The main objective of this report is to analysis Activities and Performance of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited. General objectives of this reports are to present an overview of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited, to appraise the activities of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited, to appraise the development of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited, to develop the practical knowledge by the practical orientation of work, to identify the problems of the Membership Affairs Department of DSE, to suggest to overcome the problems of Membership Affairs Department of DSE and to build up the pillar of the career for the near future. Finally this report make swot analysis Activities and Performance of Dhaka Stock Exchange.
Objectives of the Report
“DSE -A milestone for Economic Development”– the name of the paper defines the main objective. DSE is contributing a lot for the nation through market capitalization by creating investment opportunities for the deficit holders of the society from the surplus holder who have not such available sources of investments. DSE is performing the role of transferring capital for the overall development of the nation. The main objective of the study is to gains Practical knowledge about the activities of Membership Affairs Department of DSE. Other objectives are as follows:
- To present an overview of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited.
- To appraise the activities of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited.
- To appraise the development of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited
- To develop the practical knowledge by the practical orientation of work
- To identify the problems of the Membership Affairs Department of DSE.
- To suggest to overcome the problems of Membership Affairs Department of DSE.
- To build up the pillar of the career for the near future.
The specific objective of the study is to know the details activities of Membership Affairs Department of DSE.
To conduct a study properly designing of the process is essential because reliability and validity of the outcomes of a study depends on the reliable data and information. In this connection some activities has been carried out to collect data and information.
To attain the objective, I collected data & information required. Those data & information were collected from various sources & then analyzed.
Collection of data & information:
Primary data & information:
- Observation & collection of data from different investors by asking them related question
- Conversation with the executives & officers of Dhaka stock exchange Ltd.
Secondary data & information:
- Annual report DSE.
- Monthly review of DSE.
- Several kind of academic Test-Book.
- Different publications regarding stock exchange function
- Price index
Visiting the websites:
Brief History of DSE
The DSE was first incorporated as the East Pakistan Stock Exchange Association Limited on April 28, 1954. However, formal trading began in 1956, 196 securities listed on the DSE with a total paid up capital of about Taka 4 billion. On June 23, 1962 it was renamed as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Limited. After 1971, the trading activities of the Stock Exchange remained suppressed until 1976 due to the liberation war and the economic policy pursued by the government. The trading activities resumed in 1976 with only 9 companies listed having a paid up capital of Taka 137.52 million on the stock exchange. In May 13, 1964 it was renamed as Dacca Stock Exchange Limited. In 1986 it was renamed as a Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited.
As of 30th December, 2008 there were 412 Securities listed on the DSE with a market capitalization of Taka 1043.80 billion. Total turnover value as on December 30, 2008 was tk. 4.31 billion.
Major Events of DSE:
|Incorporated as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Association Ltd.:||28th April 1954|
|Start of Formal Trading:||1956|
|Renamed as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Ltd.:||23rd June 1962|
|Renamed as Dacca Stock Exchange Ltd.:||13th May 1964|
|Trading Suspended under new State Policy:||16th December 1971|
|Trading Resumed in Bangladesh:||16 August 1976|
|Starting Of All Share price Index calculation:||16th September 1986|
|Share price Indices calculation on basis of IFC Designed formula:||1st November 1993|
|Starting of Automated trading:||10th August 1998|
|Starting Of DSE-20 Index calculation:||January 2001|
|Starting Of DSE General Index calculation:||27th November 2001|
|Start of CDS through CDBL:||24th January 2004|
|DSE All share price Index (DSI) Re introduced:||28th March 2005|
Functions of DSE
The Major functions are as follows:
- Listing of companies.
- Providing the market place for trading of listed securities, settlement of trading.
- Publication of daily index and Monthly Review etc.
- Monitoring the activities of listed Companies.
- Listing of Companies.(As per Listing Regulations)
- Providing the screen based automated trading of listed Securities.
- Settlement of trading.(As per Settlement of Transaction Regulations)
- Gifting of share / granting approval to the transaction/transfer of share outside the trading system of the exchange (As per Listing Regulations 42)
- Market Administration & Control.
- Market Surveillance.
- Publication of Monthly Review.
- Monitoring the activities of listed companies. (As per Listing Regulations).
- Investor’s grievance Cell (Disposal of complaint bye laws 1997).
- Investors Protection Fund (As per investor protection fund Regulations 1999)
- Announcement of Price sensitive or other information about listed companies through online.
- The Clearing and Settlement module provides the management of trade from the point of entry into the Settlement Pool trade database until it has been delivered and settled and removed from the Settlement Pool. It consists of three major business processes.
