The main purpose of this report is to identify the Credit Risk Management Practices of commercial Banks in Bangladesh, basic focus on Prime Bank Limited. Other objectives are to analyze the sector wise credit and their contribution to GDP and to analyze various Ratios of Prime Bank. Finally suggest some areas of improvement in credit risk management of PBL and find out the position and practical market issues about new credit risk evaluation model and credit pricing model for the commercial banks in Bangladesh.
Background of the study
Bank is the most important financial institution in the economy. It plays vital role in the economy by providing means of payment and in mobilizing resources. The economic development of a country depends on the development of banking sector to a great extent. The dependence of banking sector in modern economy is increasing day by day because this sector ultimately contributes to run the wheel of development in a more dynamic way. Today’s modern banks are not only provides traditional banking, rather banks are expanding the menu of financial services, banks are making the untouchable service touchable for their customers. The changing and expanding role of banking has made the banking business more complex and competitive. For survival and growth of this business demands creativity, specialization and knowledge and adoption of new technology are used. But technology, creativity, specialization all these cannot support a bank to survive unless the services are marketed in the right track. For this banks need experts who will able to run the business even in against the wind.
Banks provide important capital in the form of loan and advances which are subject to non repayment which is termed as credit risk, the chance that a loan will not be repaid timely. Hence the main concern of the banks is credit risk and its management as credit or loans and advances are the main source of income for them.
Prime Bank Limited is one of the leading banks in this sector which arranges corporate and retail credit. This Bank is very much concerned with the credit risk and its management and has a credit risk management department. The success of the banks is hidden in the proper management of the all the sorts of risk related to the banking business. Hence credit risk and its management has become a vital part of the bank. This report will give us an overall idea about the credit risk and its management as practiced by the Prime Bank Limited
Objective of the Study
There had been some objectives set forward in doing this report so that it can be determined what task I have to perform in the bank. The objective of the report can be divided into two parts-
- To identify the Credit Risk Management Practices of commercial Banks in Bangladesh.
- To have better orientation on credit and credit risk management activities specially credit policy and practices, credit appraisal, credit-processing steps, credit management, financing in various sector and recovery, loan classification method and practices of Prime Bank Limited (PBL).
- To find out the feasibility and practical market issues about new credit risk evaluation model and credit pricing model for the commercial banks in Bangladesh.
- To analyze the sector-wise credit and their contribution to GDP
- To analyze various Ratios of Prime Bank Limited.
- To analyze the sound lending policy of Prime Bank Limited.
- To get an overall idea about the performance of PBL.
- To identify and suggest scopes of improvement in credit risk management of PBL.
Methodology of the Study
A) Sources of data:
There are two sources of data have been used and most of the data are collected from the secondary sources. The sources are-
- Interviewing the bank officials of Credit Risk Management division and
- Official records and observing practical works.
- Annual reports of PBL Published Booklets/Manuals of the Bank,
- Website of the Bank, Bangladesh Bank, BIBM, CPD, Ministry of Finance etc.
- Various published documents like- Bangladesh Bank’s Monthly Economic Trend, Statistical Yearbook of BBS, Bangladesh Bank Annual Report etc.
History of incorporation of The Organization
Prime Bank Limited is a fast growing private commercial bank of Bangladesh. The Bank has already at the top slot in terms of quality service to the customers and the value addition to the shareholders. Prime Bank Ltd. was incorporated under the Companies Act, 1994 on February 12, 1995 and on this day, filed a duly verified declaration in the prescribed form that the condition of section 150(1)(a) to (d) of the said Act, have been compiled with, is entitled to commence business as a public limited company.
Prime Bank Ltd. being a banking company has been registered under the Companies Act 1913 with its registered office at 5, Rajuk Avenue, Motijheel commercial area, Dhaka 1000. Later it was shifted to Adamjee Court Annex building, 119-120, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-1000. The bank operates as a scheduled bank under banking license issued by Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of the country on April 17, 1995 through opening of its Motijheel branch at Adamjee Court Annex Building, Motijheel commercial area, Dhaka-1000.
The Bank made satisfactory progress over the years after its starting. Despite difficult circumstances it became able to sustain with some achievements. The bank further expected and consolidated its customer base in both of its core business and retail banking. The bank retained its lead position with the capital adequacy ratio of 12.43% as on December end 2002, which is well above the stipulated requirement of 8%. The return on Asset (ROA) was 3.73% well above the industry average.
Commencement of Operation
Prime Bank Ltd. was established on 17th April 1995 with an authorized capital of Tk.1000 million and paid up capital of Tk.100 million (raised to Tk.200 million in 1997) by a group of highly successful entrepreneurs from various fields of economic activities such as shipping, oil, finance, garments, textiles and insurance etc. It is a full licensed scheduled Commercial bank set up in the private sector in pursuance of the policy of the Government to liberalize banking and financial services. The former governor of Bangladesh Bank Mr. Lutfar Rahman Sarkar was the first managing director of the bank. Highly professional people having wide experience in domestic and international banking are managing the bank. The network of branches increased to 120 including 15 SME center and licenses for few more branches are in hand which will be opened soon. Prime Bank Ltd. is the pioneer in providing consumer loans as well as financing to the industries and transport sectors through attractive leasing and hire purchase scheme. Prime is catering both conventional interest based banking and banking under Islamic Sharia Principles. The Islamic banking operations are completely separated from the conventional banking.
Vision Mission and Strategic Properties of Prime Bank Ltd.
“A Bank with a difference” is the motto of Prime Bank Limited. The Bank is prepared to meet the challenge of the 21st century well ahead of time. To cope up with the challenge of the new millennium it has hired experienced and well-reputed banker of the country from the inception. So the Bank defined:
Vision: To be the best Private Commercial Bank in Bangladesh in terms of efficiency, capital adequacy, asset quality, sound management and profitability having strong liquidity.
Mission: To build Prime bank limited into an efficient, market driven, customer focused institution with good corporate governance structure. Continuous improvement in our business policies, procedure and efficiency through integration of technology at all levels.
Focus of Efforts: “on delivery of quality service in all areas of banking activities with the aim to add increased value to shareholders’ investment and offer highest possible benefits to our customers”
Strategic priorities of Prime Bank Limited: To have sustained growth, broaden and improve range of products and services in all areas of banking activities with the aim to add increased value to shareholders’ investment and offer highest possible benefits to our customers.
Objectives of the Bank
The objectives of the Prime Bank Limited are specific and targeted to its vision and to position itself in the mindset of the people as a bank with a difference.
- To mobilize the savings and channeling it out as loan or advance as the company approve.
- To establish, maintain, carry on, transact and undertake all kinds of investment and financial business including underwriting, managing and distributing the issue of stocks, debentures, and other securities.
- To carry on the Foreign Exchange Business, including buying and selling of foreign currency, traveler’s cheque issuing, international credit card issuance etc.
- To develop the standard of living of the limited income group by providing Consumer Credit.
- To encourage the new entrepreneurs for investment and thus to develop the country’s industry sector and contribute to the economic development.
