bank and customer through email business communication.

Personalized services or one to one services

According to Huang & Lin (2005) personalization is a strategy that can be easily differentiated and which cannot be simulated by competitors in the market. A good personalized idea will enhance in the increase of sales, improves the customer relationship. Personalization can be defined as serving the unique needs of individual customers. By improving the customer conversations the organization can improve the customer relationships. Personalized services are not only limited in cheering new sales, but its successful implementation allows the organization to improve its effectiveness and efficiency in serving the customers established already.

According to Mark.L (2004) identifying the needs of the customers and providing them a best solution before he makes a request shows excellence in service of the customers. Presently customers do not visit their banks for other kind of additional services such as finance, credit cards etc. customers still see the banks as providing bank services. Customers of the banks are becoming choosier and the success of the banks does depend upon this.

Establishing a Web site to market products or services

According to Haverty (1998) e-CRM providing cost savings, opportunism, and threats drive action and innovation even in conservative banks. They have influenced how banks must re­position themselves to take advantage of new opportunities that include establishing new service delivery channels and new markets for existing services (loans, letters of credit, etc.) Many banks have already built web sites on the Internet, offering banking services. Leveraging the power of the web is a move from static pages to dynamic applications that are connected to bank data. (ibid) A Web service that gives real-time access to merchants for payment information rather than waiting for hardcopy from bank

Transaction Security

According to Goldfinger (2001), safety was seen as a major barrier to Internet banking. Banks were worried about unauthorized access to their systems, and customers were concerned about the protection of their personal data and the risk of false transactions. Banks have been able to manage security with least repercussions. However, according to Hickman & Katkov (2001), banks are exploring alternate security measures such as electronic signatures, digital certificates, smart cards and biometrics. A major problem with most of these measures is, their complications and cost to adopt and maintain. Furthermore, in many countries, electronic signatures are not enforceable by law. According to Outwater (2001), the e-purse bombed several years ago, and smart cards have been lukewarm at best. It is evident that banks are trying to ensure secure payment on the Internet. However, most favorable solutions keep on avoiding them.

e-CRM-Benefits to Customers                                  

Bank customers form expectations derived from many sources Boulding et al, (1993) proposed that customers form expectations of what will happen in their next encounters based on what they

“deserve”. Zeithaml & Bitner (2000) identify two levels of expectations, desired service and adequate service. Desired service represents the “wished for” ievel of performance and adequate service reflects showing more basic service expectations. The model permits exploration of the perceived difference between expected service and the experienced service, particularly the zone of tolerance developed by Parasuraman et al., (1991), they’re by customer specific benefits are under for the study.

Customer interaction and satisfaction

The importance of e-CRM technology in bank-customer interactions remains undisputed, commentators; nevertheless, emphasize how customer evaluation is shaped by social and personal forces. (Hollander, 1985; Czepiel, 1990) Interaction has got a very prime place in the banking services. However in order to make the interactions good it is highly important that both banks as well as customers actively involve themselves in the interaction. The relationship, which is maintained between customer and organization, has always a special place in the banking industry when compared to other industries. The interaction process has includes three major factors. (Mosad, 1995)

1.) Information exchange

2.) Business or financial (transactions)

3.) Social exchange

He further explained thus the transaction process involves engaging both bank and customers in common satisfying terms. The bank should know what exactly the client wants; at the same time client should also make sure that has enough knowledge about the bank offerings. Social exchange involves more of maintaining long-term relationship with the customers. Confidence, trust, ethics and friendship to some extent are the aspects of the social exchange. (Mosad, 1995

Frame of Reference

Under this chapter we will continue the discussion from previous chapters comparing both theories. This chapter begins with the discussion of theoretical problem empowerment. This discussion then leads to the development of the research questions for this study and hence, the frame of reference are presented, which will be used for the empirical data collection also will be used to analyze the findings in empirical data and frame of reference relating to each of the 2 mentioned research questions.

In e-CRM, online banking offers many benefits to banks as well as to customers. However, in global terms the majority of private bankers are still not using online banking channel. There are many reasons for this. Customers need to have an access to the Internet in order to utilize the service. Furthermore, new online users need to learn how to use the services (Mols et al, 1999). Second, nonusers often complain that online banking has no social dimension, i.e. you are not served in the way you are in a face-to-face situation at branch (Mattila et al., 2003). Third, customers have been afraid of security issues (Sathye, 1999; Hamlet & Strube, 2000; Howcroft et al., 2002). However, this situation is changing as the online banking channel has proven to be safe to use and the media in Finland has reported no misuse. Newell (2000) stated e-CRM systems use rich databanks of customer information to manage the relationship with customers; some gurus argue that e-CRM is a philosophy, a strategy or a process that puts the customer at the design point.

According to Sims, (2000) e-CRM systems support all stages of the interaction with the customer for e.g. order, delivery and after-sales service. e-CRM systems cover online banking, e-mail, knowledge bases that can be used to generate customer profiles and customer will get personalize services, the generation of automatic response to e-mail, and automatic help through customer vs. bank interaction.

e-CRM-benefits to banks

•    Relationship with customers.

•    Using e-mail for business communication.

•    Personalized services or one to one services.

•    Website to market products or services.

•    Transaction security.

For the purpose of answering our RQ2, we have relied on several authors and their viewpoints on e-CRM benefits to the customer.