Divisions & Departments and their Activities
Dhaka Stock Exchange Ltd. (DSE) is a very reputed and important organization in the financial sector of Bangladesh. It is being proved to be an excellent enterprise for-
- Being action oriented
- Promoting managerial autonomy and entrepreneurship
- Paying close attention to the needs of officers and employees.
- Having a simple organization structure
The head of every department is charged with the responsibility to take the necessary actions to make it possible for each officer and employee to contribute to his best to the performance of the group or department, which ultimately will lead to the fulfillment of corporate goal- the efficient operation of the securities market of the country.
At present DSE Performs its functions through four divisions with 26 departments. The divisions are:
- Administration Division
- Operation Division
- Finance Division
- Information and Communication Division.
(A) ADMINISTRATION DIVITION:
The Administration Division of DSE runs with the goal of providing possible assistance to all other departments in their smooth operation. The number of member firms in DSE has been increased from 195 to 230 in recent days. The Administration Division is involved in all day affairs administrative activities and all works of the CEO’s Secretariat. This department also arranges training programs offered by DSE and SEC.
The Executive in each part will report to respective Senior Executive and each Senior Executive will report to Manager. Manager will be responsible to AGM, AGM; will be responsible to DGM, Admin and DGM; Admin will finally be responsible to CEO through GM, Admin. The Departments of this Division are:
- Membership Affairs
- Board Affairs
- HRM, Admin & Training Affairs
- Logistic, Maintenance & Protocol Department
- Research, Development &Information
- Publication Department
- Public Relation Department
- Security Department
- DSE Training Academy
- Personal office in CEO.
Functions of Membership Affairs:
- Registration of every DSE Broker/Dealer under the Membership regulation of Security Exchange commission (SEC).
- Completion of regulatory formalities regarding the transfer of existing membership (share).
- Yearly renewal of registration of all membership from SEC.
- Competition of all formalities regarding the registration of new members by SEC.
- Collection and preservation of yearly audited Balance Sheets of member houses and submission of one copy to SEC.
- Completion of all formalities regarding the registration of new/fresh authorizes and sending to SEC for registration.
- Renewal of registration of existing authorized representatives from SEC
- Registration of authorized switched off from one member house to another.
- Maintenance of updated information regarding all the members through Database
- Maintenance of all member files and all letters, documents, etc. related to members.
- Communication with members for members for training provided by DSE
Functions of Board Affairs:
- Contact with the CEO and Board of Directors and set up the schedule of Board meeting
- Preparation of minutes of the Board meetings and Committee meetings and get those minutes signed by the CEO and Board of Directors
- Communication with Securities and Exchange Commission regarding the decisions of the Board as per requirement of the Board and SEC.
- Preparation and maintenance of all documents relating to Board meeting and Committee meeting.
- Forwarding of letters, documents, etc. to SEC, Member firms and other institutions.
- Receiving and filling of all documents, letters, etc. from SEC, member firms and other institutions.
- Issuance of departmental circular, IT announcement, etc.
- Coordination of all activities relating to the maintenance of Investor’s protection fund
- Any other action as required by CEO.
Functions of HRM, Admin & Training Affairs:
- Filling and keeping filed positions in the organization structure.
- Identification of job requirements and selection, recruitment, placing and planning the careers of existing and new officers’ employees in accordance with job requirements.
- Provision of training and otherwise development of both candidates and current job holders so that they can perform tasks effectively and efficiently.
- Continues check up of attendance and leave status of officers and employees and reporting to the CEO.
- Submission of Annual Confidential Report (ACR) of all employees to the CEO.
- Maintenance of updated information regarding all officers and employees
Training Programs on different Grounds are arranged here, likely;
- Authorized Representative Training.
- New Member Training.
- New Authorized Representative Training.
- Investors awareness Training.
- DSE Employee Training (Local & Foreign)
- Automated Clearing & Settlement Training.
Moreover, additional training programs are arranged if any inclusion in the Capital Market.
Logistic, Maintenance & Protocol Department:
Logistic, Maintenance and Protocol Department of DSE is involved in providing all types of logistic and protocol services as per requirement.
- Collections of member’s dues.
- Preparation of bills for listing fees.
- Collection of listing fees.
- Follow up of listing fees realization and receivables from listed companies.
- Maintenance of liaison with banks.
- Dealing with important matters and L/C when necessary.
- Net capital balance collection from members and reporting to SEC.
- Any other duties as and when required.
- Insurance of members and DSE staff.
- Supervision send assurance of the logistic and supply chain of DSE.
- Procurement/purchase of logistic items to run smoothly.
- Monitoring the responsibilities of logistic support units.
