Main objective of this report is to analysis Practical Orientation in Southeast Bank Limited. Other discussion are General Banking operations, observed in the Corporate Branch. Briefly explain on Credit Department, Foreign Exchange Department. Report is prepared in the light of branch’s foreign exchange dealings. Report highlights on Accounts opening, Accepting deposits, Cheque book issue, Transfer of account, Closing of account, Clearing House, Cash Department etc.
Objectives Of The Report
The prime objectives are –
- To acquaint with day–to–day functioning of service oriented banking business;
- To have practical exposure in banks that will help a lot to understand the future courses of the program.
Methodology Of The Report
I worked in the Corporate Branch of Southeast Bank Ltd. That is why the report has been prepared in the light of the functioning of the Corporate Branch of SEBL In preparing this report; both primary and secondary sources of information have been used.
For collecting primary data, I had to ask the respective officer(s). Others are like –
- Direct communication with the clients;
- Exposure on different desk of the bank;
- File study.
The secondary sources are –
- Annual Report of Southeast Bank Ltd;
- Periodicals published by the Bangladesh Bank;
- Different publications regarding banking functions, foreign exchange operation, and credit policies.
OVERVIEW OF SOUTHEAST BANK LIMITED
Southeast Bank Limited has a long and relishing heritage. It is a second generation bank which was established in 1995 with the vision to stand out as a pioneer banking institution in Bangladesh and contribute significantly to the national economy. It was incorporated on March 12, 1995 as a Public Limited Company. Certificate of Commencement of Business of the bank issued by the registrar of Joint Stock Company and firms was also dated March 12, 1995. The banking license for the bank was issued by Bangladesh Bank on March 23, 1995. The Bank and its first branch at the busiest commercial hub of the country at 1 Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka was opened on May 25, 1995 by Mr. N. Saifur Rahman, the then honorable finance Minister, Govt. of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh as the chief guest. The authorized capital of the bank is Taka 3,500 Million. Is capital and reserve reached Taka 6,468.36 Million as on December 31, 2007. The Bank had 1116 staff of home 91 are executive, 873 are officers and 152 are other staff as on December 31, 2007.
The sponsors of the bank are the leading business personalities and eminent industrializes of the country having stakes in various segments of the national economy. Currently Mr. Alamgir Kabir FCA a professional CA is the chairman of the bank. Mr. Neaz Ahmed Managing Director of the bank is an eminent banker of the country who has 30 years experience in both foreign and local private sector banks to his credit.
The bank is managed by a team of efficient professionals. There prevails a positive organization climate in the bank that generate filling of dignity, trust, discipline and openness in its people and result in motivating them to post better result continuously in the bank. The culture of maintaining congenial work environment has further enable the staff to bench mark themselves better against management expectation. A commitment to quality and excellence in service is the hallmark of their identity.
Southeast Bank is today as synonym of quality banking products. It has a divers array of carefully tailor products and services to cater to the needs of all customer segments. They have structured their operational strategies to address the spatial and often complex needs of the customer. In the growth graph it has generated net profit of Taka 1222.97 Million after provision and income tax in the year 2007. The curve keeps soaring upwards with dawn of everyday. Today southeast Bank is one of the leading and most successful banking institutions in Bangladesh with a total assist base of Taka 64370.69 Million as on December 31, 2007. The credit rating of the bank for the year 2007 was done by Credit Rating Agency of Bangladesh (CRAB). They have rated the Bank A-1 for the long term. Commercial Bank Rated in this category are adjudged to be strong banks.
- Team Spirit
- Service Excellence
- Insight and Spirit
- Enthusiasm for Work
- Business Ethics
- Transparent and quick decision making
- Efficient team of performers
- Satisfied Customers
- Internal control
- Skilled Risk Management
To be a premier banking institution in Bangladesh and contribute significantly to the national economy.
- High quality financial services with state of the art technology
- Fast customer service
- Sustainable growth strategy
- Follow ethical standards in business
- Steady return on shareholders’ equity
- Innovative banking at a competitive price
- Attract and retain quality human resource
- Commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility
Commitment to Clients
Ours is a customer focused modern banking institution in Bangladesh. We deliver unparalleled financial services to Retail, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs), Corporate, Institutional, Governmental and individual clients through branch outlets across the country. Our business initiatives center on the emerging demands of the market. Our commitments to the clients are the following:
- Provide service with high degree of professionalism and use of modern technology.
- Create long-term relationship based on mutual trust.
- Respond to customer needs with speed and accuracy.
- Share their values and beliefs.
- Grow as our customers grow.
- Provide products and services at competitive pricing.
- Ensure safety and security of customers’ valuables in trust with us.
All business concerns earn a profit through selling either a product or a service. A bank does not produce any tangible product to sell but does offer a variety of financial services to its customers. General banking is the starting point of all the banking operations. It is the department, which provides day-to-day services to the customers. Everyday it receives deposits from the customers and meets their demand for cash by honoring cheques. It opens new accounts, remit funds, issue bank drafts and pay orders etc. Since bank is confined to provide the service everyday, general banking is also known as ‘retail banking’.
Activities of General Banking
- Accounts opening
- Accepting deposits
- Cheque book issue
- Transfer of account
- Closing of account
- Clearing House
- Cash Department
- Dispatch section
- Other services
- Special Saving Scheme
Account opening Section
It is said that, there is no banker customer relationship if there is no A/C of a person in that bank. By opening an A/C banker and customer create a contractual relationship. However, selection of customer for opening an account is very crucial for a Bank.
Before opening of a current or savings account, the following formalities must be completed
- Application on the prescribed form;
- The customer information must be filled up with the form;
- Introduction: The following persons can introduce an A/C opener:
- An existing current/savings account holder of that branch;
- An officer of that branch ;
- A respectable person of the society or locality who is well known to the Manager/2nd man of the branch concerned;
- Furnishing photographs;
- Banker will supply a set of printed forms required for opening the account, which will normally include:
- Specimen Signature Cards (SSC);
- Deposit Slip Book
- Check Book Requisition slips;
- Customer should carefully read and full-fill the application form;
- Putting specimen signatures in the specimen card.
- Any special instructions with regard to operation of the account should be noted on the relevant signature card boldly duly authenticated by the A/C holder should be obtained;
- The required Account Number for the new Account from the Account Opening Register should be obtained;
- Obtain the signature and A/C number of the Introducer on the advice and getting the signature properly verified by an Authorized official of the Bank;
- The Deposit slip properly filled in and signed by the customer;
- Then the new A/C number should be written at the appropriate place of the Deposit slip and mark new Account on both the copies of the deposit slip and request the customer to deposit the money at the cash counter;
- Place the signature cards, Advice of new account, a copy of Deposit slip, photographs and other necessary papers/documents etc. in a file;
- Obtain approval of the Authorized officer for opening the new account on all relevant papers while giving approval for opening an account the Authorized official should be satisfied about the of the Introducer;
- The Authorized officer on the advice of new A/c and on the specimen signature cards should also attest the signature of the new A/C holder;
- After approval of the opening of the A/C, get the Cheek book requisition slip signed by the customer;
- Deliver the checkbook to the customer after properly marking the Account number, name and place of the branch on each leaf of the checkbook;
On completion of account opening open a file for the new a/c holder and file all relevant papers forms etc. Signature cards, copies of Advice, Deposit slip Debit ticket etc. is distributed to concerned departments;
Documents required for all types of Accounts & Customers:
- Advise of New Account (in duplicate)
- Specimen signature cards (in duplicate)
- Account Opening Agreement Form
- Photographs of Account Holders (in duplicate)
- Nationality certificate/Photocopy of valid passport
- Deposit Slips Book
- Cheque book Requisition slips
- Letter of mandate authorizing another person/s to operate the A/C on behalf of the Account holder, where necessary.
