Selection can be defined as process of choosing the right person for the right job.Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization will get quality performance of employees.
Employee Process of selection:-
The process of selection is different in different companies; however a general procedure of selection can be framed. This process of selection can be explained with the help of following diagram.
The very first step in the selection procedure is the job analysis. The HR department prepares the job description and specification for the jobs which are vacant. This gives details for the jobs which are vacant. This gives details about the name of the job, qualification, qualities required and work conditions etc.
Based on the information collected in step 1, the HR department prepares an advertisement and publishes it in a leading news papers. The advertisement conveys details about the last date for application, the address to which the application must be sent etc.
Application blank/form :-
Application blank is the application form to be filled by the candidate when he applies for a job in the company. The application blank collects information consisting of 4 parts- 1) Personal details 2) Educational details 3) Work experience 4) Family background.
Written test :-
The application which have been received are screened by the HR department and those applications which are incomplete arerejected. The other candidates are called for the written test. Arrangement for the written test is looked after the HR department i.e. question papers, answer papers, examination centers and hall tickets etc.
Candidates who have successfully cleared the test are called for an interview. The entire responsibility for conducting the interview lies with the HR department i.e. they look after the panel of interviewers, refreshments, informing candidates etc.
Medical examination :-
The candidates who have successfully cleared the interview are asked to take a medical exam. This medical exam may be conducted by the organization itself (army). The organization may have a tie up with the hospital or the candidate may be asked to get a certificate from his family doctor.
Initial job offer :-
Candidates who successfully clear the medical exam are given an initial job offer by the company stating the details regarding salary, terms of employment, employment bond if any etc. The candidate is given some time to think over the offer and to accept or reject.
Acceptance/ rejection :-
Candidates who are happy with the offer send their acceptance within a specified time limit to show that they are ready to work with the company.
Letter of appointment/final job offer :–
Candidates who send their acceptance are given the letter of appointment. The letter will state the name of the job. The salary and other benefits, number of medical leaves and casual leaves, details of employment bond if any etc. It will also state the date on which the employee is required to start duty in the company.
On the date of joining the employee is introduced to the company and other employees through am elaborate induction program.
Types of selection test
Different selection test are adopted by different organization depending upon their requirements. These tests are specialized test which have been scientifically tested and hence they are also known as scientific test. Different types of test can be explained with the help of following diagram.
Aptitude test :-
Aptitude tests are test which assess the potential and ability of a candidate. It enables to find out whether the candidate is suitable for the job. The job may be managerial technical or clerical. The different types of aptitude test are
Mental ability/mental intelligence test :-
This test is used to measure the over all intelligence and intellectual ability of the candidate to deal with problems. It judges the decision making abilities.
Mechanical aptitude test :-
This test deals with the ability of the candidate to do-mechanical work. It is used to judge and measure the specialized knowledge and problem solving ability. It is used for technical and maintenance staff.
Psycho motor test :-
This test judges the motor skills the hand and eye co- ordination and evaluates the ability to do jobs lie packing, quality testing, quality inspection etc.
Intelligence test :-
This test measures the numerical skills and reasoning abilities of the candidates. Such abilities become important in decision making. The test consists of logical reasoning ability, data interpretation, comprehension skills and basic language skills.
Personality test :-
In this test the emotional ability or the emotional quotient is tested. This test judges the ability to work in a group, inter personal skills, ability to understand and handle conflicts and judge motivation levels. This test is becoming very popular now days.
Performance test :-
This test judges and evaluates the acquired knowledge and experience of the knowledge and experience of the individual and his speed and accuracy in performing a job. It is used to test performance of typist, data entry operators etc.