Functions of Maintenance:
- Maintenance 0f 1250 KVA substation (1250 KVA transformer, 11 KV H.T switch gear, 2000 ALT 400 Emergency control panel).
- Maintenance of 250 KVA & 30 KVA generators.
- Maintenance voltage stabilizer of IT main server & lift power supply.
- Maintenance of lift.
- Maintenance of Photocopier.
- Maintenance of power distribution at all the floors in 9/E and 9/F, DSE.
- Maintenance of the PABX system.
- Maintenance of air cooler of DSE office.
- Taking care of all office, toilet & lighting of 12 floors in DSE.
- Maintenance of all types of electrical applications and supervision of related activities.
- Maintenance of pump (water supply).
Research, Development & Information Department
The Research & Library Department is concerned with providing assistance to all types of research work and supervising the DSE library.
Functions of Research, Development & Information Department:
- Preparing database for all listed companies.
- Supporting to teachers and students in their research works and projects by providing necessary data listed companies.
- Distribution of required information to members and investors to meet up their quarries regarding listed companies, any regulation, etc.
- Inform the listing department of any announcement regarding company degradation, share addition, etc. which the listing Department sends to IT for announcement.
- Provision of data and information for publication & Public Relation Department for any publication of DSE like Monthly review, Annual report, Profile, Diary, etc.
- Submission of monthly data regarding market trade to SEC.
- Regular provision of data to SEC as per requirement.
Preparation and printing of –
- Monthly review (with half yearly).
- Annual report.
- DSE Profile.
- Members Directory.
- Company Directory.
- All gazette notification published by BG press.
- Supervision of Paper citing.
- Co-ordination with Press and Electronic Media.
- Conduct the Media and others meeting.
- Press release and other related issues.
- Maintenance of all kinds of information
There is another important section is Security Section. Executive, Security supervisor, Assistant security supervisor and some guards are working there.
Functions of Security Department:
- Preparing roster of duties for all the security guards of DSE and Security Company.
- Regular check up of arrangements for physical security to ensure a satisfactory security system.
- Arrangement of security protection for VIP, VVIP and foreign? Dignitaries visiting DSE.
- Surprise check of security by day and night for strict maintenance of the security system.
- Continuous co-operation and communication with police department and other law enforcement agencies.
(B) FINANCE DIVISION:
Finance Division deals with all activities relating to the preparation & maintenance of general accounts and clearing accounts and for assistance to the Deputy Financial controller in the budgetary control of DSE. The Departments of Finance Division are:
- General Account Department
- Clearing Account Department
- DSE Full Service DP
- Clearing House (Share)
FUNCTION OF GENERAL ACCOUNTS
- Preparation and maintenance of books of accounts (Journal Entries, Ledger Books, Cash Books, Income & Expenditure Accounts, Balance Sheet & Cash flow Statement.)
- Preparation of monthly Financial Statement.
- Preparation of salary payroll.
- Bank reconciliation.
- Controlling of all software/ Database relating to general accounts, Petty Cash, Clearing, Salary and Members Bill.
- Scheduling of all expenses.
- Preparation of all kinds of payment note.
- Maintenance of asset register.
- Submission of early financial statement to SEC.
- Maintenance of member accounts and Provision of accounting data for members about their own accounts as per requirement.
CLEARING ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT
Clearing Accounts is concerned with the monitoring and verification of clearing accounts related activities. The main function of clearing accounts is:
- Margin Settlement
- Data collection and processing and preparation of statements.
- Collection and disbursement of payments.
- Demoted spot trade settlement.
- EX DP
- Preparation & Accounts.
Settlement of Member’s Margin:
- Collection of security deposit as margin within trade.
- Disbursement of security after maturity.
- Maintenance of margin account such as demoted shares, FDR, Bank Guarantee.
- Preparation of charges against margin.
Data collection and processing and preparation of statements
- Collection & processing of trade related data and for preparation of necessary statements.
- Calculation of Lagal charge, Hawla charge and Tax at source.
- Preparation of Receivable and Payable Statements after all adjustments.
- Preparation of Accounting Statements.
Collection and disbursement of payments:
- Collection of payment from selling broker as per Receivable Statement.
- Issuance of cheque to the buying members as per Payable Statement.
- Issuance of cheque to the members against security deposit after adjustment/maturity
- Reconciliation with accounts.
- Assurance of deposit of cheques.
- Assurance of payment order.
- Management of funds relating to clearing accounts.
- Maintenance of FDR Account.
- Preparation of daily clearance report and submission of report to IT.
- Submission of weekly and monthly clearance reports (Defaulter List to SEC.
- In case of Defaulters.