- Nominee form duly filled in
- Transaction profile duly filled in
Additional documents are to be obtained for opening some special accounts
1) Proprietorship Firm
- Name of authorized persons, designation, specimen signature card.
- Trade licence.
- Tax Receipt ( For export/ import )
- Declaration of Proprietorship
- Mandate if operation by third party is to be allowed.
2) Limited Company:
- Certificate of incorporation
- Certificate of Commencement of Business (In case of Public Limited Company only.)
- List of all Directors, Designation, Address, Specimen Signature
- Memorandum of Association
- Article of Association
- Power of attorney.
- Resolution of the Board of Directors authorizing opening of an account.
Accepting deposits is one of the classic functions of commercial banks. The relationship between a banker and his customer begins with the opening of an account by the former in the name of the latter. Initially all the accounts are opened with a deposit of money by the customer and hence these accounts are called deposits accounts. Banker solicits deposits from the members of the public belonging to different lifestyles, engaged in numerous economic activities and having different financial status. There is one officer performing various functions in this department.
The deposits those are accepted by SOUTHEAST Bank may be classified in to:
a) Demand Deposits
b) Time Deposits.
a) Demand Deposits
The amount in accounts are payable on demand so it is called demand deposit account.
SEBL accepts demand deposits through the opening of—
Foreign currency account
1) Current Account
Both individuals and business open this type of account. Frequent transactions are (deposits as well as withdrawal) allowed in this type of account. A current a/c holder can draw checks on his account, any amount, and any numbers of times in a day as the balance in his account permits.
Criteria of current account followed by SEBL—
- Generally opened by businessmen, government and semi-government organizations; with proper introduction
- No interest is provided for deposited amount;
- Overdraft is Allowed in this account;
- A minimum balance of Tk. 5000/- has to be maintained. Bank has the right to change this minimum balance requirement.
There are several types of current account available at the SEBL-
- Individual Current Account.
- Partnership Current Account
- Proprietorship Current Account
- Limited Company Current Account
- Account of Societies/Clubs etc.
2) Savings Account
Individuals for savings purposes open this type of account. Current interest rate of these accounts is 6% per annum. Interest on SB account is calculated and accrued monthly and credited to the account half yearly. Interest calculation is made for each month based on the lowest balance at credit of an account in that month.
Criteria of savings account followed by SB:
- An appropriate introduction is required for opening the A/C;
- Frequent withdrawal is not encouraged;
- A depositor may withdraw money from his/her account four times in a week;
- 7 days notice is required for withdrawal of large amount;
- Minimum amount of TK.5000 is required as initial deposit and to earn interest; (actually practice is different, one may allowed to open an A/C without the mentioned amount).
- Depositor may withdraw his/her deposited money up to 25% of the Balance in his/her account without notice. The bank may realize service charge in its discretion;
- Depositor will get interest on the amount deposited in his/her account irrespective of any limit;
There are two type of saving account-
- Individual Saving Account
- Joint Saving Account
To open a saving account the followings are required-
- Passport size photo-2 copies
- Introducer’s signature in the a/c opening card
- Nationality certificate/Photocopy of valid passport
- Nominee form duly filled in(with photo)
- Transaction profile duly filled in
3) Foreign Currency account
Another type of account is foreign currency account, where the individuals who live in abroad or works there can open an account in the Bank and send money from abroad on that account.
A deposit which is payable at a fixed date or after a period of notice is a time deposit. SEBL accepts time deposits through—
- Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR)
- Short Term Deposit (STD)
- Schemes Deposit
While accepting these deposits, a contract is done between the bank and the customer. When the banker opens an account in the name of a customer, there arises contract between the two. This contract will be a valid only when both the parties are competent to enter in contracts. As account opening initiates the fundamental relationship & since the banker has to deal with different kinds of persons with different legal status, OBL Officials remain very much careful about the competency of the customers.
1) Fixed deposit Account
These are deposits, which are made with the bank for a fixed period specified in advance. The bank needs not to maintain cash reserve against these deposits and therefore, bank gives high rate of interest on such deposits. A FDR is issued to the depositor acknowledging receipt of the sum of money mentioned therein. It also contains the rate of interest and the date on which the deposit will fall due for payment. SEBL offers FDR for different amounts at different interest rates for different period of time. In the receipt holders’ name and other particulars are kept as secrete documents on the bank. In the documents the name of nominee is also incorporated. If any holder of the receipt wishes to en-cash receipt before the maturity the bank usually do not pay the interest. But ONE Bank, as goodwill pays a lump-sum amount of interest to the FDR holder.
Procedure of Opening Fixed Deposit Account:
Before opening a Fixed Deposit Account a customer has to fill up an application form, which contains the followings:
- Amount in figures
- Beneficiary’s name and address
- Rate of interest
- Date of issue
- Date of maturity
- How the account will be operated (singly or jointly)
- D.R. no.
- Special instructions (if any)
After fulfilling the above information and depositing the amount, FDR account is opened and a FDR receipt is issued and it is recorded in the FDR Register, which contains the following information:
- FDR account no.
- FDR (Fixed Deposit Receipt) no.
- Name of the FDR holder with address
- Maturity period
- Maturity date
- Interest rate
Payment of Interest of Fixed Deposit
In case of Fixed Deposit Account the bank does not have to maintain a cash reserve. So ONE Bank limited offers a high interest rate in Fixed Deposit accounts.
It is usually paid on maturity of the fixed deposit. SEBL calculates interest at each maturity date and provision is made on that “Miscellaneous creditor expenditure payable accounts” is debited for the accrued interest.
Loss of FDR
In case of a lost FDR, the customer is asked to record a GD (General Diary) in the nearest Police Station. After that, the customer has to furnish an Indemnity Bond to SEBL. A duplicate FDR is then issued to the customer by the bank.
Renewal of FDR
The FDR becomes automatically renewed for like periods and amounts, unless this are withdrawn by the depositor or, the bank notifies the depositor in writing at least 15 days in advance of the original Or, any renewed maturity date (s) of its desire to terminate the account or change any term and condition of the account.
2) STD Account
In SEBL, Limited companies, corporate groups, various other big companies, organizations, Government Departments keep money in STD accounts. Frequent withdrawal is discouraged and requires 7 days prior notice. STD Account opening procedure is similar to that of the saving account. Initial Account opening minimum amount requirement is Tk. 5000.
In Short Term Deposit account, the deposit should be kept for at least seven days to get interest. The interest offered for STD is less than that of savings deposit. 5% interest is paid on their deposit. The bank is benefited because they have to pay less interest and the customers are also benefited because anytime they can divert money. In SEBL, usually customers give an instruction to the Bank that their current account will be debited whenever its deposited amount crosses a certain limit and this amount will be transferred to the STD account.
Issueing Chequebook to the customers
(A) Issue of fresh checkbook
Fresh checkbook is issued to the account holder only against requisition on the prescribed requisition slip attached with the checkbook issued earlier, after proper verification of the signature of the account holder personally or to his duly authorized representative against proper acknowledgment.
(B) Issue of Duplicate cheque book
Duplicate cheque book instead of lost one should be issued only when an A/C holder personally approaches the Bank with an application Letter of Indemnity in the prescribed Performa agreeing to indemnify the Bank for the lost cheque book. Fresh cheque Book in lieu of lost one should be issued after verification of the signature of the Account holder from the Specimen signature card and on realization of required Excise duty only with prior approval of manager of the branch. Cheque series number of the new checkbook should be recorded in ledger card and signature card as usual. Series number of lost cheque book should be recorded in the stop payment register and caution should be exercised to guard against fraudulent payment.