Key financial indicators – At a Glance (Of last five years)
|Key Financial Data & Key Ratios|
|Net interest income||1500||1903||1970||2405||4,234|
|Net Non-interest income||631||1354||1877||2883||1,844|
|Profit before provision and tax||2131||3257||3847||5289||6,078|
|Provision for loans and assets||390||910||1384||700||540|
|Profit after provision before tax||1741||2347||2463||4589||5,538|
|Tax including deferred tax||689||946||1232||1805||2,535|
|Profit after tax||1052||1401||1232||2784||3,003|
|Total Shareholder’s equity||3860||5273||6697||11745||16,769|
|Loans and advances||45010||57683||75156||89252||111,167|
|Property, Plant and Equipment||412||660||1375||1573||1,692|
|Net current assets||5286||1338||9962||3435||7,349|
|Equity Debt ratio||7.00%||7.10%||6.45%||10.39%||12.33|
|Total risk weighted assets||44324||55485||72253||82710||183,747|
|Core capital (Tier-I)||3860||5261||6265||9057||15,793|
|Supplementary capital (Tier-II)||549||1122||1594||3112||5,692|
|Tier-I capital ratio||8.71%||9.50%||8.67%||10.95%||8.60|
|Tier-II capital ratio||1.24%||2.00%||2.21%||3.76%||3.09|
|Total capital ratio||9.95%||11.50%||10.88%||14.71%||11.69|
|Non performing loans (NPLs)||367||777||1323||1149||1,368|
|NPLs to total loans and advances(%)||0.82%||1.35%||1.76%||1.29%||1.23|
|Provision for unclassified loans||545||895||1040||1303||1,463|
|Provision for classified loans||309||478||734||631||642|
|Market price per share (Taka)||529||924||540||653||945|
|No. of shares outstanding(Million)||17.50||22.75||28.44||35.55||57.76|
|No. of shareholders (actual)||5262||7368||9180||10339||19,748|
|Earnings per share (Taka)||60.11||61.57||43.32||78.33||56.90|
|Effective dividend ratio||33.33%||40.00%||27.78%||44.44%||49.52|
|Net asset value per share (Taka)||221||232||235||330||290|
|Price earning ratio (times)||8.80||15.01||12.46||8.34||16.60|
|Key Financial Ratios|
|Operating Performance Ratio|
|Net interest margin on average earning assets||3.23%||2.97%||2.28%||2.31%||3.49|
|Net non-interest margin on average earning assets||1.36%||2.11%||2.17%||2.72%||1.52|
|Earning base in assets (average)||90.71%||91.29%||91.07%||89.34%||87.39|
|Cost income raito||34.07%||32.37%||33.42%||35.47%||37.22|
|Credit deposit raito||82.25%||81.81%||85.38%||83.45%||89.28|
|Cost of funds on average deposits||8.15%||8.41%||8.55%||8.41%||6.39|
|Yield on average advance||13.52%||13.96%||13.69%||13.18%||11.92|
|Return on average assets||2.05%||1.99%||1.30%||2.37%||2.16|
|Return on average equity||31.55%||30.68%||20.58%||30.19%||21.06|
|No of Branches||50||61||70||84||94|
|No of SME||–||–||–||5||14|
|No of employees||1172||1400||1551||1844||2,139|
|No of foreign correspondents||517||553||518||602||621|
|Average earning assets||46448||64128||86530||105083||121,296|
|Average total assets||51203||70244||95013||117622||138,802|
Table: Key Financial Indicators of Prime Bank Limited
PBL focuses on a wide range of financial products and services which include commercial banking through both conventional and Islamic mode, Merchant and Investment Banking, SME & Retail banking, Credit Card and Off-shore Banking. It plays Leading Role in Syndicated Financing. It has expertise in Corporate credit and Trade Finance and made extensive market penetration with continuous growth in Corporate, Commercial and Trade Finance sectors. It has fully owned exchange houses at Singapore and UK focusing on remittance inflow to Bangladesh.
PBL ranked 8th in Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) by market capitalization and stood at Tk.54,572 million as at the end of 2010. It has been ranked as 3rd company by DSE-20 Index. Balance Sheet Size of around Tk 306 billion equivalent to USD 4.4 billion. With wide customer base PBL established itself as the Market Leader among the conventional private commercial banks for deposit and advances.
CRISL upgraded long term rating to PBL to “AA+” from “AA” and reaffirmed short term rating to “ST-1” based on financials up to December 31, 2009 and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information.
|LONG TERM||SHORT TERM|
|Surveillance Rating 2009||AA+||ST-1|
|Surveillance Rating 2008||AA||ST-1|
|Date of declaration||May 10, 2010|
Prime Bank Limited Network
PBL has a large and well distributed network of branches in Bangladesh. It has 104 branches and 15 SME branches covering strategic financial centers. It has 3 Off-shore banking units at different EPZs in Bangladesh. It has fully owned exchange houses at Singapore and UK facilitating inward remittance to Bangladesh. It has active presence in Capital Market through Prime Bank Investment Limited.
Efficient Capital and Strong Asset Quality
PBL has a strong capital base and capital adequacy stands at 11.69 percent of the risk weighted assets against the regulatory requirement of 9 percent. The bank is also well positioned to maintain capital under BASEL-II as it has raised subordinated Bond and issued right shares to strengthen capital base. The bank has a good asset quality and maintaining an NPL ratio below 2 percent.
Focused Business Strategies
The bank is focused on few strategic issues encompassing change in management in the short to long period through the implementation of various policies, processes and activities to ensure continuous, sustainable and qualitative growth, with the sole objective of “Institution Building”. An effective cluster Management program was implemented. Branch management is now being continually exposed to mature thoughts and ideas through Mentors resulting in qualitative improvement of their business and operational activities. Organizational and structural changes were made in managing the bank’s operations more effectively. Business units like corporate/commercial, Retail, SME, Cards were restructured and established to provide sharper business focus to each of these revenue earning sources. Credit approvals, quality and recovery departments were strengthened and separated from business sales to facilitate faster growth and maintain quality simultaneously. Support services to ensure greater customer satisfaction with a wider range of products and services are implemented. New departments like Alternate Delivery Channels, cards back office, call centers, operational support were established
Credit planning implies efficient utilization of scarce (loanable fund) to generate earning for the bank. Constituents of credit planning are: forecasting of loanable fund likely to be available in a particular period of time and allocation of the same amongst alternative avenues in a prudent way. Credit planning has got a serious importance because –Loanable fund comes out of deposit mobilized from the people. So safety of people’s money should be ensured carefully. Unplanned lending may create harm in two ways; firstly, excess lending may create liquidity crisis for the bank. Secondly, too much conservative lending may make the loanable fund idle. Idle but cost bearing fund again incurs operating cost for the bank. Excess liquidity led by unplanned inadequate lending push the profitability to decline. Planned credit helps to maintain conformity with the national priority. Unplanned credit may upset the total economic stability from macro point of view either by making inflation or deflation.
As initiated by Bangladesh Bank vide BCD Circular No. 33 dated 16-11-89 different kinds of lending were subdivided into 11 categories w.e.f. 01-01-90 which was subsequently reduced to 9 vide BCD Circular No. 23 dated 09-10-93 and again to 7 prime sectors vide BCD Circular No.8 dated 25.04.94.
Loan and advances have primarily been divided into two major groups:
a) Fixed term loan: These are the loans made by the Bank with fixed repayment schedules. Fixed tern loans are categorized into three based upon its tenure which is defined as follows:
Short term : Upto 12 months
Medium term : More than 12 and upto 36 months
Long Term : More than 36 months
b) Continuing Loans: These are the loans having no fixed repayment schedule, but have an expiry date at which it is renewable on satisfactory performance of the customer.
Furthermore all categories of loans are accommodated under the 7 prime sectors which are as under:
Agriculture: Credit facilities to the customers of doing agro business falls under this category. It is divided into two major sub-sectors:
a) Loans to primary producers: This sub-sector of agricultural financing refers to the credit facilities allowed to production units engaged in farming, fishing, forestry or livestock. Loans to processors or traders of agricultural products are not to be categorized as agricultural loans. Loans to tea gardens for production are treated as agricultural loan, but loans to tea gardens for export will be treated as “Export Credit”. Similarly medium and long-term loans to tea gardens are categorized as industrial term lending.b) Loans to input dealers/distributors: It refers to the financing allowed to input dealers and (or) distributors in the agricultural sectors.
Loan to Agriculture sector may include short, medium and long term loans as well as continuous credits.
Term Loan to Large & Medium Scale Industry: This category of advances accommodate the medium and long term financing for capital formation of new Industries or for BMRE of the existing units who are engaged in manufacturing of goods and services. Term loan to tea gardens may also be included in this category depending on the nature and size. As the financing under this category have fixed repayment schedule it may fall under the heads Loan (Gen)/Hire-Purchase/Lease Financing etc.