- Stop all payments.
- Preparation of Buying In/Selling Out order.
- Preparation of the accounts regarding Buying In /Selling out.
- Preparation of resumption order and provision of it for IT.
- Submission of report to SEC regarding the settlement of defaulter members.
DEMATED SPOT TRADE SETTLEMENT:
- Assurance of deposit by the buying members to the bank.
- Assurance of share availability of the selling members their clearing accounts.
- Collection of data and preparation of Statement.
- Issuance of payment.
- Looking after all the reports provided by CDBL every day.
- Assurance of available demated shares buying in / Selling out by DSE.
- Collection of necessary documents.
PREPARATION OF ACCOUNTS:
- Daily & monthly ledger.
- Daily and monthly clearing accounts.
- Daily and monthly clearing reconciliation.
- Maintenance Tax account daily and monthly.
- Transfer of fines, interest and other charges monthly.
FUNCTION OF CLEARING HOUSE (SHARE) DEPARTMENT
- Reception, reconciliation and delivery of shares to member houses everyday.
- Assurance of share settlement and clearing in time.
- Settlement of margin
- Taking necessary actions in case of violation of margin rule by member firms.
- Preparation of list of defaulter members and adoption of necessary actions against the defaulters.
- Preservation of DSE share volt.
- Communication with listed companies as and when requires.
DISPUTED, ODD LOT, BLOCK SHARES & SPOT TRADE:
- Verification of disputed share (fake, reported, lost, stolen) settlement and correspondence with listed companies and member firms in this regard.
- Supervision of receiving and delivery of good shares against any defective share.
- Arrangement of receiving and delivery of odd lot shares and block shares.
- Settlement of spot transaction of physical shares.
- Settlement of spot transaction of CDBL shares.
- In case of default in settlement of spot transaction of physical shares and CDBL shares, proper reporting for the suspension of defaulter member.
- Settlement of bonus, dividend and other benefits on demate shares not transferred into CDBL for unavoidable circumstances.
- Assurance of share settlement and clearing in time.
- Preparation of defaulter list.
- Preparation of selling out and buying in list of shares.
- Communication with listed companies as per requirement.
DSE FULL SERVICE DP
DSE DP provides DP services to brokers and dealers who are trading participants that is who cannot provide DP services to their clients.
DEMATE / REMATE ACTIVITIES
Completion of all activities relating to the conversion of shares from physical to electronic from (Demate) or electronic to physical form (Remate)
- Verifications and receiving of physical share in order to demate shares.
- Entrance of shares off line.
- Upload of shares on line.
- Check up of demate confirmation.
- Check up of demate pending status, collection of pending shares and re-entry of rejected physical shares.
- Verification of demate share in order to remate shares.
- Entrance of shares off line.
- Upload of shares online.
- Check up of remote confirmation.
BO ACCOUNTS SERVICES
- Opening of BO Accounts for beneficiary owners account holders refereed by trading participants.
- Providing services to beneficiary owners in time.
- Reception of pay in form, verification of signature of BO and existence of shares.
- Pay in set up of shares off line and upload online.
- Reception of pay out from members, verification of signature and the existence of shares.
- Approval of pay out by another person and upload online.
- Liaison with issuer to solve the demate problem.
- Liaison with BO account holders and answer their quarries.
- Liaison with CEO and other departments.
- Liaison with CDBL.
(C) OPERATION DIVISON:
- Surveillance Department
- Monitoring, Investigation & Compliance Department
- Legal Affairs
- Listing Department
- Market Operations
- Internal Audit & Compliance.
Listing & Market Operation
IPO Related Functions
- Processing and evaluation of the draft prospectus of IPO.
- Evaluation of Financial Statements of new companies to be listed and preparation of the IPO comments for Securities and Exchange Commission.
Listed Company Related Functions
- To communicate with all the listed companies regarding the compliance of relevant rules and regulation.
- Assurance of timely disbursement of corporate announcement.
- Monitoring of listed companies for the compliance of listing Regulations, Company Law and other relevant rules.
- Announcement of half yearly and yearly performance of listed companies through the trading system.
- Evaluation of performance of listed companies and update listed company records.
- Processing of approval for transfer of share outside the trading system.
- Processing and recording of all types of transfer / sale or buy of shares of Sponsors/Directors.
- Processing of application of gifting of shares as well as transfer of shares in special circumstances.
- Taking subsequent action for corporate announcement as per rules and regulation.
- Adoption of all necessary actions required for Book Closure/Record Date and other corporate benefits.
- Trade suspension or trade halt age of listed companies and members also during the trading hour considering the necessity of market operations.