(C) Issue of New Cheque book (FOR OLD ACCOUNT)
All the procedure for issuing a new Cheque book for old account is same as the procedure of new account. Only difference is those customers have to submit the requisition slip of the old Cheque book with date, signature and his/her address. Computer posting is then given to the requisition slip to know the position of account and to know how many leaf/leaves still not used. The number of new Cheque book is entered on the back of the old requisition slip and is signed by the officer.
Procedure of issuance of a new cheque book
If the cheque is handed over to any other person then the account holder the bank addressing the account holder with details of the Cheque book issues an acknowledgement slip. This acknowledgement slip must be signed by the account holder and returned to the bank. Otherwise the bank will not honor any cheque from this cheque book.
At the end of the day all the requisition slips and application forms are sent to the computer section to give entry to these new cheques.
Transfer of an account
- The customer submits an application mentioning the name of the branch to which he wants the account to be transferred.
- His signature cards, advice of new account and all relevant documents are sent to that branch through registered post.
- The balance standing at credit in customer’s account is sent to the other branch through Inter Branch Credit Advice (IBCA).
- No exchange should be charged on such transfer.
- Attention is also given in this connection.
Closing of an account
Upon the request of a customer, an account can be closed. After receiving an application from the customer to close an Account, some procedures are followed by a banker. The customer should be asked to draw the final cheque for the amount standing to the credit of his A/C less the amount of closing and other incidental charges and surrender the unused cheque leaves. The A/C should be debited for the account closing charges etc. and an authorized officer of the Bank should destroy unused cheque leaves.
In case of joint A/C, the application for closing the A/C should be signed by all the joint holders.
A banker can also close the account of his customer or stop the operation of the account under following considerable circumstances:
- Death of customer
- Customer’s insanity and insolvency
- Order of the court
- Specific charge for fraud forgery
Stop payment of cheque
A banker can stop payment of cheque of his customer under following considerable circumstances:
- Firstly the account holder will apply to stop the payment of his cheque
- There is a register for this purpose. It is kept by the authorized officer.
- The officer will see the condition of account and verify everything.
- In the ledger book, the officer will mark with red ink and the cheque will not be paid.
Dishonor of Cheque
If the cheque is dishonored, there is no practice in OBL to send memorandum (cheque return memo) to the customers. But if the customer wants to know the reason of the dishonor of the cheque than the bank send memorandum stating the reason in the following way:
- Refer to drawer.
- Not arranged for.
- Effects not cleared May be present again.
- Exceed arrangements.
- Payment stopped by drawer.
- Payee’s endorsement irregular/illegible/required.
- Payee’s endorsement irregular, require Bank’s confirmation.
- Drawer’s signature differs/ required.
- Alterations in date/figures/words require drawer’s full signature.
- Cheque is post dated/out of date/mutilated.
- Amount in words and figures differs.
- Crossed cheque must be present through a bank.
- Clearing stamps required/requires cancellation.
- Addition to the discharge of Bank should be authenticating.
- Cheque crossed “Account Payee Only”
- Collecting Bank’s discharge irregular/required.
But if the cheque is dishonored due to insufficiency of funds, OBL inform the A/C holder immediately.
Functions of clearing
- Clearing stands for mutual settlement of claims made in among member banks at an agreed time and place in respect of instruments drawn on each other.
- Clearing house is an arrangement under which member banks agree to meet, through their representative, at the appointed time and place to deliver instruments drawn on them.
- The net amount payable or receivable as the case may be, is settled through an account kept with the controlling bank (Bangladesh Bank/Sonali Bank)
Types of clearing
- Outward clearing
- Inward clearing
Types of returns
- Outward return
- Inward return
The cash section of SEBL deals with all types of negotiable instruments, cash and other instruments and treated as a sensitive section of the bank. It includes the vault, which is used as the store of cash, instruments. If the cash stock goes beyond this limit, the excess cash is then transferred to Bangladesh Bank. Keys to the room are kept under control of cash officer and branch in charge. The amount of opening cash balance is entered into a register. After whole days’ transaction, the surplus money remains in the cash counter is put back in the vault and known as the closing balance. Money is received and paid in this section.
- First, the client comes to the counter with the cheque and gives it to the officer in charge there. The officer checks whether there are two signatures on the back of the cheque and checks his balance in the computer. After that the officer will give it to the cash in charge.
- Then the cash in charge verifies the signature from the signature card and permits the officer in computer to debit the client’s account by giving posting. A posted seal with teller number is given.
- Then the cheque is given to the teller person and he after checking everything asks the drawer to give another signature on the back of the cheque.
- If the signature matches with the one given previously then the teller will make payment keeping the paying cheque with him while writing the denomination on the back of the cheque.
- If the instrument is free of all kind of error the respected officer will ask the bearer to sign on the back of it.
- He will then put his/her initial beside the bearers’ signature. She/he will also sign it on its face, will write down the amount by red pen and will put on a scroll number from his/her scroll register.
- Then the cheque will be sent to the cash counter. At the cash counter bearer will be asked again to sign on the back of the instrument.
- The cash officer will then enter the scroll number in his/her register and will pay the money to the bearer.
- At the end of the day these scroll numbers of the registers will be compared to ensure the correctness of the entries.
- At first the depositor fills up the Deposit in Slip. There are two types of deposit in slip in this branch. One for saving account and another for current account.
- After filling the required deposit in slip, depositor deposits the money.
- Officers at the cash counter receives the money, count it, enter the amount of money in the scroll register kept at the counter, seal the deposit in slip and sign on it with date.
- Then this slip is passed to another officer who enters the scroll number given by the cash counter in his/her register along with the amount of the money, sign the slip and keep the banks’ part of the slip. Other part is given to the depositor.
- All deposits of saving account are maintained by one officer and other accounts by another officer.
- At the end of the day entries of both of these registers are cross checked with the register kept at the cash counter to see whether the transactions are correct or not.
Those documents that are enter in the branch or exit of the branch must go through this section.
The main objective of this section is-
- Keeping records of the documents send to other branches or banks;
- Letters are send to their respective destination;
- Send these documents safely and correctly;
- Receives documents come through different medium, such as postal service, courier service, via messenger etc;
Two types of letters are continuously received. These are:
- Inward (Registered/Unregistered) letters
- Outward (Registered/ Unregistered) letters
At first recording is required whether it is Inward or Outward Registered/Unregistered letters. Then letters are disbursed to their respective destination. Inward letters are firstly segmented according to their different sections and after that an entry is given to the Inward Register book.
Bank is a service-oriented industry and deals with public money. They provide services to their clients through different ways. “Transfer of money/fund of one person /customer to another person/ firm/ organization through the bank is called remittance. Any Person can remit funds to any one within the country through any of the branches of the some bank by the following means with nominal charges:
- Pay order
- Demand Draft
- Telegraphic Transfers
- Money Transfer
This is an instrument issued by the branch of a bank for enabling the Customer/ purchaser to pay certain amount of money to the order of a certain person/ firm/ organization/ office within the same clearing house area of the pay order issuing branch.
The payment order is used for making a remittance to the local creditor. As prevalent, the payment orders are in the form of receipts, which are required to be discharged by the beneficiaries, where applicable on revenue stamps of appropriate value, against payment in cash or through an account. The payment order is not a negotiable instrument and cannot be endorsed or crossed like a banker’s draft.
a) The issuing branch and the paying branch is same. (Self drawing)
b) Applicable for payment with the clearing house area of the issuing branch.
c) This is may be open or can be crossed.