According to Ho & Wu’s (1999) homepage presentation, logistical support requires quick response to customers and this can be achieved through e-mail or fax, quick delivering goods to customers, and providing after-sales service. According to Mohini Singh (2002), Faster processing the transaction by e-CRM, the fact that e-response to customer queries, order acknowledgement, delivery and payment information via e-mails or automated responses are greatly appreciated by customers.

Further Mohini Singh (2002) explained that online business organizations investigated that secure transactions and transmission of information are important services offered to customers. It was emphasized by one of the respondents that “many potential Web shoppers abort their transactions due to security fears”.

For the purpose of answering our RQ2, we have relied on several authors and their viewpoints on the benefits of e-CRM to customers.

e-CRM-Benefits to Customers

•    Interactions with customers and satisfaction

•    Convenience

•    Speed of processing the transaction through e-Response

•    Service quality

•    Trust


In the previous chapter, a frame of reference was presented. In this chapter we will be covering the methodology that will be used in our research work. Selection of methodology is based upon the research problem and the presented research questions. Reasons for choosing these methodological choices will be provided at the end of the each section.


Strategy of research depends upon the willingness of the author and what he wants Research purpose is correlated with the desire of the researcher.

Exploratory Research

According to Zikmund (2000) Research, is conducted initially in order to clarify and define nature of the problem. They are conducted to define ambiguous problems. A better understanding of the problem is required to do the research. According to Dane (1990) some times exploratory research might be very complex and the purpose of the exploratory research is to conduct the research process itself.

Zikmund (2000) further states that exploratory research is usually conducted with the aim that subsequent research will be needed to provide with conclusive evidence. It is a primary step that is useful to ensure a rigorous and conclusive future research study will not begin without a proper understanding of the problem. It diagnosis the different dimensions of the problem so that successful research project will be on hands. This research helps us to identify the problem and identify information needed for future research (ibid).

Descriptive Research

Dane (1990) states that descriptive research involves assess the phenomenon more fully in order to differentiate and define it from the other phenomena. It confines the flavour of an object, a person, or an event during the time of data collection,

According to Zikmund (2000) Descriptive research illustrates different characteristics of a population or phenomenon. Descriptive research seeks to establish the answers to who, what, when, where and how? Accuracy is the prime part of importance in the descriptive research. In contrast to exploratory research descriptive studies are mainly based on previous understanding of the nature of research problem. And the main objective of descriptive research is to provide a description of various phenomena by breaking them into component parts. (Reynolds, 1971)

Explanatory /casual research

The goal of the explanatory research is to develop a precise theory that can be used to explain the empirical generalizations. The main focus of this research is to explain about cause and effect relationship, explaining what causes produces, what effects. Yin (1994) According to Zikmund (2000) it is a research usually conducted in order to identify the effect and cause relationships among different variables where by the research problem has been already narrowly defined.


In this section we will focus on the ways in which the research work will be approached, Research can be approached in various ways such as Deductive versus inductive, qualitative and quantitative this would be explained first followed by the reasons of this study’s approach.

Qualitative and Quantitative

The research approach can be either qualitative or quantitative. The main characteristic of quantitative research is selectivity and distance to the object of research. In contrast qualitative approach is subjective in nature and is characterised by the nearness to the object of research. (Zikmund, 2000)

According to Zikmund (2000). It does not focus on numbers but on words and observations, stories, visual portrayals, interpretations. Mostly the research approach depends On the research purpose and accompanying research questions Yin {‘1994). A quantitative approach implies the search for knowledge that will measure, describe, and explain the phenomena of our reality. It is often formalised and well structured and data is quantitative and is usually associated with science mode of research, which is obtained from samples and observations seeking for relationship and patterns that can be expressed in numbers rather then words (Yin, 1994).

The qualitative method focuses on acquiring profound knowledge and understanding of the studied object or objects. And to further add or investigate, interpret, and understand the phenomena by the means of an inside perspective As the number of objects are limited and studied more in depth the prospect of making generalizations in a quantitative study is limited Holme & Solvang (1995). Thus according to Miles & Huberman (1994) in qualitative research the data is a source of well-grounded, rich descriptions and explanations of the processes in identifiable local context. (Yin, 1994) claims that qualitative methods are often related to case studies, where the aim is to receive information and thereby obtain a deep understanding of the research problem.

From the above discussion qualitative approach will be mostly suitable for this thesis. Generalization is not the purpose of the study, but rather a qualitative research is used to gain a better understanding of this study.


Zikmund (2000) explained that there are essential!}- two basic sampling techniques Probability and non-probability sampling. A probability sample is distinct in which each and every member of the population has a known, non zero probability of a selection .If the units of the sampling are certain on the basics of a personal judgement the sample method is a non probability sample. There are different kind of sample methods that can be drawn like stratified samples, quota samples, cluster samples.

According to Raulin & Graziano (2004) Random sampling is a course of action for selecting participants from a population in which each and every participant has an equal chance of being particular. Zikmund (2000) further hints that a sampling intention is to facilitate the researchers to estimate some unknown characteristics of the population.

When conducting research, it is often impractical and impossible or too expensive to collect data from all the potential units of analysis included in the research problem. Thus, from smaller number of units, a sample, as often choosed to represent the relevant attributes of the whole set of units. Due to the fact that samples are not perfectly representative of the population from which they are drawn, the researcher cannot be certain that the conclusions will generalize to the entire population (Graziano & Raulin, 1997).