- Protection of investor’s interest in the listed companies when any anomaly is observed in DSE.
Monitoring, Investigation & Compliance Department
Monitoring and Investigation Department assists in smooth functioning of capital market. The objective of this department is to inspect, monitor and have feedback on the member houses according to securities rules and regulations and settle dispute between investors and member houses, provide support to settle claims, monitor other activities of the exchange like activities of DSE DP regarding pay in/ pay out and other legal matters of the exchange.
Activities of Monitoring, Investigation & Compliance department:
The main functional areas of the department are:
- Legal & Compliance
- TWS set up monitoring
- Room verification
- DP- monitoring
- Any other monitoring ordered by CEO regarding violations of Securities
- rules by any listed company with DSE or any brokerage house.
- Company Monitoring ordered by SEC any directed by CEO.
Procedure of general monitoring:
General Observation (General documents related with share trading):
- Account opening Form
- Buy Sale order Slip
- Trade confirmation Statement
- Buy/Sale order register
- Money receipt
- Payment Voucher
- Share receive and Delivery certificate
- Broker/dealer license
- Authorize registration certificate
- Client ledger.
- Stock report.
- Bank Account Statement.
- Net Capital Balance position.
- Deed of Margin Agreement between member and investor (if possible).
- Compliance report.
- Compliant register.
Special observation (Monitoring House Activities as Depository participant):
- BO account opening for
- Pay in slip
- Pay out slip
- BO stock report
- Find discrepancies and variability of houses activities and generating report.
- Inform the concern house about their deficiencies.
- Aware them about securities rules and provide feedback to the house to overcome deficiencies regarding any lapse in operating house activities and also try to re from them in order to rules and regulations.
- Final report submits to the Securities and Exchange Commission about house status. Monitoring department monitors the activities of at least 5 brokerage houses in each Calendar month.
Monitoring Department conducts special monitoring in brokerage houses according to SEC order through their inspection report. The procedure is same as general monitoring. The department conducts some other monitoring from time to time. They are as follows:
- TWS set up monitoring: Monitoring department inspect the set up of TWS according to TWS installation and user manual.
- Room verification: Monitoring department inspect brokerage house office premises whether they are properly decorated and suitable for business.
- DP – Monitoring: Monitoring Department inspect DP activities of the brokerage house regarding their pay in, pay out, and other activities as DP.
One of the main responsibilities of Monitoring Department is to ensure compliance with Securities and Exchange rules and investigate any fraudulent activities in respect of securities market operations.
This department assists DSE in various legal matters such as
- Correspondence with outside solicitors if any litigation arise against DSE.
- Assists in any other legal matters of DSE.
- Settlement of dispute that arises out by death of members or un settled claim by the member.
- Arrangement of hearing between appellant accused member house and settlement of any undue claim against the house.
Another important department of Dhaka Stock Exchange is Surveillance Department.
Its functions broadly describe in under below:
Functions of Surveillance Department:
On line Surveillance:
For detecting potential market abuses at a nascent stage to reduce ability of the market participants to unduly influence the price & volume of the scripts traded at DSE by accessing into orders & trades of members.
Off-Line Surveillance: Monitoring of
- High/Low difference in prices.
- Percentage change in prices over a week/fortnight/month.
- Top N scrip by Turnover a week/Fortnight/month.
- Trading in infrequently traded scrip.
- Scrip’s hitting new high/low price, etc.
Conducting in-depth investigations based preliminary enquiries/analysis of trading of the scrip. In Case of irregularities observed, necessary actions are initiated or investigation case is forwarded to SEC through the CEO, if necessary.
- Warning to member – verbal/written to members through the CEO are issued when market irregularities in the scrip are suspected
- Impositions of penalty/suspension – penalize or suspend the members through the CEO who are involved in market irregularities, based on the input/evidence available from investigation report.
- Liaising with Compliance Officers of companies to obtain comments of the company on various price sensitive corporate news items appearing in selected News Papers.
- Comments received from the companies are disseminated to the market by way of online news bulletin.
- Investigations based on rumor verifications are carried out, if required, to detect cases of suspected insider trading
The Surveillance Department closely monitors outstanding exposure of members on a daily basis. For this purpose, it observes various off-line market monitoring reports. The reports are scrutinized to ascertain whether there is excessive purchase or sale position build up compared to the normal business of the member, whether there are concentrated purchases or sales, whether the purchases have been made by inactive or financially weak members and even the quality of scrip’s is considered to assess quality of exposure. The following key areas are examined to assess the market risk involved –
Online Monitoring of Broker Position
Surveillance closely monitors broker’s gross turnover exposure for ensuring margin calls in time.