Procedure for issuing P O
a) Obtain P.O. application form duly filled in and signed by the purchaser/applicant.
b) Receive the amount in cash/transfer with commission amount.
c) Issue P.O.
d) Enter in P.O. Register
Payment of Pay order
As the PO issued by the bank is crossed one it is not paid over the counter. On the contrary the amount is transferred to the payees’ account. To transfer the amount the payee must duly stamp the PO.
a) Examine genuinely of the Pay Order
b) Enter in P.O. Register, give contra entry.
c) Debit if found ok for payment.
The demand draft is a written order by one branch of a bank upon another branch of the same bank to pay a certain sum of money to or to the order of a specified person. This is an order instrument in which the issuing branch gives instruction to the payee/drawee branch to pay certain amount of money to the order of certain person /firm/organization
- A draft is always an order and never a ‘bearer’ instrument.
- It is a negotiable instrument like a cheque i.e. it can be endorsed, collected, and delivered to the endorsee.
- D. may be issued to any person and it can also be issued in favor of a firm, company or local authority on written request duly signed by the purchaser.
Issue of a Demand Draft
- The purchaser is asked to complete the press ribbed form which is treated as an application as well as credit voucher.
- If against cash- the application is given to the customer to deposit the cash with the cashier.
- Voucher (Application form) passed duly signed & sealed is delivered to remittance department for preparation of DD. The application for remittance is to be signed by the drawer of cheque.
Telegraphic Transfer (T.T.)
It is an instruction duly tested sent by telex/fax/telegram/ telephone/ express mail etc. to the drawee branch for paying a certain sum of money to a specified person. This mode of transfer of fund may be effected at the written request an account holder of the branch and against value received from him. It is preferable to obtain a confirmatory cheque from the customer.
- Issued by one branch to another branch and massage is tele-communicated
- Remittance / transfer of money is done through tested tele messages.
- Remittance is effected on the basis of tested message.
- Test key apparatus is required.
Money Transfer (M.T)
In the prescribed format the purchaser / the drawer branch instruct the drawer branch to pay a specified sum of money to the payee named in the IBCA preferably by crediting his account.
Issuance Procedure of M.T
- Application in writing in prescribed form
- Deposit of money including commission
- Issue of cost memo
- Entry in M.T. issue register serially
- M.T. advice in IBCA (in block letters) with Test.
Online Banking Operation
Bank has Real-time On-line Any branch Banking for the clients to facilitate them to deposit / draw or remit funds from their accounts, from one bank to another.
Meanwhile, for the Smooth operation and efficient functioning of the system they have completed the proper training to the related personnel.
All the Branches and the head office come under the umbrella of on-line any branch-banking network, which have been started online from this year.
Facilities of Online Banking System
Customers of one Branch of SEBL are able to make transaction like cash withdrawals and deposits, electronic fund transfer, balance inquiry, account statements etc. from any of the SEBL Branches Under the Umbrella of Online Banking across the country.
I have worked in the Credit department about the middle of my orientation at SEBL, Corporate Branch. The first thing I have noted that this section is the smallest in terms of space or manpower. The main customers of credit are the corporate customers who are doing actually import-export business.
This department is headed by an AVP. The man next to him is in the rank of Executive Officer. I have observed the activities they are performing and try to learn from them. My observations are described in the later part of this section.
Why Banks Go for Lending?
Lending is the one of the core functions of a bank. The major portion of bank funds is employed by way of loans and advances, which is the most profitable employment of its funds too. The major part of bank’s income is earned from interest and discount on the funds so lent. It is the major source of income to cover the interest which is incurred due to mobilization of deposit, operating expenses and also to earn profit. Lending nevertheless is not without certain inherent risk largely depending on the borrowed funds a banker cannot afford to take undue risk in lending. While lending his funds, a banker, therefore, follows a very cautious policy and conducts his business on the basis of the well-known principles of sound lending in order to minimize the risk.
Principle of Lending Followed BY SOUTHEAST Bank:
The Principle of lending is a collection of certain accepted time tested standards, which ensure the proper use of loan fund in a profitable way and its timely recovery.
The five principles of lending activities are:
Safety should get the prior importance at the time of sanctioning the loan. At the time of maturity the borrower may not be able to pay the loan amount. Banker should not sacrifice safety for profitability.
MBL invests its money on safe and sound projects,
Banker should be careful in the selection of security to maintain the safety of the loan. Banker should properly evaluate the proper value of the security. The securities which can be easily liquidated should get more importance. There are two types of securities, Primary Security and Collateral Security.
Banker should consider the liquidity position of the bank at the time of sanctioning loan. If bank faces liquidity crisis than it might need to borrow at a very high rate from the money market, and the customer looses their faith on the bank. Loan should be sanctioned considering the maturity of different liabilities that bank need to pay in future so that at that period there will be no crisis.
Banker should minimize the port polio risk by putting its fund in the different fields. If Bank put its entire loan able fund in one sector it will increase the risk. Banker should distribute its loan able fund in different sectors. So if it faces any problem in any sector it can be covered by the profit of another sector.
Functions of Credit Section:
The following things are done in this department:
- Preparation of sanction letter as per Ho approval.
- Monitoring & follow-up of credit facilities extended from this
- Preparation for proposal of Project loan for boards Approval.
- All works related to custodial service.
- All type of correspondence related to credit section.
- Preparation of Credit Memos for approval/renewal of the Credit facilities.
- Processing of Consumer Credit Loans & preparation of all statements of the Consumer Credit Loans.
Types of Credit Facilities:
The credit section of SEBL Corporate Branch provides two kinds of credit facilities
- Funded Credit Facilities.
- Non-Funded Credit Facilities.
These are facilities that are associated with direct fund involvement.
- Secured Overdraft (SOD)
- Cash Credit (hypothecation)
- Advance against work order
- Lease Finance
- Advance against FDR.
- Staff Loan
- House Building loan
- Time loan
- Term Loan
- Small loan Scheme
- General Loan
There is no direct monetary involvement.
- Bank Guarantee.
- Letters of Credit.
Credit section processes only bank guarantee, L/C is processed by Foreign Exchange section.
Overdraft is an arrangement where a borrower is allowed to withdraw over and above his credit balance in his current account up to an agreed limit. In SOD loan normally overdraft facility is allowed only once. Since his account is overdrawn, he can credit any number of times he wants. In SOD, there exists a first class security most commonly FDR, Work order, Savings scheme balance etc. Each overdraft facility requires separate approval.
It’s a kind of short term continuous loan which is used for financing working capital of a firm. Overdraft facility is sanctioned against the primary security of hypothecation of raw materials and or finished goods. The borrower by signing a letter of hypothecation, duly stamped, creates a charge for an amount of debt but neither the possession nor the ownership is passed on the bank. The borrower binds him to give possession of the goods to the bank when called upon to do so. Practically the bank has no security in this case except the charge documents. Hence the bank insists on the borrower on furnishing some collateral securities. The borrower is permitted to draw and repay any number of times, provided the total amount overdrawn does not exceed the agreed limit.
Advance against work order:
Advance is granted to a client against the work order of Government Department, Corporation, Autonomous bodies and reputed multinational/ private organization. The client’s managerial capability, equity strength, nature of the scheduled work is judged to arrive at a logical decision. Disbursement is made after completion of documentation formalities. Besides usual charge documents a notarized irrevocable power of attorney to collect the bills from the concerned authority and a letter from the concerned authority confirming direct payment to the bank is also obtained. The work is strictly monitored to review the progress at each interval.