Term Loans to Small & Cottage Industries: These are the medium and long term loans allowed to small & cottage manufacturing industries [Small industry is presently defined as those establishments whose total investment in fixed capital such as land, building, machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed TK 30 million and investment in machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed TK 10 million. Cottage industries also fall within this definition].
Working Capital: Loans allowed to the manufacturing units to meet their working capital requirements, irrespective of their size – big, medium or small, fall under this category. These are usually continuous credits and as such fall under the head “Cash Credit”
Export Credit: Credit facilities allowed to facilitate export of all items against Letter of Credit and/or confirmed export orders fall under this category. It is accommodated under the heads “Export Cash Credit (ECC)”, Packing Credit (PC), Foreign Documentary Bill Purchased (FDBP), Inland Documentary Bill Purchased etc.
Commercial Lending: Short term Loans and continuous credits allowed for commercial purposes other than exports fall under this category. It includes import financing for local trade, service establishment etc. No medium and long term loans are accommodated here. This category of advance is allowed in the form of (I) Loan against Imported Merchandise (LlM), (ii) Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR), (iii) Payment Against Documents (PAD), (iv) Secured Overdraft (SOD), (v) Cash Credit etc. for commercial purposes.
Others: Any loan that does not fall in any of the above categories is considered under the category “Others”. It includes loan to (I) transport equipments, (ii) construction works including housing (commercial/residential), (iii) work order finance, (iv) personal loans, etc.
Loan Products of PBL
Depending on the various nature of financing, all the credit facilities have been brought under two major groups: (a) Funded Credit and (b) Non-funded Credit. Under non-funded credit, there are basically two major products namely Letter of Credit and Letter of Guarantee.
Funded Credit Products
Under Funded Credit, there are the following products:
Loan (General): Short, Medium & Long term loans allowed to individual/firm/industries for a specific purpose but for a definite period and generally repayable by installments fall under this type. These are mainly allowed to accommodate financing under the categories (I) Large & Medium Scale Industry and (ii) Small & Cottage Industry. Very often term loans for (I) Agriculture & (ii) Others are also included here.
Housing Loan (Commercial): Loans allowed to individual/enterprises for construction of house for commercial purpose only fall under this type. The amount is repayable by monthly/quarterly installments within a specified period.
Home Loan: Loans allowed to individuals for purchase of apartment or construction of house for residential purpose fall under this type. The amount is repayable by monthly installments within a specified period.
House Building Loan (Staff): Loans allowed to our Bank employees for purchase of apartment/construction of house shall be known as House Building Loan (Staff) or HBL (Staff).
Other Loans to Staff: Loans allowed to employees other than House Building Loan are grouped under Staff Loan (Gen).
Cash Credit (Hypo): Advances allowed to individual/firm for trading as well as wholesale purpose or to industries to meet up the working capital requirements against hypothecation of goods as primary security fall under this type of lending. It is a continuous credit. It is allowed under the categories (I) “Commercial Lending” when the customer is other than an industry and (ii) “Working Capital” when the customer is an industry.
Cash Credit (Pledge): Financial accommodations to individual/firms for trading as well as for whole-sale or to industries as working capital against pledge of goods as primary security fall under this type of advance. It is a continuous credit and like Cash Credit (Hypo) allowed under the categories (i) “Commercial Lending” and (ii) Working Capital”.
Hire Purchase: Hire Purchase is a type of installment credit under which the customer agrees to take the goods on hire at a stated rental, which is inclusive of the repayment of Principal as well as interest for adjustment of the loan within a specified period.
Lease Financing: Lease Financing is one of the most convenient sources of acquiring capital machinery and equipment whereby a customer is given the opportunity to have an exclusive right to use an asset usually for an agreed period of time against payment of rental. It is a term financing repayable by lease rental.
Consumer Credit Scheme (CCS): It is a special credit scheme of the Bank to finance purchase of consumer durable by the fixed income group to raise their standard of living. The loans are allowed on soft terms against personal guarantee and deposit of specified percentage of equity by the customers. The loan is repayable by monthly installments within a fixed period.
Secured Overdraft (Financial Obligation): SOD (Financial Obligation) is allowed to individuals/firms against financial obligations (FDR, MBDR, Scheme Deposits of our Bank or similar products of other banks). This is a continuous loan having usual maturity period of 1 (one) year and renewable for further periods at maturity.
Secured Overdraft (General): SOD (General) is allowed to individuals/firms for miscellaneous purpose. This is a continuous loan having usual maturity period of 1 (one) year and renewable for further periods at maturity
Secured Overdraft (Work Order): Advances allowed against assignment of work order for execution of contractual works falls under this type. This advance is generally allowed for a definite period and specific purpose. It falls under the category “Others”.
Secured Overdraft (Export): Advance allowed for purchasing foreign currency for payment of Back to Back L/C liability where the exports do not materialize before due the date of import payment. This is categorized as “Export Finance”.
Payment against Documents: Payment made by the Bank against lodgment of shipping documents of goods imported through L/C falls under this type. It is an interim advance connected with import and is generally liquidated against payments usually made by the customer for retirement of the documents towards release of imported consignment from the customs authority. It may fall under anyone of the category “Agriculture/Export Finance/Commercial Lending/Others”.
Loan Against Import: This is funded credit facility allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through L/C taking effective control over the goods by pledge in godowns under Bank’s lock & key. This is a temporary advance connected with import which is known as post-import finance and falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
Loan Against Trust Receipt: Advance allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through LC falls under this type. The goods are handed over to the importer on trust with the arrangement that sale proceeds will be deposited to liquidate the loan account within the stipulated time.
Inland Bills Purchased: Payment made through purchase of inland bills/cheques denominated in local currency to meet urgent requirement of the customer of other than Export Sector falls under this type. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of bills/cheques purchased and sent for collection. It may fall under any of the categories.
Export Cash Credit (ECC): Funded credit facility allowed to a customer for export of goods falls under this type and is categorized as “Export Cash Credit”. The advances must be liquidated out of export proceeds within 180 days.
Packing Credit (P.C.): Advance allowed to a customer against bills under BTB L/C and/or firm contract for processing/packing of goods to be exported falls under this type and is categorized as “Packing Credit”. Packing Credit must be adjusted from proceeds of the relevant exports within 180 days. It falls under the category “Export Credit”.
Foreign Documentary Bills Purchased: Payment made to a customer through purchase/negotiation of a Foreign Documentary bill falls under this type. This temporary advance is adjusted from the proceeds of the shipping/export documents. It falls under the category “Export Credit”
Inland Documentary Bills Purchased: Payment made against documents representing sell of goods to Local export oriented industries which are deemed as exports and denominated in Foreign Currency falls under this type. This temporary liability is adjustable from proceeds of the Bill.
Foreign Bills Purchased: Payment made to a customer through Purchase or Foreign Currency Cheques/Drafts falls under this type. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of the cheque/draft.
General Credit Principles
Lending of money to different kind of borrowers is one of the most important functions of the commercial banks. It is a vital function in the sense that it involves high risk of non-payment by the borrowers. On the other hand lending risk significantly affects the profitability of the banks since a bad loan may eat up all the profits of good loans. So before any lending banks need to keep sound principles in mind to maximize profitability and to minimize risk. These principles are discussed below:
Customer’s Credit worthiness:
Character of Borrower (C1) represents three factors. Related variables of each factor areas follow:
|Factor 1 (F1): willingness of the borrower to repay the loan||Technical expertise|
|Business and management experience|
|Success as entrepreur|
|Family business history|
|Factor 2 (F2): personal honesty of the borrower||Educational qualification|
|Factor 3 (F3): integrity of the borrower||Net profit|
Capability (C2) represents four factors. Related variables of each factor are as follows:
|Factor 4 (F4): management capability of the borrower||Technical expertise|
|Business and management experience|
|Success as entrepreur|
|Family business history|
|Factor 5 (F5): education||Educational qualification|
|Factor 6(F6): financial capability||Net profit|
|Factor 7 (F7): investment ability from own fund.||Retained earnings|
Product and Services: The Bank shall sell suitable credit products and services in the market. For this purpose, Bank will design new product from time to time, reengineer the existing ones to keep the same competitive in the market. While designing new products and/or reengineering the existing ones Bank will always emphasize on customers’ demand. And product innovation and/or reengineering shall be a continuous process.