- B/S Statement of Trading Members
- Concentrated B/S
- B/S of scrip having thin trading
- Verification of Institutional Trade
- Verification of Foreign Trade
- Verification of Cross Reporting Trade
- Verification of D Form Trades
- Verification of Sponsor’s Trade
- Snap Investigation
- Market Intelligence
- Review block Trades
- Review List of Settlement Failures
- Verification of Company Accounts
- Review of Media Information
- Monitoring on newly Listed Stock
- Development of Good Liaison
- Development of market contacts & to picking up Intelligence.
- Preparation of daily market report to reflect the state of the market & share prices at a specified time & distribution to the CEO.
- Submission of routine weekly report of market monitoring of Surveillance Department to the Commission.
- Submission of routine weekly report of foreign trades to Commission.
- Off & on inspection to member firms, preparation of reports thereof & forwarding to the CEO.
- Instant reporting to the CEO following his instruction.
- Reporting to the Commission following their enquiry in particular area of brokers/scrapes.
- Any other activities as & when directed by the CEO.
Internal audit & Compliance
- Identification of irregularities in any payment or lapse of any documents.
- Random check up of DSE store to find our irregularities.
- Regular check up of petty cash.
- Identification of over expenses from petty cash.
- Supervision and examination of entrance of income in DSE Accounts.
- Submission of weekly or monthly report on petty cash account to CEO.
- Any other action as per requirement.
(D) INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY DIVISION:
- System & Market Administration Development
- Network Department
- Web Development Department
- MIS & Development Department
- Back Office Department
- Application Support Department.
Membership Affairs Department of DSE
Contribution of the M/A Department
The membership Affairs Department provides various assistances to the members to operate efficient transaction of Stock Exchange. The Membership affairs department contributes in following work –
- Registration of Stock broker and Stock Dealer.
- Opening new Branch
- Approval of the existing branch.
- Approval of the extension branch office.
- Authorize representative Appointment.
- Withdrawal of the authorized representative.
- Renewal of the authorized representative certificate.
- Issuing stock broker and stock Dealer certificate.
- Renewal of stock broker and stock Dealer certificate.
- Issuing of trading work Station.
- Miscellaneous members related works.
This department focuses on collecting necessary document and after sorting all the document, complete set of the document go to due authority for final approval. Complying Rules and regulation the department arrange document for final approval. The department always remains alert to fulfill DSE member’s requirement.
Functions of M/A Department
Registration of every DSE Broker/Dealer:
Membership of DSE facilitates a person prospects to be a Trading members (Stock Brokers) of the Exchange through compliance of the regulatory Provisions of DSE and SEC. There are 238 members in DSE all of whom are corporate bodies.
The eligibility criteria for the membership according to Regulations, 2000 of SEC are as follows:
- A corporate body with a minimum paid up capital of BDT 2.5 million.
- Any partner or director thereof as the case can not be
- Less than 21 years old
- A bankrupt announced by CIB of Bangladesh Bank
- Person of unsound mind
- A member of any Stock Exchange
- Person convicted by a competent court of an office involving moral turpitude or any misconduct
- A Merchant Banker , Portfolio manager, trusty of Mutual Fund
- A person of insolvent by court. etc
If someone is eligible to be a member of DSE, he/she thereby may apply for the membership of DSE. The interested party must have to issue a forwarding letter and submit the necessary papers and documents to the DSE. The forwarding letter along with the name of all the documents is given in the following page.
After sorting the documents the department needs to send to the Securities and Exchange Commission for license. DSE announce the license through MOP’s Announcement for starting of trading depicting the license number and other details. Then it needs to register the office or location where they want to start trading along with allocation of TWS applied for.
Sections of Activities of M/A Department
The Activities of this department are divided into different sections that have to perform a lot of jobs with multi links. The sections are given in below:
Branch Office Section:
The DSE Member Companies have 381 branch offices in total. The Securities and Exchange Commission has circulated a Directory; SEC No. SEC/CMRRCD/2002-90/34 dated October, 2009. As such, we require sending various related documents for the compliance. The Circular has a time frame within which the said compliance should be fulfilled.
Authorized Representative Section:
This Section plays a good role in the capital market. It produces Authorized representatives who operate the workstations in their respective Brokerage Houses. It has various jobs of multi dimension in nature. The applicants applied with relevant documents are required to appear in the Interview Board. After doing positive they are required to have a Training jointly organized by SEC and DSE. Then the documents are sent to SEC for registration.
Member Compliance Section:
This section is new one. It will look after the compliances of the Stock Brokerage Companies regarding their corporate activities. In this regard it will monitor whether the companies are doing EGM, Board Meetings and other Joint Stocks and firms related jobs. This section also will look after the submission of audited Financial Reports for onward submission to SEC as per the SEC rules and regulations.