Advance against FDR:
Advance is granted to a client against the security of Fixed Deposit Receipt. Advance is granted to the person to whom the instrument belongs. The instrument is to be discharged duly the holder (or all of them if they are more than one) on appropriate revenue. The signature must tally with that on the bank’s recover. The discharged instrument is surrendered to the bank along with a letter signed by holder/ holders authorizing the bank to appropriate the proceeds of the instrument on due date towards the repayment of the advance. The Bank’s lien is prominently noted on the face of the instrument under the signature of an authorized bank official.
House Building Loan:
Banks are not so much interested in providing house building loan. If any borrower could provide cash collateral then this type of loan could easily obtained. Besides, the land & building are also mortgaged with the bank. Bank also inspect whether the building are built by following the approved design of the appropriate authority. Though Bangladesh Bank sanctioned a fund of 300 crore for the people who have a monthly income of less than 30 thousand .A single borrower will get maximum 15 lac for maximum 20 years for 1250 square feet apartment or a house. The interest rate is 9% compounded quarterly.
This loan matures with in one year.
These are loans with maturity period of 1 year or above. These loans are repayable in installments. If the loan is in between 1-5 year, it is called medium term loan and above 5 years loan is called long term loan.
Small Loan Scheme:
The purpose of small loan scheme to provide working capital for small businessmen. The documents required are: Trade license, vat certificate, rent deed of the shop, tax receipt and bank statement of operation of their account for the last three months. This loan is provided for two years. The usual charged documents are DP note, Letter of arrangement, Letter of hypothecation, personal guarantees of loanee and the guarantor.
The loans which are not fall in the categories, that is miscellaneous in category is known as general loan.
Letter of guarantee:
According to the Section 126 of Contract Act, 1872, guarantee can be defined as a contract to perform the promise or discharge of liability of a third person in case of his default. The person who gives the guarantee is called the ‘surety’, the person in respect of whose default the guarantee is given is called ‘the principal debtor’ and the person to whom the guarantee is given is called the ‘creditor’. It is an irrevocable undertaking to pay in case of a certain eventuality.
As service to their customers, bankers sometimes issue guarantees of various types on customer’s behalf to third parties. By issuing guarantee Bank undertakes to pay the beneficiary the sum stated in the bank guarantee upon the beneficiary’s first written demand without argument.
TYPES OF GUARANTEE:
Different types of guarantee offered by SEBL are as follows:
Tender or bid bond guarantee:
The tender guarantee assures the authority that bidder shall uphold the conditions of his tender during the period of the offer as binding and that he /she will also sign the contract in the event of the order being granted.
A Performance guarantee expires on completion of the delivery or performance. Beneficiary finds that as a guarantee, the contract will be fulfilled in every respect and can retain the guarantee as per provision for long time. This can be counteracted by including a clause stating that the supplier can claim under the guarantee, by presenting an acceptance certificate signed by the buyer.
Advanced payment guarantee (APG):
This type of guarantee is given against work order in order to ensure that the contractor who gets the work order will perform his job after getting advance payment from the work provider.
The customer applies to the bank to issue a guarantee along with the following information:
- Name of the Borrower with address
- Nature of Facility
- Extent of Facility
After that, the bank official scrutinizes the application and takes the guarantee margin, commission, postage charge from the customer.
Then Bank issues Bank Guarantee on Judicial Stamp. The conditions for issuing Bank Guarantee are-
- The customer must maintain a Current Deposit (CD) account.
- The must keep certain percentage of guaranteed money (usually 10 to20%) as margin.
- Bank charges 0.50% commission on the guaranteed money per quarter (i.e., 3 months).
Selection of the Borrower
In lending, the most important step is the selection of the borrower. Due to the asymmetric information and moral hazard, banks have to suffer a lot due to the classified loans and advances, which weakens the financial soundness of the bank. If the selection of borrower is correct, that is, the borrower is of good character, capital and capacity or of reliability, resourceful and responsible; the bank can easily get the return from the lending. Consequently monitoring is made much easier for the banker. From this point of view, SEBL follows the following procedures,-
Studying past track record: After getting an application for a loan, an SEBL Official studies the past track record of the applicant. Generally the study includes:
- Account balances and the past transactions.
- Credit report from other banks.
- Information of the Industry by studying market feasibility.
- Financial statements (balance sheet, cash flow statement, and income statement). If the borrower is a sole- proprietor, then the single entry accounting treatment is converted to double entry system.
- Report from Credit Information Bureau of Bangladesh Bank if the amount is more than TK.10.00 lac.
- Borrower analysis: Borrower analysis is done from the angle of 3-C (character, capital, capacity) or 3-R (reliability, resourcefulness, responsibility). It follows that the bank forms a rational judgment about the integrity of the borrower, which should be undoubted. The human skill, conceptual skill, operational skill is qualitatively analyzed.
- Business analysis: Business analysis is done from two angles-terms and conditions and collateral securities.
General Procedures of Loans and Advance
The total process of proposal and sanction of loan is a continuous process. In a particular stage the described loan is sanctioned or rejected by the authority. The total process is given below.
Step -1 : The client applies for accretion amount of loan in prescribed form, which is available in the branch office.
Step –2 : Scrutiny by an officer of loan proposal whether party has submitted the documents as per circular.
Documents required with loan application form:
- Trade license,
- Trade Mark Registration
- Income tax certificate
- Certificate of Lease Financing Company
- Life description of M.D and Directors
- Memorandum of meeting of Board of Directors about taking loan from the branch
- Utility cost certificate approved by the M.D
- Building lay -out plan
- Forecasted productions sales and profit limit
- 3 years projected balance sheet,
- Cash flow at the end of the year
Step-3 : Communicate with the party if there is any shortage of documents and collect the required papers
Step -4 : The branch manager or an officer then takes the responsibility to visit and evaluate the concern
Step-5 : A Credit report is prepared on the borrower
Step-6 : The concerning officer then wants ” non-incumbent certificate” from the bank . Lawyer
Step-7 : Sends letters to different banks and financial institutions for recommendations.
Step-8 : Forwards the documents to Head Office with proper recommendations.
Step -9 : The proposal is placed in Board of Directors after getting CIB report. If the board sanctions the loan, a sanction letter is issued to the branch office.
Step -10 : The branch then informs the party by letter,
Step -11 : If the party accepts the terms and conditions of the loan, then they are requested to complete documentation as per sanction letter.
Step -12 : After completion of documentation, the Bank disburses the loan amount.
Foreign Exchange means foreign currency and it includes any instrument drawn, accepted, made or issued under clause (13), Article 16 of the Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972. All deposits, credits and balances payable in any foreign currency and draft, travelers cheque, letter of credit and bill of exchange expressed or drawn in Bangladeshi currency but payable in any foreign currencies.
In exercise of the powers conferred by sec. 3 of the Foreign Exchange Regulations-1947, Bangladesh Bank issues license to scheduled banks to deal with foreign exchange. These banks are known as Authorized Dealers (AD). Licenses are also issued by Bangladesh Bank to persons or firms to exchange foreign currency instruments such as T.C., Currency notes and coins. They are known as Authorized Money Changers.
Foreign exchange department of MBL, Main Branch is divided into two sections:
- L/C Operation
- Foreign Remittance
LETTER OF CREDIT:
The transaction originates when the exporter in Japan and importer in Dhaka enter into a contract of sale. The contract covers all important particulars like the description, value and quantity of goods, the due date for shipment, method of payments etc. One of the stipulations may be that a letter of credit should be opened in favor of the exporter.