Based on our research questions we have specifically chosen two banks Swedbank and SEB and five customers from each bank as our case studies. The reason for selecting these two banks as our cases is because both are reputed banks in Sweden and it was easy to gain access into the banks. We would like to see how both the banks try to woo the customers using the e-CRM technique. Thus we could easily find out the differences and similarities existing in both of them and do a comparison based on our thesis perspective.


According to Zikmund (2000) data analysis is the request of reasoning to understand and infer the data that has been collected about a particular subject. In simple account description analysis may involve shaping consistent patterns and summarising the appropriate details revealed in this study. Zikmund (2000) further says that it is a process where by analysis begins after the data

collection. During the phase of the analysis interrelated procedures are performed in order to sum up and rearrange the data.

According to Raulin & Graziano (2004) in the process of data analysis researchers process the data to make sense out of it. In most of the psychological researchers data will be in the shape of numerical records, signifying the observations made. Dane (1990) says that data analysis is not only a tool by which we can make sense of the data collected during the research project. But proper data analysis contributes more to knowledge and is also has to treat other researchers equally ethical.

According to Yin (1994) the main aim of analysing data is to treat the evidence fairly, to produce compelling analytical conclusions and to rale out alternative interpretations. It involves examining, categorizing, tabulating or otherwise recombining the collected data. He further states that every investigation should have general analytical strategy in order to determine what to analyse and why. And the researcher’s further claim that before the data is actually analysed, investigator can choose between two analytical strategies that is either relying on theoretical propositions or developing a case description (ibid).

The most commonly used Strategy is relying on theoretical prepositions. The result of this is that the collection of data is based on the research question taken from the previous studies. The results obtained from this study is then compared with the results and finding from the previous studies. Two general strategies are suggested either theoretical prepositions that led to the case study or developing descriptive framework to organize the case study. As lot of research has been done within our area of research and therefore our analytical strategy relies on theoretical prepositions (Yin, 1994).

Miles & Huberman (1994), further claims that data analysis consists of three concurrent flows of activity: Data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing and verification. Data reduction is often done to sort, focus, discard and organize the data in a way that leads to final conclusions.

Data analyses are based on these three steps. We will use within-case analyses and cross-case analysis as discussed by Miles & Huberman (1994) A within case analysis is often used at this phase, which involves comparing the colleted data with the theories used. Being displayed through a cross-case analysis where the cases will be compared with one another further reduces the data.

Interview Context:

e-CRM Benefits in Swedbank

For our thesis we have conducted interview with Miss Ingrid Flodman who works with Swedbank in Lulea branch on 1st of Feb. 2007. The whole interview went on for about 20 min and she answered to the questions, which were posed by us. And we were able to acquire the relevant data which is fairly presented below.

(a) How has e-CRM improved your bank relationship with your customers? (Swedbank)

Ingrid flodman mentioned that customers feel that even the most ordinary banking transactions are done on the internet with out any physical efforts involved. Customers and banking transactions across the number of the banks are changing very dramatically. Respondent mentioned that convenience and saving the time and effort put by the customers is an important benefit provided by them. Convenience may be in terms of time put in or the physical effort involved or any other kind of resources, which are needed for a successful banking transaction. We pay special kind of attention on the authentication and parties involved, as well as issues concerned with the privacy of a transaction.

About the usage of e-CRM respondent said that, e-CRM was first introduced by us in the year 1996.But it took a while for the customers to get adapted to this kind of technology. e-CRM came more into the usage from the year 2000 as customers started using the technical aid such as cards. This helped the customers to conduct their business on the internet by using technology. Regarding the spare time she mentioned that they usually don’t have this, as the numbers of employees are short. But, in case if they have it they invite the customers and give them qualified guidance, suggestions on how to use their money, where to put it and where they can get good amount of interest. She also mentioned about pensions plans, investments and funds.

Apart from these services to customers respondent further explained that they do provide financial advices to the customers about deposits and investments, shares, mutual funds etc. whether by investing their money in shares or investments, whether that would be profitable to them, or is there any kind of risk involved in that. She feels that it is very important for them to help the customers. It’s always a personal advising. Advices can be availed at any time of the day for free of cost but customers do need to take appointment. She emphasized that organizations benefits a lot from providing this kind of services. And if customers make any recommendations, she gives utmost importance to them and conveys the same to the owner of their computer systems. Here she quoted an example, which goes in this way, in the earlier days of the internet banking customers couldn’t make payments where huge sum of money is involved in the transaction. But now they have worked on it and now in the present situation customers can make heavy payments on the internet very easily.

Ingrid further mentioned that transactions occur at any time of the day, according to the convenience of customers and their specific needs. Here an instant delivery of the services is provided.

According to Ingrid 30% of customers got benefited by the usage of this technology. Customers can check their accounts and see the positions of their business whenever they want to. She retorted that they have good information about their customers and their tastes. We try to develop new products and sell them by keeping them in mind. Information is gathered by hearing to the customers, conducting regular surveys and drawing to a conclusions based on that. The main idea behind this is to collect as much as information possible and sell the products, which best suits, their needs. When one individual customer gets satisfied, he passes the information to other customers, which in other terms increases our customer base and generates more revenue for us.