Loan-Deposit Ratio: Loans and advances shall normally be financed from customers deposit and sometimes from capital fund of the Bank. However, it will be ensured that Loan-Deposit Ratio should not exceed 90% at any particular point of time. Usually loans and advances shall not be extended out of temporary fund or borrowing from money market.
Credit Quality: Credit facilities shall be allowed in a manner so that credit expansion goes on ensuring optimum asset quality i.e. Bank’s standard of excellence shall not be compromised. Credit facilities will be extended to customers who will complement such standards.
Compliance: All credit extension must comply with the requirements of Bank’s Memorandum and Articles of Association, Banking Companies Act, 1991 as amended from time to time, Bangladesh Bank’s instruction circulars, guidelines and other applicable laws, rules and regulations, Bank’s Credit Risk Management Policy, Credit Operational Manual and all relevant circulars in force.
Return: Credit operation of the Bank should contribute at optimum level within the defined risk limitation. In other words, credit facilities should be extended in such a manner that each deal becomes a profitable one so that Bank can achieve growth target and superior return on capital. Besides, Credit extension shall focus on the development and enhancement of customer’s relationship and shall be measured on the basis of the total yield for each relationship with a customer.
Repayment Capacity: Credit facilities will be extended to those customers who can make best use of them thus helping maximize our profit as well as economic growth of the country. To ensure achievement of this objective we will base our lending decision mainly on the borrower’s ability to repay.
Diversification: The portfolio shall always be well diversified with respect to sector, industry, geographical region, maturity, size, economic purpose etc. Concentration of credit shall be carefully avoided to minimize risk.
Proper staffing: Proper credit assessment is complex and requires high level of numerical as well as analytical ability of the concerned officer. To ensure effective understanding of the concept and thus to make the overall credit port-folio of the Bank healthy, proper staffing shall be made through placement of qualified officials having appropriate background, right aptitude, formal training in credit risk management, familiarization with Bank’s credit culture and required experience as well.
Name Lending: The Bank shall carefully avoid name lending. Credit facility shall be allowed absolutely on business consideration after conducting due diligence. No credit facility shall be allowed simply considering the name and fame of the key person or corporate image of the borrowing company. In all cases, viability of business, credit requirement, and security offered, cash follow and risk level will be professionally analyzed.
Single Customer Exposure Limit: Prime Bank will always comply with the prevailing banking regulation regarding Single Customer Exposure Limit set by Bangladesh Bank from time to time. As per prevailing regulation, Bank will take maximum exposure (outstanding at point of time) on a single customer (Individual, Enterprise, Company, Corporate, Organization, Group) for the amount not exceeding 35% of Bank’s total capital subject to the condition that the maximum outstanding against funded facilities does not exceed 15% of the total capital. However, for single customer of the export sector maximum exposure limit shall be 50% of the total capital subject to the condition total funded facility shall not exceed 15% of the total Capital of the Bank at any point of time.
Large Loan: Credit facility to a single customer (Individual, Enterprise, Company, Corporate, Organization, Group) shall be treated as Large Loan if total outstanding amount against the limit at a particular point of time equals or exceeds 10% of the total capital of the Bank. Prime Bank’s total Large Loan Portfolio exposure shall not exceed 56% of the total outstanding loans and advances at any point of time.
Security: Security taken against credit facilities shall be properly valued and effected in accordance with the laws of the country. An appropriate margin of security will be taken to reflect such factors as the disposal costs or potential price movements of the underlying assets.
Pricing Loan Products
The process followed by the PBL as guided by the BB regarding the pricing of the loan products are discussed below:
Credit facilities to the customer are the prime source of the Bank’s income. More specifically, interest from loans accounts the lion share of the total revenue of the Bank. On the other hand, financial market of our country is apparently very competitive due to participation of 49 (forty nine) banks in our small financial market. As such, pricing is very crucial for business growth of the Bank. Prime Bank Limited has been fixing/re-fixing price of different credit facilities from time to time considering changes in the market condition.
Basis of Pricing
Price of all credit facilities will be fixed based on the level of risk and type of security offered. Rate of interest will be the reflection of risk inherent in a particular transaction i.e. the higher the risk, the higher the rate of interest. Therefore, loan pricing will be directly correlated with the risk grade of the customer.
Types of Rate
Usually, Bank will charge fixed interest rate which will be subject to changes by the Management. In this respect, all loan contracts will contain a provision to the effect that rate of interest is subject to changes by the Management. And, interest rate will be revised as and when a significant fluctuation occurs in the cost of fund of the Bank due to volatility of interest rate in the market. The Bank will charge floating interest only in SOD (EDF). In all other cases, fixed interest rate will be applied.
For fixed interest rate, the Board of Directors will fix a Band for a particular Sector/Industry/Product. Customers will be allowed a fixed rate within that band. Any deviation from the approved interest rate band will be mentioned in the Credit Assessment Form with proper justification. The Managing Director may sanction a credit facility at a rate within the Band. However, other executives will exercise their delegated authority to sanction credit facility at the highest rate of the approved Band.
Revision of Rates
The Management of the Bank will continuously monitor interest rate situation in the market and discuss the same in the Asset Liability Management Committee (ALCO) meeting at least once in a month. As per decision of the Asset Liability Management Committee (ALCO), the Management of the Bank may approach the Board of Directors to revise rate of interest, commission, charges etc.
Loan Approval Process
Like every other banks the PBL follows the loan approval process. This process is consists of some steps which describes the ways in which the loan or credit asked from the bank is approved. The process is discussed in the following paragraphs.
Step-1: A potential customer collects prescribed Credit Application Form from the Relationship Officer of Branch/Regional Corporate Banking Department/Corporate Banking Division, Head Office/Web address of the Bank. Later, he/she submits the filled in Credit Application Form along with necessary papers and documents.
Step-2: The Relationship Officer scrutinizes the Credit Application Form and other documents submitted by the customer and make a preliminary assessment on creditworthiness of the potential borrower. He/she collects further information from the customer if it is felt necessary. And, if he/she finds the proposal not bankable, he/she sends a refusal letter to the customer immediately. On the other hand, if he/she finds it acceptable, he/she forwards the application to the concerned Relationship Manager.
Step-3: The Relationship Manager, singly or jointly with Relationship Officer, visit the customer’s business premise and try to acquire proper understanding about the business position, actual credit requirement, repayment capacity etc. Besides, he/she negotiates with the customer about the structure of the proposed credit facility. Apart from this he/she assesses the value of the security to be offered and prepares Valuation Report. Finally, the Relationship Manager summarizes all these information in the Pre-sanction Inspection Report/Call Report/Visit Report in the Bank’s prescribed format in which he/she recommends for some specific credit facility for the customer.
Step-4: The Relationship Manager sends the Pre-sanction Inspection Report to the Corporate Banking Division, Head Office or to the Regional Corporate Banking Department, if any. The Head of Corporate Banking Division/Regional Corporate Banking Department assesses the credit proposal. He/she might contact with the Relationship Manager or directly to the customer for any query. Finally, if he/she decides to refuse the proposal or to proceed further with the proposal and communicates his /her decision to the Relationship Manager.
Step-5: If the Head of Corporate Banking Division/Regional Corporate Banking Department refuses, the Relationship Manager sends a refusal letter to the customer. If he/she is positive, the Relationship Officer collects duly filled in CIB Inquiry Form from the customer and submits it to the Credit Information Bureau of Bangladesh Bank for latest CIB Report through Credit Administration Department, Head Office. Everything may stop here if CIB report shows that the customer has classified liability in its name and/or in the name of its sister concern(s). In that case, the customer is regretted accordingly.
Step-6: Meanwhile, the Relationship Officer rates the customer as per Risk Grading System of the Bank. Finally, the Relationship Manager originates a formal Credit Proposal in which the Head of Corporate Banking Division affixes his/her recommendation regarding the proposal.