Daily Affairs Section:
This is an important section as well. It looks after the various daily affairs of the Member Companies such as, allocation of Trading work Stations, withdrawal of Authorized Representatives, different announcements, suspension of trading & TWS and various related jobs.
Back Office Section:
This section deals with data entry in the DSE’s Central Database, websites and other related links. The changes of DSE Member Representative and other changes are given entries into the different links.
This section deals with renewal of Membership licenses, authorized Licenses along with application for new approval of License to SEC. As per the SEC rules and regulations the renewal processes have to be complied with defined time frame and specific charges.
Forms used in this department:
- Form “Ka” and “Cha” – Registration for Stock Broker/Dealer.
- Form “Kha” – Appointment of Authorized Representative.
- Form “Ga” – Registration Certificate.
- Form “Gha” and “Chha” – Renewal of Stock Broker/Dealer and Authorized Representative’s Certificate.
Concept of Central Depository System
Central Depository Bangladesh Limited was incorporated as a public limited company on 20th August 2000 to operate and maintain the Central Depository. It will provide following support to the stock market/investors.
- Electronic Book Entry, recording and maintain securities accounts.
- Registering transfer of securities: changing the ownership without any physical movement or endorsement of certificates.
- Execution of transfer instruments, as well as various other investors services including facilitation of the secondary market trading of Treasury Bills and Government Bonds issued by the Bangladesh Bank.
A central depositor is like a bank for share instead of money. Instead of holding shares in the form of certificates, investors have accounts in the depository and are; able to move securities and settle stock exchange transactions by an electronic update of their accounts. Virtually all established markets have depositories including India, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, UK and USA.
Function of Central Depository System
To trade under CDS one should have an account. This account is known B/O account. It is like a bank account. The owner of the account will get an account number by which he/she can get his balance of shares at the office hours. The following materials required to open an account.
- Bank statements,
- 2 Copies passport size photo
- Application form
- Copy of passport, if any
- Power of authority, if required.
It is the process to convert physical shares into electronic shares. For this conversion electronic book entry is mandatory.
- Pay in:
It is a form that acts as a cheque. Normally, the process of transferring shares from B/O account to clearing account is called pay in. When the B/O sell his shares then he signs in the pay in form.
- Pay out:
The process of transferring shares from clearing account to B/O account is called pay out. It is a process to transfer shares to the purchaser account.
- Clearing and Settlement:
The clearing and settlement is same as physical shares.
The process of converting electronic shares to physical shares is called Rematerialization.
Merits of Central Depository System
There are some merits of CDS:
- By converting physical certificate into electronic form will eliminate-the risks of damaged, lost, forget and duplicate of share certificate.
- The core services of depository are the efficient delivery, settlement and transfer of securities through computerized book system.
- Immediate transfer of ownership is possible through electronic book entry.
- This system also helps lending organization to check collateral if it is shares.
- It also helps parent organization to issue IPO’s, bonus shares, and/or right shares quickly and conveniently.
- It also saves expenditure of issuing company from printing physical share certificate.
Demerits of Central Depository System
Very costly technology is required.
- Fully depends on power supply.
- Full concentration is required always otherwise share may be transferred to other DP.
- Easily can cell the share of any B/O by others, if anyone can copy the sign of any B/O.
- Fully depends on computerized system that may crash any time.
Guidelines to Overcome Problems
To employ efficient manpower.
- To use updated programs and software.
- To use modern technology
- To work with full concentration.
- To provide uninterrupted power supply.
STOCK MARKET MANIPULATION
Reason of Crash
The reason of crash are mention below
- Information was not sufficient in Dhaka Stock Exchange.
- Its trading activities was not sufficiently transparent and efficient.
- It lacks breadth and depth.
- Mafia made the hazard.
- The unwillingness for providing the flow of information by the Dhaka Stock Exchange.
- Insider trading and off-loading of shares by the directors of the company.
- Influx of new and unsophisticated investors and speculators.
- Impact of withdrawals of lock-in period causing a remittance of resources.
- The jurisdictional roles of various regulatory agencies are not defined.
- Code of ethics not being followed and dubious role-played by professionals Chartered Accounts in certifying financial statements along with the valuation of assets properties.
Involved Personal or Institutions
The worst stock market crash in the history of Bangladesh stock market occurred in December in 1996. Forming a committee in 1997 by Securities and Exchange Commission identified the involved persons or institutions. The involved persons or institutions are follows-
- According to the investigations eight brokers were involved in the manipulation.