(b) Using e-mail for business communication: (Swedbank)

Ingrid specially claimed that she does not receive many e-mails. She cannot answer any kind of e-mails because of security and secrecacy. For example if she receives e-mail from a customer about the balance in her account, she cannot answer them, as there are many chances for the information to get exposed to unknown parties. But she can resolve their queries through a special system in the bank. Customer has to log on to internet with a password where by he can interact with her and get the necessary information. She says that this is the most secure and safest way for the communication.

She mentioned that they have telephone banking facility which is open from 7-24hours.Customer can call up the bank and has to identify himself with a unique code. All the details of these particular transactions are recorded foi the future correspondence. They have five centers in Sweden to answer queries on telephone banking.

Apart from these, she sends e-mails to ail the customers about the new up comings of their offers and services. When a customer log on to the internet, they get e-mail from her about the new products and services. She also gets the e-mails for the appointments to see her in person. Best effort is put in to answer the queries as soon as possible.

About the customer satisfaction and convenience she quoted an example that few years back they had a long ques for the transactions but now they are open till 18 hours. If the customer wishes to be called by her she calls them. In this way we try to see that the customers are more satisfied.

(c) Personalized services 🙁 Swedbank)

About the personalized services at the request of customers, respondent added that they do offer personalized one to one services. Their organization has people who are specially trained and then certified for this purpose. These people have their own customers. Whenever the customer wants to meet the bank officials he can call them on phone and take their appointment. These people provide customers with information like taxes, in heritages etc. A personalized service for them is not just only limited to generate more sales but, successful implementation of it helps the organization to improve its efficiency in serving its customers. Here Ingrid further mentioned about the services, which they provide to the aged customers. She said that they don’t have any facility where by the employee of the organization goes and visits the customers of the bank in person. But the aged customers do have an option of using the telephone banking which best suits them.

(d) Establishing a web site to market products or services: (Swedbank)

Regarding the usage of the website as a tool for marketing their products and services, Ingrid mentioned that, is the official website address. We use website to provide information about our services and products. Data regarding the banks activities is offered in different formats to suit the interests and needs of our customers. Banks website contains huge and enormous amount of data. It is a place where our customers look for the information related to advertising of our new products or for any other kind of services. About the updating of website she replied that, website is updated very often and when there is some thing new about the bank its immediately appears on the banks website.

Apart from that she also mentioned thai information on their website can be found very easily and is efficient. Customer can search for information about services and products by choosing different categories or with a key word. When there is some thing new about banks activities information is passed to all the branches in Sweden and the customers are informed about it.

About the advertising of banks products and services she mentioned that they use their website more specifically, as the bank feels that advertising on television and on radio and other means of advertising have less amount of time. Customers can apply or send their queries for different available services. Customers can operate on his account and transfer funds, pay the bills online, can also subscribe for the other products through the usage of website.

Further more she also added that their website is an efficient way and cost effective mechanism for the delivery of banks services. Customers contact our bank 24 hours a day all through the year through our website. They can submit their queries in Case of any discrepancies about banks activities. But there is no category on their website which offers one to one online conversations. They use all the effective ways and latest technology to keep their website secure.

(e) Transaction security (Swedbank)

About the security of transactions on their website, ingrid explained that all the transactions are secure with the usage of security authenticator. Transactions are recorded, bank governs statements of transactions and their security. As far as transaction security is concerned customer gets access to his account with cards and personal identification number. Cardholders are responsible for authorized usage of the cards. In order to access an account customer has to enter his personnel number and enter the four-digit code, it is unique for different customers and then a new code is created for the transaction. This process has to be repeated for each and every new transaction they make. Customers can also make transactions even if they are in other countries. She further mentioned that it’s an eight digit code and is not easy to remember.

Ingrid mentioned that if the customer is not active on the banks web page the account gets automatically logged off. She said that it is safely measure to prevent from unauthorized access. If some one else tries to use others card they have three attempts to figure out the code if they fail the card is retained. There have been several unauthorized attempts to access the account of our customers but all in vain. Thanks to the latest technology and our security measures.

About security of transaction she further explained that if some thing happens to amount on the way of transaction, bank would follow the transaction and trace out where it ended. She said an example of a customer who reported that some one has moved money from her account with out her consent. She was very much upset about this. Customer said that she didn’t use internet banking for a week. Then the bank called up internet banking and found that money was transferred to another bank, when tracked up further it was her own account. It was found that her boyfriend moved the money. Ingrid said that security authenticator is personal equipment and shouldn’t be used by others.

How can the benefits of e-CRM for bank customers are described? e- CRM Benefits usage in Customers

CASE-1 Name of the customer Vinect Panda

Email address

Vineet said that he uses Internet banking to perform his transactions. He visits the bank in person if he has to send money to another country. He uses different services from the bank like online banking, and then debit cards to make purchases. Bui most often he uses the internet banking. He feels that there is no need for him to go to the bank unless he needs to transfer the money to other country. About the role of e-CRM in improving the customer relation he said that it does a lot. But it is not visible to him. He mentioned that the bank does keep track record of his transactions. Here he said about an example that when he was in India, lie called up the bank personal to enquire whether it is good for him to withdraw the money from his account by using the card or through Forex? The bank employee’s reply was not conclusive to make any kind of decision. He feels that the bank does not do much extra for him.