TYPES OF LETTER OF CREDIT
Letter of Credit assume various forms, depending on the initial contract based on which the credit is issued and advised,-the parties involved, the rights and obligations of the different parties, and the degree of protection provided to the beneficiary. The documentary credit may be classified under the following types depending upon the particular provisions it contains:
IRREVOCABLE LETTER Of CREDIT
An Irrevocable Letter of Credit can’t be revoked, amended or modified by the applicant or by the issuing bank without the consent of beneficiary. As per Article 9(a) of UCPDC 500, an irrevocable credit constitutes a definite undertaking of the Issuing Bank, provided that the stipulated documents are presented to the Nominated Bank or to the Issuing Bank and that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with. Irrevocable Credit gives the seller greater assurance of payments, but he/she remains dependent on an undertaking of a foreign bank.
REVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT
A Revocable Letter of Credit is one which can be amended or cancelled by the applicant or by the issuing bank at any lime without prior notice to seller bill before the authorized draft is presented for acceptance or payment.
CONFIRMED LETTER OF CREDIT
A Confined Letter of Credit is one which has been confirmed by the advising bank the advising bank request to their corresponding bank to add confirmation to the credit. Confirmation constitutes a definite and legal undertaking on the part of the confirming bank that it will duly honor and payment or acceptance subjected to the terms and condition of the credit is satisfied.
TRANSFERABLE LETTER OF CREDIT
A transferable credit is one under which the exporter has the right to make the credit available to one or more subsequent beneficiaries.
SIGHT OR PAYMENT LETTER OF CREDIT
Under the condition of Sight or Payment Letter of Credit the issuing bank make payment to the beneficiary at the time of receiving the original shipping documents.
DEFERRED PAYMENT LETTER OF CREDIT
When a credit doesn’t require the payment to the beneficiary immediately on .presentation of the documents but after a specified period has elapsed, it is known as ‘deferred payment credit.
BACK TO BACK LETTER OF CREDIT:
A back-to-back letter of credit is essentially a secondary or ancillary credit opened by bank on behalf of the beneficiary of the original credit, in favor of a supplier located, inside or outside the original beneficiary’s country. Sometimes exporters may receive n from foreign buyers for export of goods to them but the exporter may not product- all the items or accessories which are required to complete the product for final -shipment. In that case the exporter open back- to-back loiters of credit to purchase accessories to make the fine shipment. The exporter can open more than one back-to-back letter of credit against original L/C, but the total value of the back- to-back letter of credit is not more than 75% of original letter of credit.
FUNCTIONS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT:
- L/C opening & L/C amendment
- Sanctioning PAD, LTR, Packing Credit
- Foreign Bill Purchase
- Local Bill Purchase
- Foreign Currency Account Maintaining
- Foreign Currency Remitting
BRANCHES IN FROEIGN EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT:
The Foreign Exchange Department of SOUTHEAST BANK LTD Corporate Office is divided into two broad sections:
- Foreign Exchange Import
- Foreign Exchange Export
- Foreign Remittance.
In order to be an importer one obtain IRC (Import Registration Certificate) issued by controller of export and import. To import something the importer should open L/C.
- Importer requests his bank to issue the L/C in terms of the arrangement with the seller
- Issuing Bank is the importer’s bank which issue the L/C with the request of the importer
- Advising bank is the Seller’s or Exporter’s bank and usually it is in the Exporter’s County. This bank is requested to advice the L/C to the beneficiary
- Negotiating Bank is the bank where the exporter negotiates his documents. The Advising Bank may be the Negotiating Bank also.
- Reimbursing Bank is nominated by the issuing bank to pay the certain amount of money if the Negotiating Bank demands.
- Sometimes the issuing bank requests another bank to add confirmation to the L/C. This new bank is known as Confirming Bank.
Initial Requirements before Opening L/C by SOUTHEAST BANK LTD.:
- The L/C opener must be the client of the Bank; i,e. CD A/c must be maintained
- TIN (Tax Payer’s Identification Number) Certificate is required
- IRC must be valid
- Trade License of Importer
After fulfilling the conditions accordingly the importer is allowed to submit an application for opening an L/C. The L/C application must be completed and signed by the authorized person on behalf of the importer containing the following essentials:
- Full name and address of the supplier or manufacturer or beneficiary
- Brief description of goods keeping conformity to the LCA, License, Indent, Proforma Invoice etc.
- The unit price, quantity, quality and origin of the goods
- Mode of Shipment or Transport
- Last date of Shipment
- Port of Shipment and Destination
- Insurance Cover Note Numbers and Name of Insurance Company
- Tenor of Draft (whether at sight or deferred)
- Arrangement is whether C&F or FOB
- Negotiation Period
- Opening of L/C under Uniform Customs and Procedures of Documentary Credit publication no. 600-ICC (International Chamber of Commerce)
- Whether Transshipment or Partner shipment is allowed or not
- Full name and address of the importer
- Instruction to add confirmation if required
- L/C application must be dated and stamped
Checking Out the L/C Application:
Following points must be checked very carefully, whether
- All the information mentioned in the L/C application are all right and the terms and conditions are consistent
- The items to be imported is eligible according to importer’s entitlement and the exporter will not face any problem for fulfilling the terms and conditions
- The L/C must not be opened in favor of the importer or his agent
- The goods are being imported not from Israel or any other country prohibited by Bangladesh Government.
- Authorized person must authenticate all the alteration
- The Taka amount in the L/C application is converted into the foreign currency rate on the date of opening
- The validity of the L/C must not exceed the validity of LCA
- The L/C is opened within the validity period permitted in the LCA directed by BB & CCI & F office.
Additional Steps Taken by the Issuing Bank before Opening an L/C:
According to Exchange Control Regulation Act bankers are required to obtain Confidential Report (C.R.) of the beneficiary of L/C through writing to their Foreign Correspondents to supply the C.R. On receipt of the C.R. from any source the banker can accumulate the same information which is on the master file. L/C must be typed in the printed format of an individual bank. After the L/C has been typed, it must be checked by two authorized signatories baring their signature number.
Entry in the L/C Register:
If the import L/C is found to be in order in all respect then the Officer will mark the serial number on appropriate blank apace in the L/C application. Any amendment must also bear the same serial number of the L/C to link them. Then in the opening register the relevant data must be entered with commission charge, all types of charges.
Copies of L/C and Filling:
L/C’s are normally typed in respective bank’s format in eight copies. The original copy is sent to the Advising Bank. First non-negotiable copy is sent to the Foreign Correspondent in the second mail on the following day. The negotiating bank negotiates document on the basis of the original L/C and the other copy is kept for record. One non-negotiable copy is sent to the Reimbursing Bank to debit the NOSTRO A/C of the L/C issuing bank. One copy is allotted for importer along with the memo of charges incurred by the opening bank. One copy is sent to the controlling office of AD. And another copy is sent to CCI & E for their record. The AD retains remaining copies.
Debit: Party A/C
Credit: Margin A/c
Credit: Commission A/c
Credit: Postage A/c
Credit: P&T A/c
Amendment of L/C:
The time duration of L/C can be extended by writing an application by the opener of L/C and signature of the opener should be verified provided the LCA is valid or the agreement is valid up to that period.
Change in L/C amount:
Increase of L/C amount may be done provided that the LCA covers the increase in amount. L/C amount can be decreased provided the relevant contract or indent is amended accordingly and with the consent of beneficiary. For increasing the amount of L/C the following accounting procedure will be passed:
Debit: Acceptance for Constituent Liability
Credit: Constituent liability for acceptance
Verification of Import Documents:
For better security the exporter must check the L/C by complying with all the terms and conditions. Any discrepancy in the documents must be refereed to the opener who only can give the instruction whether documents with discrepancies should be accepted or not. The negotiating bank sends the documents to the L/C opening bank on the date of negotiation. On receipt of the documents the AD will enter the same in the in ward receive branded with rubber stamp showing the date of receipt, serial number and after that it must be sent to the import section. On receipt of the documents, the import section will do the following examination:
- Examination of Draft
- Examination of Invoice
- Examination of B/L, TR
- Examination of Certificate of Origin, Inspection Measurement etc.