- Some listed company were involved/
- Some dealers were also involved.
- The Bangladesh branch of Hong Kong.
- Company was involved in the stock market manipulation.
Fault of The Capital Market
There were some faults of the capital market. The main fault are mentioned below-
- The trading was not efficient.
- In the period of trading activities were not transparent.
- In that time it lacks breath and depth.
- Its regulatory mechanism either self-discipline or by regulatory agencies were not very effective.
- The jurisdictional roles of various regulatory agencies were not well defined.
Guidelines For Overcoming The Problems
The following guidelines are recommended to overcome the problems
- Ensure proper audit of the financial statements of the companies by the qualified Chartered Accountants.
- Ensure full discloser of the4 financial information of the listed companies within frequent intervals.
- Make financial transactions smooth efficient and prompt by computerization.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The Problem of Stock Market
Stock market is a composite term embracing buyers and sellers of securities and constituting all the agencies and institutions that assist the sale resale of the company’s securities. The stock market has some problems. The problems are as follows-
Lack of market skillfulness.
The general characteristics of the skill market do not exit here. The demand and its controlling management system of securities influence the skillfulness of market. But they are not very satisfactory.
Lack of confidence of the new investors.
The devastating fall down of share market in 1996 has shattered the confidence of the new investors. Thus, the challenges ahead for Bangladesh stock market are to revamp the share market by restoring confidence among investors.
Share prices rise inconsistently:
The stock market bubbles up but such rises in the share prices are not consistent with the share market fundamentals.
Complexity of tax structure:
The tax structure of our country is complex. Some times companies hide their real income because of sickness of industrial sector. As a result, the potential investors can’t take appropriate investment decision because of hidden income.
The problems of product market:
In our country the industrialists suffer a lot of problems. They lost their eagerness for the unequal market positions. As a result, the rolling of capital decreases.
Scarcity of foreign investment:
The flow of foreign investment in our country is not satisfactory. But foreign investment is essential for development of stock market.
The lack of entrepreneur:
The demand of capital is increases if the sufficient creative entrepreneur exists. But we have want of creative entrepreneur.
Lack of quality securities:
For active stock market high quality of stock is essential. But most of the listed companies are in bad position.
Guidelines to Overcome The Problems of Stock Market
The following guidelines may be helpful to boost up the stock market in Bangladesh.
- Set up training center for the newly investors in the share market to reduce the risk of the capital market.
- To make the rule easy for paying the income tax.
- Influence the foreign investors by proving the extra facility.
- To make the market easy for product marketing.
- To make the market active by marketing the industry strong.
- To provide training for the present as well as potential entrepreneurs.
- Strengthening the Securities and Exchange Commission.
- To make the easy rule for the establishment of the industry to increase the rolling of capital market.
- To make rule so that high quality securities are bound to come to stock market.
- To provide tax benefit of the listed companies in order to encourage none listed companies to be listed with the stock exchange.
Vision of Future
- Bringing securities under Central Depository System with in two years,
- Enhancing bond market through bringing in government and municipal bonds beside the corporate bond.
- Internet based trading creating provisions for investment from any where in the world,
- Enhancing greater degree of transparency in financial discloser for better corporate governance.
- Initiating the process of-creating derivative and future market.
- Making the market competitive from regional securities market perspective through ensuring market friendly rules and regulatory framework.
The role of Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited has been remarkable in recent rears. It has gained the confidence of public and is able to attack more and more funds. At the end of the last decade what was impossible has now become possible and any company listed with Dhaka Stock Exchange can expect to raise sufficient funds through it.
The Dhaka Stock Exchange has been able to attract a sufficient volume of foreign funds and the number of foreign investors is growing day by day. If this trend continues Dhaka Stock Exchange market will be efficient one in the near future. at the end of the year 2010 Dhaka Stock Exchange is expected to become one of the major stock market in this region.
So far we have observed that Dhaka Stock Exchange has suffered from ups and downs and it can be attributed to the efficiency of the members and some of the consistent policies of the government with more experience. In the coming year in dealing with such busy capital market both the Dhaka Stock Exchange members and government policy makers are expected to be more consistent in their practices and policies. Their product role in the future will certainly be a major factor in the performance of Dhaka Stock Exchange.
- Annual Report 2009-2010 of Indiabulls Ventures Limited
- Annual Report (Financial Statements) 2004 of Askari Commercial Bank Limited
- Annual Report 2013-2014 of Hindalco Industries Limited (Aditya Birla Group)
- Mathematical finance
- Annual Report 2016 of Allied Bank Limited
- Annual Report 2006 of Beximco Pharmaceuticals Limited