He further said that online banking is not that special for him. He sees that as a basic requirement, which he expects from the bank. About ;;he e-CRM helping him he was not sure enough if the e-CRM is really helping him. Technology plays an important role in enhancing the role of e-CRM in developing the relationship with the organization.

About the banks website he added up by saying that he is pretty much satisfied with the amount of information available to him on their official website, this was his opinion in general. But he said that there was no need for him to search information about products and services, as he does not have time to invest in financial matters. He would love to see the bank offering him advices on how to use his money effectively, where to put in like shares, investments etc. He said that the banks do have a list of the companies that are doing great in the real world, but they do not take

any kind of initiative to help customers. He said of an example where he had to open an e-account with the bank. He used the website for this purpose. He then opened an e-account whereby he could put the money to get good interest rates. About the response rate of the employees he says that he had few bad experiences, but he never has to complain at the same time he has good experiences too. Re feels thai; e-mail plays an important role for the development of relationship with the bank. He said that he could keep the reply, which he gets for his email as evidence, and save that as a record.

About the Convenience factor, Vineet has a positive opinion, it is better and much easier for him to sit on the internet and do transactions. But at the same time he says that online banking has an effect where he loses personal touch with the employees. About transactions on the internet, he emphasized that they are pretty much secure. He sees that money goes from his account immediately, but takes 1 day to reach the company for which he pays. He would be happy if the bank can make arrangements were by the payment goes immediately. He did not have any kinds of problems or threats while performing ;he transactions on the internet,

About the Trust he said that as the banks are government-regulated industries, there is no need for him to bother about his money. Trust in the bank does improve loyalty and legitimacy. He does not see big difference in various banks. He will change the bank if he feels that their services are more convenient and if their services are cheaper.

At the end he just wants to add up by saying that e-CRM is very beneficial. Customer management software’s can be used to provide extra services to customers. Standards today have increased in a way that it is very common for them to follow all the above features. Banks have to be more innovative.


Name of the customer Oladunga Occupation 

Respondent said that he uses internet banking as well as visits the bank for services. But most often he prefers to use internet banking. He uses services like online banking for making payments and has a visa debit card. Whenever he had to visit the bank in person he said that the employees were very helpful. But he said that there Is only 1 branch office available and that is something, which irritates him a lot. He does not like to wait in the customer care que for any kind of services. He never gets any kind of emails from the organization. If its something related to a techniqual problem he then visits the bank. He rarely uses the option of telephone banking.

About e-mails role he added that he never sends any emails to the bank. As he feels that e-maii does not play any role in developing the relationships. He has said an example that if he had some kind of problem with his card and he needs to email the bank and wait for 2 to 3 days for the reply then that would irritate him a lot. e-mail may play an important role to develop the

relationships in the companies or industries. Banks wcbsile provides good information about their services, products and their new up comings. He has never seen bank advising him on any aspect.

Convenience factor is something, which piays a vital role in ihe development of relationship with bank. He sees that transactions, which he performs on the internet, are at his ease. Transactions speed is something, which he would definelty like to be faster and he wishes to see the payment going same day. He would like to advice the bank in this aspect, which he has done already. His transactions on the internet are safe and lie never had any kinds of security problems. He says that as a complex procedure which is involved in making the payments, lot of numbers or codes, which need to be entered, whereby the chances of misuse of his account information are very less. So he feels that they are fairly safe enough up to Ms knowledge. He mentioned that if he needs to change the bank he would think twice before doing that.

Quality of services like the assured services, Effective means of safe guarding the information of customers transactions, using latest technology for this and accuracy in maintaining the accounts and efficient way of dealing with customer transactions are some of the quality features of service which he sees. Trust among the services of organization with the role of e-CRM does play a vital role in the development of relationship with customers. He said of an example earlier when he was holding an account with different bank. Where he got 2000 kroner’s a bonus, but had to withdraw the money within a limited period of time, which he wasn’t aware of. And the bank didn’t pay him the money, he got so disappointed with that and immediately took over to a new bank. He said that banks do need to follow strict rules and regulations if not there are more chances that he may loose his own money and the organization becomes bankrupted. It is and important and a key factor to have trust in the bank.

Data Analysis

This chapter will analyze the empirical data collected and presented in chapter 5 in form of two banks and ten case studies. It will be done through within-case analysis, where the empirical data from different cases is compared with theory, and cross-case analysis, where cases are compared with each other.

Within-Case Analysis of Sweet Bank

The data that is collected from each bank is compared with the theoretical frame of reference that is presented in 3rd chapter. The data that is collected from each case will be analyzed simultaneously one by one, as presented below.

CASE-1 (Swedbank)

This chapter analysis the data collected empirically. We will be presenting our observations from the data collected from the banks. Both cases will be compared with the theory through within case analysis and then it is followed by cross case analysis of the ten cases.

e-CRM benefits to bank Relationship with customers

About the relationships with the customers the response was that they have good amount of information available with them about their customers and their preferences. They develop new products by keeping customers preferences and needs in mind, by doing so they get new customers as well as retain them forever. This response rate goes inline with the theory of. Aihie.C & Eddine (2007), where in organizations try to acquire information from their databases and through other means. Once when the organization has suitable data about the customers needs then they develop the new products by keeping their preferences in mind.

e-Mail for the communication

Swedbank’s response was that it is not possible for them to answer to any of the queries made by customers through e-mail because of the security and privacy reasons. This response goes partially with the theory of Elias M.A (2000) whereby they say that e-mail is used by the organizations for quick communication and providing accurate information to the queries of the customers. Respondent mentioned that they do have another way of communicating with the customers through a special system in the bank, where by customer needs to log in with a password on the internet. She says that it is a safest and secure way to answer the queries of the customers without the usage of the e-mail.