Common Discrepancies of the Import Documents:
- Inadequate number of invoice
- Submission of Shipping Documents after expiry of L/C
- Late shipment and shipment made are not permitted in the relevant L/C
- B/L not properly authenticated
- Partial or Transshipment beyond L/C terms
- Difference in weight in the invoice with certificate
- Inadequate number of B/L copies
The above discrepancy must be carefully checked and refereed to the importer for acceptance or payment; otherwise bank would be liable for any consequences arising out of them.
Lodgment of Import Document:
After the strict scrutiny of the documents in line refereed to the issuing bank may lodge the documents as under:
The foreign currency would be converted to a rate ruling on the date of lodgment. The date and the equivalent Taka should be recorded on PAD register and two persons must check conversion
- IMP form must be dully filled
- LCA form must be endorsed showing the utilization of shipment
- As soon as document is lodged the utilized amount is to be noted on the back of the copy of L/C
- Documents must not be handed over to the importer without payment or without making any arrangement
- The counter part is to be deposited with the BB under certain credit within 72 hours from the date of receipt of documents
Accounting Procedure in the Lodgment:
Debit: Acceptance of Constituent Liability
Credit: Constituent Liability for Acceptance
Credit: SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, balance with other Bank’s (Nostro Account)
Recording in the Register of PAD:
All the particulars of import documents are recorded in the PAD register. The register will include detail information about rate, charges, IMP, LCA number, date and period of transaction.
Retirement of PAD (at sight)
It is done within 5 days after receipt of import bills.
Debit: Party’s Account
Credit: PAD Account
Credit: FC Account
Credit: Exchange Account
Credit: Interest Account
Credit: P & T Charge Account
Credit: Commission Account
Retirement of PAD (Deferred):
This should be received on or before the date of maturity
Debit: Party’s Account
Credit: H/O Account]
Credit: Postage Account
Credit: Exchange Account
Credit: Commission Account
Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR):
The bank handover the shipping documents to the importer for taking delivery of the goods from the port without receiving payment there-against by taking a trust receipt from him. In the trust receipt the importer specifies the goods and agrees that he is holding the goods not as their owner but as an agent for the bank. Thus, the bank continues to have the rights of the pledge. However, in practices, trust receipt does not secure the position of the bank to a significant extent. As such, the loan is usually allowed only to corporate bodies and first class parties. It is allowed for a period of 30 days to 90 days. In addition to the Trust Receipt the following documents are also to be obtained: –
- DP Note
- Letter of Arrangement
- Letter of Disbursement
- Import letter of Credit (L/C) limit – on DP/DA basis.
- Inland L/C limits – on DP/DA basis
- Loan against merchandises (Pledge).
- Trust Receipt facility.
- Revolving inland L/C including back-to-back L/Cs / Transferable L/Cs.
Debit: LTR Account
Credit: PAD Account
Credit: Interest Account
In case of a “Back-to-Back” letter of credit, a new L/C (an import L/C) is opened on the basis of an original L/C (an export L/C). Under the “Back-to-Back” concept, the seller as the beneficiary of the first L/C offers it as a ‘security’ to the Advising Bank for the issuance of the second L/C. The beneficiary of the back-to-back L/C may be located inside or outside the original beneficiary’s country. In case of a back-to-back L/C, no cash security (no margin) is taken by the bank; bank liens the first L/C. In case of a back-to-back L/C, the drawn bill is usage/time bill.
In SOUTHEAST BANK LTD., Corporate Branch papers/documents required for opening of back-to-back L/C are as follows –
- Master L/C
- Valid Import Registration Certificate (IRC) and Export Registration Certificate (ERC)
- L/C Application and LCAF duly filled in and signed
- Proforma Invoice or Indent
- Insurance Cover Note with money receipt
- IMP Form duly signed
In addition to the above documents, the following papers/documents are also required to export oriented garment industries while requesting for opening of back-to-back letter of credit –
- Textile Permission
- Valid Bonded Warehouse License
- Quota Allocation Letter issued by the Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) in favor of the applicant for quota items
In case the factory premises is a rented one, Letter of Disclaimer duly executed by the owner of the house/premises to be submitted. A checklist to open back-to-back L/C is as follows –
- Applicant is registered with CCI&E and has bonded warehouse license
- The master L/C has adequate validity period and has no defective clause
- L/C value shall not exceed the admissible percentage of net FOB value of relative Master L/C
- Usage Period will be up to 180 days.
PAYMENT FOR BACK TO BACK L/C
In case of back-to-back L/C for 30-60-90-120-180 days of maturity period, deferred payment is made. Payment is given after realizing export proceeds from the L/C Issuing Bank. For Garments Sector, the duration can be maximum 180 days. For importing machinery, without permission from Bangladesh Bank, SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, Corporate Branch can authorize for 360 days. In such cases, the Manager of the branch exercises his discretionary power.
REPOETING TO BANGLADESH BANK:
At the end of every month, the reporting to Bangladesh Bank regarding the following information is mandatory –
- Filling of E-2/P-2 Schedule of S-1 category that covers the entire month’s amount of import, category of goods, currency, county etc.
- Filling of E-3/P-3 Schedule of for all charges, commission with T/M Form.
- Disposal of IMP Form that includes: (a) original IMP is forwarded to Bangladesh Bank with invoice and indent, (b) duplicate IMP is kept with the branch along with the Bill of Entry/Certified Invoice, (c) triplicate IMP is kept with the branch for office record, (d) quadruplicate is kept for submission to Bangladesh Bank in case of imports where documents are retired.
The other type of L/C facility offered by SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, is Export L/C. Bangladesh exports a large quantity of goods and services to foreign households. Readymade textile garments (both knitted and wove), jute, jute-made products, frozen shrimps, tea are the main goods that Bangladeshi exporters exports to foreign countries. Garments Sector is the largest sector that exports the lion share of the country’s export. Bangladesh exports most of its readymade garments products to USA and European Community (EC) countries. Bangladesh exports about 40 % of its readymade garments products to USA. Most of the exporters who export V through SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, Corporate Branch are readymade garment exporters. They open L/Cs in this branch to export their goods, which they open against the import L/Cs opened by their foreign importers.
FORMALITIES FOR EXPORT L/C:
The export trade of the country is regulated by the Imports & Exports (Control) Act, 1950. There are a number of formalities that an exporter has to fulfill before and after shipment of goods. These formalities or procedures are enumerated as follows –
Export Registration Certificate (ERC):
The exports from Bangladesh are subject to export trade control exercised by the Ministry of Commerce through Chief Controller of Imports & Exports (CCI&E). No exporter is allowed to export any commodity permissible for export from Bangladesh unless he is registered with CCI&E and holds valid ERC. The ERC is required to be renewed every year. The ERC number is to be incorporated on EXP Forms and others documents connected with exports.
The EXP Form: After having the registration, the exporter applies to SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, Corporate Branch with the Trade License, ERC and the Certificate from the concerned Government Organization to get the EXP Form. If the branch is satisfied, an EXP Form is issued to the exporter. An EXP Form usually contains the following particulars –
- Name and address of the Authorized Dealer
- Particulars of the commodity to be exported with code
- Country of destination
- Port of destination
- L/C value in foreign currency
- Terms of sale
- Name and address of Importer/Consignee
- Bill of Lading/Railway Receipt/Airway Bill/Truck Receipt/Post Parcel Receipt no And date
- Port of Shipment/Post Office of Dispatch
- Land Custom Post
- Shipment Date
- Name of the Exporter with address
- CCI&E’s registration number and date
- Sector (public or private) under which the exporter fails
Securing the Order:
Upon registration, the exporter may proceed to secure the export order. This can be done by contracting the buyers directly through correspondence.