Step-7: The Head of Corporate Banking Division, Head Office then forwards the proposal to the Credit Risk Management Department, Credit Division along with necessary papers. The concerned Credit Officer conducts in-depth Credit Analysis (Due Diligence) and affixes his/her comments/observations/findings.
Step-8: The Credit Officer places the proposal along with his/her comments/observations/findings before the Head of Credit/Head Office Credit Committee. The Head of Credit may contact with the Head of Corporate Banking for his/her queries. He/she may also express his/her reservation on a particular issue/risk and ask the Head of Corporate Banking to clarify his/her position and/or risk minimization technique(s). Finally, he might decline the proposal. And, if he/she is fully satisfied he/she may approve the facility if it is within his/her delegated authority. If it is beyond his/her delegated authority, he /she would recommend the proposal to the Managing Director.
Step-9: The Managing Director may decline the proposal if he/she is not satisfied about the proposal. If he/she is satisfied and if it is within his/her delegated power, he/she approves the proposal. If the proposal exceeds his/her delegated authority, he/she recommends it to the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors, which has the supreme authority to sanction any loan.
Step-10: If the facility is approved (whoever is the approval authority), the Credit Risk Management Department of Credit Division issues sanction letter to the Corporate Banking Division/Branch along with a Documentation Check List which clearly spells out what are the documentation formalities required to be completed before disbursement. A copy is sent to Credit Administration Department, Credit Division.
Step-11: The Corporate Banking Division/Branch then issues sanction letter to the customer in line with the letter of Credit Risk Management Department and requests the customer to complete documentation formalities.
Credit Approval Authority
Each and every bank, as per the requirements of BB, must delegate authority of approving loans of certain limit. The authority clearly indicates who can approve the loan and up to what amount and who will be responsible for the approval of the loan. The detail of the practices of the PBL is discussed here.
Delegation of Approval Authority:
Credit approval authority to the proper body and/or executive is a precondition for ensuring smooth and transparent credit operation in the Bank. Since inception, credit approval authority has been delegated to different tiers of both the Board of Directors and the Management. Authorities who enjoy delegation of business power i.e credit approval authority are as follows:
- The Board of Directors
- The Executive Committee of the Board
- The Managing Director
- Executives working as head of Branches.
Credit Approval Authority
Credit approval authority may be delegated to the following body/Executive:
- The Board of Directors
- The Executive Committee of the Board
- Different tier of the Management
The Board of Directors: The Board of Directors will have the authority to sanction any loan for the amount not exceeding the regulatory limit the Bank can provide to a single customer. Besides, all proposals for waiver of interest, commission, charges etc and principal must be approved by the Board of Directors. Any proposal for reduction of rate of interest by more than one percent from minimum level of approved interest rate band must be approved by the Board.
The Executive Committee of the Board: The Executive Committee of the Board of Directors may sanction any loan for the amount not exceeding the regulatory limit the Bank can provide to a single customer. However, it will not have the authority to approve any proposal for waiver of interest, commission; charges etc and principal must be approved by the Board of Directors. Any proposal for reduction of rate of interest by one percent or less from the minimum level of approved interest rate band may be approved by the Executive Committee of the Board. Any proposal beyond the delegated authority of the Managing Director will be placed before the Executive Committee of the Board for approval.
The Management: Different tier of the Management may be delegated credit approval authority to ensure timely disposal of the credit proposals at root level. In the Management, the following executives may be delegated credit approval authority:
- The Managing Director
- The Deputy Managing Director supervising Credit Division
- Executives working at Credit Risk Management Unit, Credit Division
- Executives working as Head of Branches
Credit Limit to a single customer comprising of more than one facility/product will be treated as a Composite Limit. Different tier of the Management may be delegated authority to sanction a composite credit limit to a customer which the respective executive will exercise after complying with all preconditions set in different chapters of this policy document and in the relevant circulars in force. Specially, any executive having delegated authority to sanction a composite limit will exercise this provided that the subject composite limit is covered by collateral security having forced sale value which is at least 1.25 times of the total funded limit. However, the executives having approval authority may sanction following facilities without taking collateral security within their authority: SOD (FO), SOD (WO), SOD (EM), SOD (EDF), SOD (CI), FDBP, IDBP, Bid Bond and the Managing Director may sanction following facilities without taking collateral security within his authority: SOD (FO), SOD (WO), SOD (EM), SOD (EDF), SOD (CI), FDBP, IDBP, LIM, LTR and all non-funded facilities. Different tiers of the Management may be delegated the following authority for approving composite credit limit:
Fig. in Lac Tk
|Sl.No||Designation||Authority to be delegated||Maximum Total|
|2.||Deputy Managing Director||200.00||250.00||250.00|
|3.||Senior Executive Vice President||150.00||200.00||200.00|
|4.||Executive Vice President||100.00||150.00||150.00|
|5.||Senior Vice President||75.00||100.00||100.00|
|7.||Senior Assistant Vice President||40.00||60.00||60.00|
|8.||Assistant Vice President||25.00||50.00||50.00|
Risk is inherent in all types of business. However, for Banks and financial institutions credit risk is considered to be the toughest one. Though Banks and Financial Institutions have been facing difficulties over the years for a multitude of reasons, the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to lax credit standards for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio management or lack of attention to changes in economic or other circumstances that can lead to a deterioration in the credit standing of a bank’s counterparty.
Credit risk is most simply defined as the potential that a borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with the agreed terms and conditions. In other words, it is the loss associated with degradation in the credit quality of the borrowers or counterparties. In a Bank’s portfolio, losses stem from outright default due to the inability or unwillingness of the customer or counterparty to meet commitments in relation to lending, trading, settlement and other financial transactions. Alternatively, losses result from reduction in portfolio value arising from actual or perceived deterioration in credit quality. Credit risk emanates from a bank’s on and off balance sheet dealings with an individual, corporate, bank, financial institution or a sovereign. Credit risk may take the following forms:
- In the case of direct lending: principal and/or interest may not be repaid;
- In the case of guarantees or letters of credit: funds may not be forthcoming from the constituents upon crystallization of the liability;
- In the case of treasury operations: the payment or series of payments due from the counter parties under the respective contracts may not be forthcoming or ceases;
- In the case of security trading business: funds/securities settlement may not be effected;
- In the case of cross border exposure: the availability and free transfer of foreign currency funds may either cease or restrictions may be imposed by the sovereign.
Credit Risk Management (CRM) Department
The Credit Risk Management Department shall perform the following duties:
- Assess risks inherent in the credit proposal sent by Corporate Division and also evaluate proposed facility pricing based on risks, security, structuring and terms and conditions to suit the business condition and to protect Bank’s interest.
- Compliance to the existing rules and regulations of the Bank and all regulatory authorities and laws of the country and to advise the Corporate Division for rectification, if required.
- Advise the Corporate Division about changes, if required, in the structure and terms and conditions of the proposed facility.
- Process credit proposal for approval of the competent authority.
- Issue sanctions advice for credit facilities or decline.
- Maintain Limit Sanction Register.
- Review the performance of the customer on Off-site Basis and prescribe appropriate remedial measures, if required until the loan account becomes a “Special Mention” one.
- Review/revise risk grading of the customer from time to time based on the “Early Alert Report” and Downgrade Proposal submitted by Corporate Division.
Major Functions of CRM
- To update Bank’s Credit Policy/Lending Guideline, procedures and control mechanisms related with all credit risks arising from corporate/commercial banking and retail banking etc.
- To approve/decline credit proposal received from Corporate Division (presently from Branches) within delegated authority and to recommend to the higher authority if it is beyond delegation.
- To provide advice/assistance regarding all credit matters to Corporate Division/Branches.
- Periodical review of different types of credits, maintain effective follow-up and supervision and take all possible measures in time to save from classification.
Duties and Responsibilities of CRM:
Examine/review credit proposals (new/renewal) sent by corporate division/branches to:
- Process for approval
- Placing credit proposals in the Head Office Credit Committee.
- Decline credit proposals if they do not meet criteria.