Personalized services or one to one services

Response of Swedbank towards personalized services is same when compared with the theory of Henning- Thurau (2002) Theory says that personalization can be defined as serving the needs of individual customers by improving the customer’s conversations organizations improves customer relationships. This explanation does fully support with the response of respondent. She mentioned that they have trained and certified people for the personalized services. Customer needs to call these trained people take an appointment and avail these services.

Website to market products and services

Swedbank’s explanation goes inline with the theory Haverty (1998) where banks considered website as a cost saving, an effective tool for communication about the organizations products and services. The respondent from the bank says that information can be found easily on their website. It’s a place where the customers look for the information related to their services and products. Theory also goes in accordance with the words of respondent about the websites updating which is done very often,

Transaction security

Swedbank’s response towards security of transaction on the internet was thai there are no threats for its security. Transactions are secure through the usage of security authenticator. Customer gets access to their accounts through cards and then personal identification number. Theory Hickman & Katkov (200i) supports the same where by banks are exploring all the latest security measures available through the technology for the protection of customer’s information from unauthorized access

 CASE -2 SEB Relationship with customers

SEB responses to relationship with customers, that internet have considerably improved their relationships with the banks customers. The important factor, which organization sees, is 24 hours services and availability to perform bank transactions online. Data about customers is an important issue of concern for them. We emphasize a lot on to maintain a clear and constant relationship with our customers by providing good services. And e-CRM in this case has helped us a lot to maintain and continue relationship.

We try to figure out the needs of our customers through observations. Further more data acquisition is determined through customer’s interaction by different channels of delivery. This variable goes inline with the theory.Aihie.C & Eddsne (2007). This data has to be managed in better way to build relationships with the customers and to continue relationship for a longtime, We get the information about the current situation in the markets through different ways. They mainly emphasize on to find out the new needs of the customers and based upon that provide the suitable service

e-Mail for the communication

The respondent said that using e-mail for business communication has a positive affect and improved relationship with customers. As it is more cost efficient contact with our customers independent of the office hours. Where in the theory of Elias M. Awad (2000), the most popular tool for customer service is e-mail, inexpensive and fast, e-mail is used to disseminate information to send product information and order confirmations; this variable goes partially with the theory. An important draw back, which the bank feels, is that email is not as secure as they wish. Also it is very difficult to keep the addresses updated as the customer’s change their mail addresses very frequently. Respondent further hinted that they haven’t been working on using the email on a large scale for marketing their products and services.

Personalized services or one to one services

About personalized services, respondent added that they do offer personalized one to one services. Their organization has people who are specially trained and then certified. These people have their own customers. Whenever the customer wants to meet the bank officials he can call them on phone and take their appointment. These people provide customers with information like taxes, In heritages etc. Personalized services for them are not just only limited to generate more sales but a successful implementation of it helps the organization to improve its efficiency in serving its customers. According to the author Henuing- Tiiurau (2002) Personalization can be defined as serving the unique needs of individual customers, here the overall findings of the theory is supported.

Website to market products and services

The respondent mentioned about websites usage to market the products and services. Previously customers had to visit our branches in person to contact us. But these days our website has become the new face of communication with our customers. The advantage of a website is that it can provide assistance to customers. Regarding websttes usage she further claimed that customers are well informed about the products and services and the up comings through our website, According to Haverty (1998) banks must reposition themselves to take advantage of new opportunities that include establishing new services delivery channels and new markets for existing services (loans, letters of credit, etc.). This variable goes inline with the theory.

CASE 3: Michael Toivonen Customer Interaction and Satisfaction

It saves my time as I do most of the transactions on the net. But he still has to personally visit ihe bank for performing some services. His rate of interaction with the employees of the bank is good. He is very much satisfied with the cooperation and friendliness of the employees. Tiiis response of the respondent goes inline with the theories explanation (Hollander, 1985; Czepiel, 1990) where by the banks can maintain good and long lasting relationship with the customers. Banks need to have a good idea about the requirements of the customers. Being friendly, informative and interesting helps in having a long lasting relationship with the customers.


Michael mentioned that convenience is an important factor to prefer this bank to the others. Convenience is provided through online facilities by banks. And most importantly their locations are his favorite features of services. This supports findings from the theory of (James, 1998) Convenience factors like operating hours; facilities, responses and friendliness are some of the aspects taken into consideration by customers.

Speed of processing tractions through e-response

Michaels view of fast processing the transaction through e-response is against the theory of Mohini Singh (2002), as he never uses email for communication with the bank personals. Theory emphasizes the importance of email to generate faster response and helps in building up the relationship.

Service quality

About the quality of services provided, Michael has a positive opinion towards it. He sees quality in their offerings the way accounts and information about the customer transactions, availability of bank personal for assistance. Empirical evidence from the views of the respondent is inline with the theory of (Mosad, 1995). Employees who are friendly and cooperative and careful at handling customer’s data availability of customers information and staff for assistance.