Signing of the Contract:
While making a contract, the following points are to be mentioned:
- Description of the goods,
- Quantity of the commodity,
- Price of the commodity,
- Insurance and marks,
- Inspection, and
Procuring the Materials:
After making the deal and on having the L/C opened in his favor, the next step for the exporter is set about the task of procuring or manufacturing the contracted merchandise..
Shipment of Goods:
The following documents are normally involved at the stage of shipment: (a) EXP From, (b) photocopy of registration certificate, (c) photocopy of contract, (d) photocopy of the L/C, (e) customs copy of ERF Form for shipment of jute-made goods and EPC Form for raw jute, (f) freight certificate from the bank in case of payment of the freight if the port of lading is involved, (g) railway receipt, berg receipt or truck receipt, (h) shipping instructions, and (i) insurance policy.
The following points should be looked for –
- The terms of the L/C are in conformity with those of the contract
- The L/C is an irrevocable one, preferably confirmed by the Advising Bank
- The L/C allows sufficient time for shipment and a reasonable time for registration
- If the exporter wants the L/C to be transferable, advisable, he should ensure those stipulations are specially mentioned in the L/C.
At last, the exporter submits all these documents along with a Letter of Indemnity to by SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, Corporate Branch for negotiation. An officer scrutinizes all the documents. If the documents are clean one, the branch purchases the documents on the basis of banker-customer relationship. This is known as “Foreign Bill Purchase ” (FBP).
PROCEDURE FOR FDBP:
After purchasing the documents, SOUTHEAST BANK LTD., Corporate Branch gives the following entries –
FDBP A/C Dr.
Liabilities A/C- Cr.
Charges A/C Cr.
Exporter’s A/C Cr.
The FDBP Register is maintained for recording all the particulars. The contents of a FBP Register are as follows –
- Name of the Party (Drawer)
- Name of Collecting Bank
- Conversion Rate
- Bill Amount
- Amount in Currency
- EXP Form. No.
FOREIGN DOCUMENTARY BILLS FOR COLLECTION:
SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, Corporate Branch forwards the documents for collection due to the following reasons –
- If the documents have discrepancies
- If the exporter is a new client
- If the banker is in doubt
Foreign Documentary Bills for Collection signify that the exporter will receive payment only when the Issuing Bank gives payment. The exporter submits duplicate EXP Form and Commercial Invoice. Subsequently, the value of the bill is calculated and the following accounting entries are given –
Head Office (HO) A/C Dr. @ T.T. Clean
Party’s A/C- Cr. @ O.D. Sight
Govt. Tax A/C Cr.
Postage A/C Cr.
Income A/C (Profit on Exchange)- Cr.
An FDBC Register is maintained where first entry is given when the documents are forwarded to the Issuing Bank for collection and the second one is done after realization of the proceeds.
SETTLEMENT OF LOCAL BILL:
The settlement of local bills is done in the following ways –
- The customer submits the L/C to the branch along with the documents to negotiate
- The branch officials scrutinizes the documents to ensure the conformity with the terms and conditions
- The documents are then forwarded to the L/C Opening Bank
- The L/C Issuing Bank gives the acceptance and forwards an acceptance letter
- Payment is given to the customer on either by collection basis or by purchasing the document
The following accounting treatments are made for the purchasing of local bill
Local Bill Purchase (LDBP) Dr.
Party’s A/C- Cr.
Interest A/C -Cr.
An LDBP Register is maintained to record the acceptance of the Issuing Bank. Until the acceptance is obtained, the record is kept in a Collection Register.
MODES OF PAYMENT FOR EXPORT BILLS UNDER L/C:
The most common methods of payment under a L/C are as follows –
- At Sight Payment Credit: In At Sight Payment Credit, the bank pays the stipulated sum immediately against the exporter’s presentation of the documents.
- Deferred Payment Credit: In deferred payment credit, the bank agrees to pay on a specified future date or event, after presentation of the export documents. No bill of exchange is involved. In SOUTHEAST BANK LTD, Corporate Branch the payment is given to the party at the rate of D.A. 30-60-90-180 as the case may be..
- Negotiation Credit: In Negotiation Credit, the exporter has to present a bill of exchange payable to him in addition to other documents that the bank negotiates.
- Acceptance Credit: In Acceptance Credit, the exporter presents a bill of exchange payable to him and drawn at the agreed tenor (that is, on a specified future date or event) on the bank that is to accept it. The bank signs its acceptance on the bill and returns it to the exporter. The exporter can then represent it for payment on maturity. Alternatively he can discount it in order to obtain immediate payment.
This facility is generally extended when the goods become ready for shipment for a very short period. Usually from the date of dispatch of the stock from the goods up to the date of actual shipment the goods i.e. for the transit period of shipment or for further purchase of raw materials/procurement of exportable goods by the exporter. While allowing such advance, the bank must confirm that the exporter has already made required arrangement for shipment of goods. Bank generally allows packing credit on invoice value keeping minimum margin; if shipment is not effected on due date, the credit will increase day by day for application of interest, the L/C may be expired and the goods may be damaged due to long storage in packing condition.
- Valid and confirmed irrevocable letter of credit duly scrutinized by the banks authorized officer.
- Banks charge documents meant for packing credit.
- Railway/ barge/ steamer/ truck receipt evidencing that the goods have been dispatched to port for shipment.
- Invoice drawn in terms of relative export L/C
- Letter of lien i.e. acknowledgement of exportable goods with export documents duly issued by the banks enlisted C&F agents
The SOUTHEAST Bank Ltd is a second generation bank in the growing sector of Bangladesh. It has a promise to fulfill every possible customers needs and serve the society with high efficiency and satisfaction. As a private commercial bank it has to face severe competition as there are banks currently carrying out then operations in Bangladesh. Its competitive strength lies in setting high standard of integrity and in providing total satisfaction to its customers. Its team of dedicated professionals is committed to provide unparalleled services by using the latest technologies.
I was given opportunity to observe the activities of different desks. There I had the opportunity to compare the theoretical knowledge with the existing practices in the commercial banks. The time is very limited to see all the departments work properly. Though I tried my best to cover all jobs in the bank.
The SOUTHEAST BANK Corporate Branch offers all the conventional services as well as specialized services to its customers. All the departments make a substantial profit for the bank.
The branch always maintains a high standard of customer service. Every day the branch collects information regarding change and improvement of customer services in this locality. The SEBL corporate branch spends a substantial amount expenses to maintain and improve its customer satisfaction. But there is a huge gap between its total deposit and total loans & advances.
The branch has structured format to process the loan proposals. This is a very dynamic and speedy process. But some times the processing is delayed due to information lacking. Credit information through different institutions sometimes takes a long time. This delays the processing of the project proposal. Moreover, though SME is their first priority of the bank, sometimes they don’t evaluate properly.
The foreign exchange dealing is the most sophisticated part of business. The time limitation is very serious regarding export. Again the documents are very critical which needs attentive filling up and proper dispatch. To improve communication regarding foreign business the branch can include more staffs. As the bank is an authorized dealer it might have some more independence to do the job.
It is really a great honor for me to have an opportunity to work as an intern in the SOUTHEAST Bank Ltd. during my orientation program. I found myself as a part of its committee workforce and I put the utmost effort to bring the relevant facts and figures. I think this will help me to enrich my knowledge as well as my career.