- Recommendation credit proposal to Additional Managing Director/Managing Director/EC/ Board for their approval
- Prepare facility sanction letter
Review on a periodical basis in the light of:
- Adequacy of security
- Pricing and profitability
- Financial analysis &
- Form and content
- Revise and ratify borrower’s risk grade developed by Corporate Division/branches.
- Review delegated credit approval authorities on an annual basis
- Review approval procedures of Retail Credit from time to time
- Review and update bank’s credit manual and credit operating procedures on an annual basis.
- Conduct industry analysis and detect risk involved with each industry.
- Formulate strategy to minimize risk of lending to specific industry.
- Guide and educate officers of all Departments of Credit Division and Corporate Division/branches.
Credit Risk Review and Monitoring Process
The credit review and monitoring process of PBL mainly based on the risk grading and its review. The overall process is discussed here.
Credit Risk Grading
While providing credit facility to a customer, Bank undertakes many risks among which credit risk is considered to be the most important one. As such, an in-depth study should be conducted on the borrower’s creditworthiness which will help the bank to identify all possible risks underlying in a particular credit transaction. A formal evaluation of borrower’s financial health and ability to repay debt obligation is called credit rating which helps the Bank to grade the concerned customer. As such, it is also called credit risk grading. And, risk identified through credit rating/risk grading is quantified for better understanding and taking appropriate mitigating technique. Besides, it helps the Bank to charge commensurate risk premium on a particular credit facility. Therefore, it is important to accurately measure the risks in a transaction and rate/grade the facility accordingly.
Credit Risk Grading
To assess the borrower’s creditworthiness, an in-depth study should be conducted that will help the bank to identify all possible risks underlying in a particular credit transaction.
Basic Frame Work:
Bangladesh Bank made it mandatory for the Banks to conduct a “Credit Risk Grading (CRG)” in the prescribed format before sanction of a loan. In the said Guideline, Bangladesh Bank provided a sample Risk Grading Model and advised Banks to design their own model in line with that one.
Prime Bank’s Risk Grading Framework:
All credit proposals must be supported by a comprehensive risk analysis. It will encompass the following three things:
- Credit Risk Grading (CRG)
- Risk Grading Scorecard
- Risk Grading.
- No proposal can be put up for approval unless there has been a complete written analysis.
Number and Short Name of Grades
The proposed CRG scale consists of 8 categories with Short names and Numbers are provided as follows:
|Bad & Loss||BL||8|
Credit Risk Grading Definition
A clear definition of the different categories of Credit Risk Grading is given as follows:
Superior – (SUP) – 1
- Credit facilities, which are fully secured i.e. fully cash covered.
- Credit facilities fully covered by government guarantee
- Credit facilities fully covered by the guarantee of a top tier international Bank.
Good – (GD) – 2
- Strong repayment capacity of the borrower
- The borrower has excellent liquidity and low leverage
- The company demonstrates consistently strong earnings and cash flow
- Borrower has well established, strong market share
- Very good management skill & expertise
- All security documentation should be in place
- Aggregate Score of 85 or greater based on the Risk Grade Score Sheet
Marginal/Watch list – (MG/WL) – 4
- This grade warrants greater attention due to conditions affecting the borrower
- These borrowers have an above average risk due to strained liquidity, higher than normal leverage, thin cash flow and/or inconsistent earnings
- The borrower incurs a loss
- Loan repayments routinely fall past due
- Aggregate Score of 65-74 based on the Risk Grade Score Sheet
Special Mention – (SM) – 5
- This grade has potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention.
- Severe management problems exist
- Facilities should be downgraded to this grade if sustained deterioration in financial condition is noted (consecutive losses, negative net worth, excessive leverage)
- An Aggregate Score of 55-64 based on the Risk Grade Score Sheet.
Substandard – (SS) – 6
- Financial condition is weak and capacity or inclination to repay is in doubt
- These weaknesses jeopardize the full settlement of loans
- Bangladesh Bank criteria for sub-standard credit shall apply
- An Aggregate Score of 45-54 based on the Risk Grade Score Sheet
Doubtful – (DF) – 7
- Full repayment of principal and interest is unlikely and the possibility of loss is extremely high
- However, due to specifically identifiable pending factors, such as litigation, liquidation procedures or capital injection, the asset is not yet classified as Bad & Loss
- Bangladesh Bank criteria for doubtful credit shall apply
- An Aggregate Score of 35-44 based on the Risk Grade Score Sheet.
Bad & Loss – (BL) – 8
- Credit of this grade has long outstanding with no progress in obtaining repayment or on the verge of wind up/liquidation
- Prospect of recovery is poor and legal options have been pursued
- Proceeds expected from the liquidation or realization of security may be awaited and the anticipated loss should have been provided for.
Allocation of weight ages to Principal Risk Components
According to the importance of risk profile, the following weightages are proposed for corresponding principal risks.
Principal Risk Components: Weight:
Financial Risk 50%
Business/Industry Risk 18%
Management Risk 12%
Security Risk 10%
Relationship Risk 10%
Credit Monitoring Process
Credit monitoring process starts immediately after disbursement of the facility. Steps involved in monitoring process are as follows:
Step-1: The customer starts repayment of the loan. Simultaneously, Branch relationship officer starts monitoring the loan on on-site basis. If he/she finds any deviation to the terms and conditions of the sanction or borrowers financial health, he/she prepares an Early Alert Report and sends it to the Corporate Banking Division, Head Office.
Step-2: Simultaneously, Credit Administration Department monitors the loan on an off-site basis and reports its findings to the Credit Risk Management Department. On the other hand, Corporate Banking Division informs the Credit Risk Management Department about the customer’s position on the basis of Early Alert Report received from Relationship Officer. It may propose revising the customer’s risk grading. Credit Risk Management Department ultimately decides on the customer and directs Corporate Banking Division to take necessary action.
Step-3: The Relationship Officer regularly reminds the customer as per decision of the Credit Risk Management Department about the irregular repayment, if any and/or breach of contract through letter and/or phone call and/or visit in person.
Early Alert Reporting
An Early Alert Account is one that has risks or potential weaknesses of a material nature requiring monitoring, supervision, or close attention of the management. If such weaknesses are left uncorrected, they may result in deterioration of the repayment prospects for the asset or in the Bank’s credit position at some future date with a likely prospect of being downgraded to Grade 5 or worse (Impaired status), within the next twelve months.
Therefore, early identification, prompt reporting and proactive management of Early Alert Accounts are prime responsibilities of all Relationship Managers/Officers and the whole process must be a continuous one. An Early Alert Report is completed by the RM and sent to the approving authority in CRM for any account that is showing signs of deterioration within seven days from the identification of weaknesses. The Risk Grade is updated as soon as possible and no delay is taken in referring problem accounts to the CRM department for assistance in recovery.
- To separate documentation and disbursement activity from credit approval process.
- To ensure discipline in Credit Management.
Duties and Responsibilities:
- Documentation: To ensure that security documents are prepared in accordance with approval terms and are legally enforceable.
- Disbursement: To allow disbursements under loan facilities only after completion of all documentation formalities. The branches shall send a copy of Certificate of Documentation (Check list) to Credit Administration Department, Head Office seeking approval for disbursement. In respect of business credit facilities allowed by the Head of branch under the business power delegated to him, Certificate of documentation (check list) alongwith a copy of sanction advice to be also sent to the Credit Administration Department for disbursement authority. They shall send it by fax followed by mail. The Credit Administration Department shall promptly response for advising about disbursement preferably on the same day. If disbursement authority is given to the Branch with some exception i.e. incomplete documentation with the undertaking of the Head of Branch to get it completed within a given time frame having approval from the competent authority, the Credit Administration Department shall continuously follow-up with the concerned Branch to ensure completion of the documentation within the given time frame. In the cases of Large Loan the representative of Credit Administration Department may visit the Branch to verify the status of documentation.
- Custodial Duty: To ensure safekeeping of all security documents. Presently, the document files shall be preserved by the branches under joint custody. Credit Administration, HO shall supervise, control and monitor the custodial matter.