Michael does not perceive any risk from the services of the bank and has full trust in the organization. He said that all his transactions through internet banking are secure with websiies. Website of the organization and its safeiy and security features builds his trust. This explanation of respondent goes inline with the theory of Mohini Singh (2002), where an organization has taken necessary measures for secure and smooth process of transaction on websites.

CASE 4: Renaud. Ricolfi Bouvelle Customer interaction and satisfaction

Response of Renaud towards interaction and satisfaction (Hollander, 1985; Czepiel, 1990) supports the theory as he states that when he had a problem with the security authenticator the role played by the bank personal was very much satisfactory they had a good knowledge of their services and offered him immediate help. Theory on the other hand says that both bank personal and customer should have good knowledge of their products and services.


Regarding convenience Renaud said that it has a lot to do with developing his relationship with the bank. He said that banks operating hours are very feasible for him. Staffs friendliness and immediate assistance, efficient and effective employees are important factors for the determination of convenience for him. Thus the empirical finding goes inline with the theory of (James, 1998) Theory explains about convenience facilities like operating hours, efficiency of employees in handling transactions, cooperative nature of batik personals.

Speed of processing transaction through e-response

Renaud provides us with the empiricai evidence 10 support speed of processing transaction through e-response (James, 1998). He mentioned that he is happy the way the transactions are processed. But his explanation about the role of e-mail for quick reply is offline with the theory as he feels mails to be more uninformed and unauthorized means of communication.

Service Quality

Theory (Mosad, 1995) on service quality states that transactions and accounts accuracy, availability of latest information and responsiveness, reliability are some of the key factors for the determinants of service quality. Views of Renaud fully support the theory. (Mosad, 1995) he says that a bank has quality in its service like their cooperation and availability of personal for assistance, reliable response and efficient ways of handling the transactions.


Respondent mentioned that trust is the Key factor that builds up his relationship with the bank, Trustable services through the banks website, no threats for the information to be accessed by the third parties. This explanation of Renaud fully supports the theory Mohini Singh (2002)

Customer interaction and satisfaction

The empirical evidences that have been collected from five- different variables by interviewing ten customers from different banks have been presented in table. The only differentiation that can be made out is the opinion of case five Mitra hajighoii. The response from the other 9 Cases show that customer interaction and satisfaction was considered as an important benefit that is provided by the banks through usage of e-CRM (4) sign shows customer who agree with this variable.

Observation of columns in the first variable shows that customer have a positive opinion for it, They emphasize the importance of good responses to the queries of customers, assisting the customers, exchange of business information, having excellent knowledge about the offerings and services of the bank. By saying the customers agree with the theory, the only one observation that disagrees with the theory is that of customer 5 who does not agree with the explanation of the theory. In total there are 9 customers who agree and 1 customer who does not.


Empirical investigation of variable 2 shows that al! respondents perceive convenience as an important benefit provided by e-CRM. It reveals out that location of bank, being friendly with customer’s efficiency of employees handling banks services as an important benefit that can build a good relationship with bank. All the respondents agree with theories explanation.

Speed of processing the transaction through e-response

Column 3 shows that 6 respondents from both the banks see Speed of processing their transaction through e-response as an important benefit provided to them through e- CRM. (Case-2, Case-3, Case-4) do not agree with explanation provided in theory (Case-5) has both the positive and negative opinion against the theory.

Service quality

All the 10 customers acknowledge the importance of quality in the services of organization. The empirical evidence proves that reliable employees, good responsiveness, and accuracy in handling the services of bank, availability of latest information technology, and helpful friendly employees constitute important features for quality services. This is an important benefit of e-CRM.


In column 5 empirical evidence about trust factor it is very clear and evident from response of customers that they see trust as the important and foremost aspects that enhance their key relationship with the bank.

 Findings and Conclusions

In this chapter answers to the research questions posed in the first chapter will be provided based on the analysis of the data in the previous chapter. First of all findings will be presented on each research question and are followed with specific conclusions. Finally, managerial implications and implications for further research will be provided.


This study attempted to shed light on benefits of e- CRM both with the organizations and the bank customers who are getting benefited with e- CRM, in relation to the e-business environment. In particular, the purpose of our research was ”to gain a better understanding of the benefits of e-CRM to customers and organisations in banking industry”. Based on this purpose we formulated the two research questions, which we thought would provide us with a good insight regarding the e- CRM benefits. These research questions aimed to explore how the companies would take these benefits into consideration and implement to acquire more customers in order to generate more revenue to the organisation. And how the benefits would benefit the customers. Examination of two leading Swedish banks way of managing e-CRM benefits and 5 customers from each bank, through the analysis of the empirical data, served the general purpose of this research work.

Since benefits of e- CRM theory refer to the application of the concept as part of the company’s strategies, the empirical data should be collected from the organisations management perspective. Thus, the analysis of the acquired empirical data can provide the researcher with a more holistic and general picture of e-CRM benefits that the companies and customers would get benefited, However, the data that is collected for these two research questions by interviewing the bank employees and 10 customers in order to get good quality of data. In general, we believe that the respondents provided us with the relevant information, which balanced the quality of the two research questions. Taking the above into consideration, below we are discussing the findings and conclusions regarding each research question with respect to the potential of our empirical data.

How can the benefits of e-CRM for banks be described?