- CIB Related Function: To collect CIB report of the borrower as and when asked by the Corporate Division/branches. They shall submit CIB statement to Bangladesh Bank and perform all CIB related activities.
- Compliance: To prepare and submit all required Bangladesh Bank returns in the correct format in a timely manner. To ensure that all Bangladesh Bank circulars/regulations are maintained centrally, and advised to all relevant departments to ensure compliance.
- Enlistment: To enlist and manage all third party service providers (Surveyors/valuers, lawyers, insurers, CPAs etc.) and review their performance on an annual basis.
- Others: To prepare all monthly statements as required by the Management.
The recovery department is responsible for the recovery of the loan. The Recovery Department of Credit Division manages accounts with sustained deterioration (a Risk Grade of Sub-Standard (6) or worse). Sometimes, as per recommendation of the Credit Risk Management Department and Corporate Banking Division the Management decides to transfer some EXIT accounts graded 4-5 to the RU for efficient exit. Whenever an account is handed over from Corporate Banking Division/Relationship Management to RU, a Handover/Downgrade Checklist is prepared. Down grading process is done immediately and is not postponed until the annual review process.
The RU’s primary functions are to:
- Determine Account Action Plan/Recovery Strategy
- Pursue all options to maximize recovery, including placing customers into receivership or liquidation as appropriate.
- Ensure adequate and timely loan loss provisions are made based on actual and expected losses.
- Regular review of grade 6 or worse accounts.
- Management of classified loans and special mention accounts.
- Waiting off B/L loan accounts and related works with the approval of the Board.
The recovery of problem loans is a dynamic process, and the associated strategy together with the adequacy of provisions is regularly reviewed.
NPL Account Management
All NPLs is assigned to Account Manager(s) within the Recovery Department, who is responsible for coordinating and administering the action plan/recovery of the account, and serves as the primary customer contact after the account is downgraded to substandard. The Recovery Department sought assistance from Corporate Banking/Relationship Management if required to ensure that appropriate recovery strategies are in force.
Account Transfer Procedure
Within 7 days of an account being downgraded to substandard (grade 6), a Request for Action (RFA) and a handover/Downgrade Checklist is prepared by the RM and forwarded to Recovery Department for acknowledgment. The account is assigned to an account manager within the Recovery Department, who will review all documentation, meet the customer, and prepare a Classified Loan Review Report (CLR) within 15 days of the transfer. The CLR is approved by the Head of Credit, and copied to the Head of Corporate Banking and to the Branch/office where the loan proposal was originated. This initial CLR highlights any documentation issues, loan structuring weaknesses, proposed workout strategy, and should seek approval for any loan loss provisions that are necessary.
Recovery Departments ensures that the following is carried out when an account is classified as Sub Standard or worse:
- Facilities are withdrawn or repayment is demanded as appropriate. Any drawings or advances should be restricted, and only approved after careful scrutiny and approval from appropriate executives within CRM.
- CL report is updated according to Bangladesh Bank guidelines and the borrower’s Risk Grade is changed as appropriate.
- Loan loss provisions are taken based on Forced Sale Value (FSV) of the underlying collaterals.
- Loans are rescheduled in conjunction with the Loan Rescheduling Guidelines of Bangladesh Bank which are in force. Any rescheduling should be based on projected cash flow and should be strictly monitored.
- Prompt legal action is taken if the borrower is non-cooperative.
Non-Performing Loan (NPL) Monitoring
On a quarterly basis, a Classified Loan Review (CLR) is prepared by the Recovery Department Account Manager to update the status of the action/recovery plan, review and assess the adequacy of provisions, and modify the bank’s strategy as appropriate. The Head of Credit approves the CLR for NPLs up to 15% of the banks capital, while MD’s approval is required for NPLs in excess of 15%. The CLR’s for NPLs above 25% of capital is approved by the MD/CEO, with a copy presented before the Board of Directors.
Macroeconomic scenario analyses
This analysis will help us to find out the trend in the macroeconomic factors related to the credit of banking industry. Here I have tried to show the trends and relationship or contribution to the economy of some macro economic factors.
Analysis of export and credit for export:
The export sector of a country is one of the main sources of foreign reserve. But in Bangladesh the export has not grown very much since liberation war. Recently we have found some growth in this sector because of the RMG growth in Bangladesh.
From the above graph we can have a look that there is a positive relationship between the amount of exports and the loans to this sector. This will be clearer with the help of Correlation and Regression analysis. After conducting the analyses the following results are obtained.
From the above table we can see that, the R is 0.917700995 which is the correlation between the two variables. So we can say that there is a strong positive relationship between the loan for export sector and growth of export sector.
The R square indicates that the depended variable which is Exports is 84% explained by the independent variable that is loan to this sector, or we can say that 84% change in exports has occurred due to the loan to this sector.
Analysis of the sector-wise credit and their contribution to GDP
These analyses will help us to see the trends and relationship between the sector-wise loans and the trend of the contribution to the GDP by that sector.
Agriculture and Forestry:
From the above graph and the table we can see that both loan amount and contribution of Agriculture and Forestry sector has increasing trends for last 10 years. The R shows us that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This means that, if the loan amount to this sector is increased then the contribution of this sector to the GDP will also increase. The R square 0.952 indicates that 95.25% change in the dependant variable has occurred due to the independent variable.(Calculation is in Appendix)
From the above graph and the table we can see that both loan amount and contribution of manufacturing sector has increasing trends for last 10 years. The R= 0.9898 shows us that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This means that, if the loan amount to this sector is increased then the contribution of this sector to the GDP will also increase. The R square 0.9797indicates that 97.97% change in the dependant variable has occurred due to the independent variable.(Calculation is in Appendix)
From the above graph and the table we can see that both loan amount and contribution of ‘Construction’ sector has increasing trends for last 10 years. The R= 0.9928 shows us that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This means that, if the loan amount to this sector is increased then the contribution of this sector to the GDP will also increase. The R square 0.9858indicates that 98.58% change in the dependant variable has occurred due to the independent variable. (Calculation and data are in Appendix)
Electricity Gas and Water:
From the above graph and the table we can see that both loan amount and contribution of ‘Electricity Gas and Water’ sector has increasing trends for last 10 years. The R= 0.3942 shows us that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This means that, if the loan amount to this sector is increased then the contribution of this sector to the GDP will also increase. The R square 0.155 indicates that 15.5% change in the dependant variable has occurred due to the independent variable. (Calculation and data are in Appendix)
Transport, Storage and Communication:
From the above graph and the table we can see that both loan amount and contribution of ‘Transport, Storage and Communication’ sector has increasing trends for last 10 years. The R= 0.9215 shows us that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This means that, if the loan amount to this sector is increased then the contribution of this sector to the GDP will also increase. The R square 0.8492indicates that 84.92% change in the dependant variable has occurred due to the independent variable. (Calculation and data are in Appendix)
Wholesale and Trade:
From the above graph and the table we can see that both loan amount and contribution of ‘Wholesale and Trade’ sector has increasing trends for last 10 years. The R= 0.98745 shows us that there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. This means that, if the loan amount to this sector is increased then the contribution of this sector to the GDP will also increase. The R square 0.9749indicates that 97.49% change in the dependant variable has occurred due to the independent variable. (Calculation and data are in Appendix)
Loan and Advances mix of PBL
The Prime Bank Limited started to provide retail credit informally from the year 1999 as a part of its core business. The loans and advance mix in different sector are given below:
Ratio Analysis of PBL (Credit Risk Related)
Analysis of the related ratios will help us to find out the factors influencing the performance of the Bank and also the credit risk as the ratios analyzed here are mostly related to the risk.
Loan to Deposit Ratio:
Loan to deposit ratio indicates the amount of loan and advances funded from the client’s deposit. In our country, Bangladesh Bank has fixed this rate as 82% the only reason is that any commercial bank has to maintain 19% reserve with Bangladesh Bank in the form of CRR & SLR. From this figure we observe that PBL doesn’t follow the guideline of Bangladesh Bank of credit deposit ratio, on the other hand they are obliged to maintain the required reserve from their deposit. So, we conclude that PBL provides this amount of credit through borrowing from outside of the bank.