We have found out that both banks (Swed and SEB) have maintained good relationships with customers due to the usage of e-CRM, by mainly providing good products and services according to the needs of the customers.

Swedbank and SEB are using e-mail to a very little extent in order to communicate with their customers. And this is mainly due to the security and privacy reasons. It was further founded that both the banks haven’t been working on a large scale for using e-mail for communication to market their products and services.

e- CRM has enabled both the banks to provide personalized services and one to one services to their customers. Both the banks have successfully implemented e-CRM in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the service to its customers. But these services are offered only at the request of the customers.

Both the organizations have ensured and have taken enough measures to sec that the latest and updated information is available through their websites. Websites have become their new and effective means of communication with the customers. Information about their products and services can be found very easily.

With the implementation of e-CRM and the latest technologies banks have ensured mil security for the transactions processed by their customers. Initially convincing them to use the online banking facilities was found to be a hard task. But banks have demonstrated their abilities for safe and secure transactions, which resulted in customers making full usage of the online services.


The following conclusions are drawn from the above findings.

  • e- CRM enables financial institutions and organizations to maintain relationship with customers.
  • Less  usage  of e-mail  for  their  business  purposes  was  adapted by  the  both  the organizations.
  • e- CRM facilitates both the organizations to provide personalized and one to one effective services.
  • Both the organizations have made it certain that latest and updated information is available in their organizations website.
  • Latest techniques and measures  and e-CRM  were used to  improve  and maintain transactions security of the customers.

 How can the benefits of e- CRM for bank customers be described?

Almost all of the customers considered customers interaction and satisfaction as an important benefit provided by the banks through the usage of e- CRM. They emphasized the importance of good response to the customer queries, providing assistance to the customers, exchange of business information and employees having excellent knowledge about the offerings and services of the bank.

All the customers perceived convenience factor as a vital benefit provided by e- CRM. All of the customers considered location of the bank, friendliness of bank staff their services as important benefits for building good relationships. Most of the customers considered speed of processing transactions through e-response as an important benefit though few did not consider it as an important benefit.

Speed of processing the transactions through e-response wat, found to be an important advantage perceived by most of the customers. But few customers were found to have partially negative feeling towards the speed at which their transactions have been processed.

Quality in the products and services of the bank is an important benefit perceived by the customers. Reliable employees of the organization, responsive rate of bank personal, availability of the latest information technology were found to be the roost important determinant advantages perceived by the customers

Trust in the services, all the customers in their respectful banks found activities of the organization. Confidence in the banks personal, their effectiveness in handling the accounts of the customers were seen as some of the factors enhancing the trust factor of the customers. This is an essential benefit that improves customer’s relationships with the organization.


  • Customer interaction and satisfaction is found to be an important benefit provided by banks using e-CRM.
  • Convenience is a major benefit provided to the customers of the banks.
  • Speed at which the transactions have been processed and their rate of accuracy is an advantage provided by banks through the usage of e-CRM,
  • Reliable employees, availability of the latest information technology were some of the added benefits provided by banks to its customers.
  • Trust in the overall services of the organization is an important benefit provided to the customers.

Recommendations for the banks (Swedbank  SEB bank)

Our purpose of the study was mainly to understand and describe e-CRM arid its benefits within a specific area of research. Our goal was to achieve a better understanding of e-CRM by answering research questions. This was only possible with ike help of theories presented by different researchers in this field. By answering the research questions, we have tried to improve our understanding of e-CRM.

Banks need to realize and understand the importance of e-CRM. It has a value and it is broader in term. There is no doubt that customer’s interaction and satisfaction, convenience, speed of processing transactions and trusts are the vital aspects that need to be given importance. There might be different and various dimensions of e-CRM, but, banks need to concentrate on e-CRM. By using e-CRM and the different benefits provided by it, banks can enhance their relationships with customers.

It is very clear and evident that needs of the customeis keep on rising. So it is always recommended to the banks to stay 1 foot ahead to the needs of the customers. Banks must have an idea about what is going to happen in future, depending upon that they can plan their services and offerings. Customers look for banks with convenience, flexibility having innovative ideas, changing their offerings according to the needs of the customers.

Customers can be retained by the banks only when the bank has a good and deeper understanding of the customer’s needs. It is very important for the banks to have adequate information about the problems faced by the customers, in order to ensure them proper and suitable services.

Everyone who is working for the organization needs to have a clear set of goals in their minds. There must be an internal equity among the members of the organization, e- CRM and its role have to be clear at each and every level of the organisation.

e- CRM in not just simply a technology or a tool, it has its own view point. When it comes to the implementation of e-CRM changes need to be taken place right from the top management to the lower level of the management.

Recommendations for further research

During this research work, we have provided some interesting subjects for further research to those who would like to involve in this field of e- CRM benefits.

It would be better to have more investigation done in the field of technology. There is no doubt that lot of research work has been done in this field, but Integration of customers in this field needs to be taken care of. In simple words what would be the expectations of customers towards technology.

Further research work can be done to see why different organizations have different opinions on their view of e- CRM, even though it is relatively similar phenomenon.

During our research work we have tried to show relationship between two organizations on terms of e-CRM usage, and how they identify different benefits perceived by the customers. This area is not fully covered in the literature. Steps for extending research in this area should be undertaken. We hope that findings from our thesis can serve as the basis for building valid hypotheses, which can be used to generate same results.