Loan to total asset (Loan ratio):
The loan to total asset ratio mainly indicates the extent to which assets are committed to loans as opposed to other assets including cash, securities and plant and equipment. The last year loan ratio of PBL shows the increasing trend, which will indicate the expanding the size of the Balance Sheet as well. But from 2006-2009, the ratio was decreasing that might be for keeping the CAR at the desired level or may be some problem in the economy. But in 2010, EBL made some investment on the other side of loan. (The calculation of the ratio is annexed in the appendix)
Capital adequacy ratio (CAR):
The capital adequacy ratio is measured by the ratio of banks capital to risk weighted asset. This ratio indicates the bank’s safety position to meet up the depositor demand in case any emergency. In the year 2007 and 2008, PBL had maintained higher CAR relative to other three financial years. The only reason for higher CAR in those two years is that, bank had invested lot of their deposit in risky sector in the form of loans and advances. In 2010, it again reaches to more than safety position where any bank has to maintain only 10% in the form of Car and EBL had maintained more than 10% in the last five financial years. (calculation is annexed in the appendix)
Return on Asset (ROA):
The return on asset measures an enterprise’s overall profitability of assets. In 2008, PBL achieved the lowest ROA as 1.3 and the only reason behind the decline of ROA is that the bank had a lot of risky investment in the form of loans and advances as well as the amount of classified loan is also increased in that year. Again in 2009 & 2010, the bank has obtained higher ROA compare to the banking industry in Bangladesh where the average ROA in the banking sector is about to.(calculation is annexed in the appendix)
Provision against Unclassified Loan:
Almost all banks provide the estimated future loan losses as an expense on its income statement. The provision for the loan losses are found from the dividing the provision of estimated loan losses to its total loans and advances. In 2007, PBL has to maintain a lot of provision against unclassified asset. The larger provisions will indicate the larger amount of loans and advances is in the position to be classified. Again the larger provision will better for the depositor as their deposit is in the safety position. (calculation is annexed in the appendix)
Provision against classified loan:
Provision against classified asset indicates the amount of provision that a bank creates against its classified loan or non-performing loan. In the last three financial years, PBL has maintained more than 50% provision against its classified loan. This large amount of provision will secure the depositor position in the bank as well as increase the reliability of the bank. (Calculation is annexed in the appendix)
Non Performing loan (NPL) ratio:
Non Performing loan means the loans that are going to be or about to be uncollectable because of several reasons. The larger amount of NPL will show the bank’s inability to select right customers to disburse the credit facility. Generally a banks credit risk will be measured in the form of calculating the amount of classified loan. The large portion in the classified loan will indicate the greater risk a bank has. In the last three financial years, PBL shows increasing NPL but in the last two years it has changed and having a decreasing trend in controlling the unclassified loan and able to bring the last five years line in the declining trend. (Calculation and data are in Appendix)
SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. SWOT is an acronym for the internal strength and weakness of a firm and the environmental Opportunity and Threat facing that firm. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. The technique is credited by Albert Humphrey.
So if we consider Prime Bank as a business firm and analyze its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat the scenario will be as follows:
Strengths of Prime Bank Limited:
- A powerful strategy supported by good corporate governance to increase shareholders value by being efficient, professional transparent and accountable to society and environment.
- PBL has strong brand image as it has won the prestigious ICAB award for being the best bank in Bangladesh and “A” graded bank according to the CAMEL rating.
- Products and services are as diversified as the market segment demands and the customer group range from individuals, big corporate clients, NGOs to Non residents.
- PBL has strong capital position.
- The asset and liability committee (ALCO) of the bank maintains a satisfactory trade-off between liquidity and profitability.
- The bank is able to achieve higher growth of loans and deposit than the industry rate.
- Prime bank limited has strong balance sheet with favorable ROE and ROA.
- Low non-performing assets or classified loans of the bank signify strengths in credit customer selection.
- The bank has covered all the global locations of homebound remittance.
- The bank has now a network of 89 branches throughout the country.
- The quality of asset is one of the strong areas of operation of PBL.
- Many of the branches of PBL are under CBS T24. This is helping to minimize the errors.
- PBL has well diversified asset portfolio to retail, SME and capital market.
- PBL has a good credit rating of AA which is rated by Credit Rating and Information Services Limited (CRISL).
Weaknesses of Prime Bank Limited:
- All of the branches of PBL are still not under the CBS T24. This lacking is creating operating inefficiency such as human error, fraud and forgeries.
- The junior level management of PBL is not as efficient as the mid and top level management. This may be because of the lack of proper training to the junior and training officer.
- Risk management of lending portfolio often require stress testing which are based on sophisticated mathematics tools and cannot solely be dependent on existing MIS. The level of technology in banking industry is yet acquiring that sophistication.
- the employees of the branches which are under T24 are facing some sort of problem to cope up with the new software that is why it is taking more time to serve a customer.
- The ATM booths owned by the PBL are not sufficient in comparison to the other banks.
- PBL has lack of manpower to serve the growing customer demand.
Opportunities of Prime Bank Limited:
- PBL took a strategic shift towards developing and expanding the SME financing which has received considerable attention of policy makers.
- Implementation of world class CBS T24 in number of branches will reduce fraud and forgeries and other operating risks arising from human error.
- this bank has establish remittance arrangement with 24 leading exchange companies and banks including the global money transfer agency Western Union in 2007.
- The bank introduced direct selling service recruiting highly trained and customer focused professionals.
- Finance Act of 2007-08 has withdrawn the withholding tax on purchases by credit card and it is expected that credit card business will expand rapidly in near future.
Threats of Prime Bank Limited:
- Changes in general economic condition resulting from calamities and political disturbance.
- The bank is now facing increasing interest sensitive customer who are demanding higher rate of return.
Changes in government policy –
- Increase in tax, VAT on banking services,
- increase in corporate tax rate,
- Increase in CRR and SLR of the banks,
- Withdrawal of incentives given to some thrust sectors which may make the project slow moving,
- Directive to reduce the lending rates to finance essential items,
- Increase in provisioning requirement would reduce the ROA and ROE,
- Reducing the margin ratio for investment accounts.
- Volatility in interest rate.
- Introduction of compliance issues raised by the international forums which is likely to affect the export growth.
- The rising price of oil and other importable items have exerted pressure on dollar which has squeezed the exchange and fee earning of the bank.
Comparison of PBL with Industry Norm
Here in this section I have tried to provide a brief idea at a glance on how PBL is performing in terms of some selected ratio compare to the other banks in the industry. Here I have taken the averages of Private Commercial Banks ratios which are available.
Capital Adequacy Ratio
The capital adequacy ratio is measured by the ratio of banks capital to risk weighted asset. This ratio indicates the bank’s safety position to meet up the depositor demand in case any emergency
From the above table we can see that PBL is performing well compare to the Industry average in terms of Capital Adequacy Ratio. Particularly in the year 2009 when industry average was 12.1% the PBL had maintained a CAR of 14.71%, the reason might be the global financial crisis going on that period.
The return on asset
The return on asset measures an enterprise’s overall profitability of assets. The more the ROA the greater the Profitability.
From the above table wee can see that fro year 2006 to 2010 PBL has earned greater ROA than the industry average. In year 2007 and 2008 PBL was not earning well but was very close to the industry averages.
NPL to Loan Ratio
Non Performing loan means the loans that are going to be or about to be uncollectable because of several reasons. The larger amount of NPL will show the bank’s inability to select right customers to disburse the credit facility. Generally a banks credit risk will be measured in the form of calculating the amount of classified loan. The large portion in the classified loan will indicate the greater risk a bank has.
From the above table we can see that PBL has a very low NPL ratio and pretty much good than the industry average.
During my internship period I have some findings related with Credit appraisal & credit management system of Prime Bank Limited. The findings are shown in parts of credit appraisal, credit recovery and credit default.
Findings on Credit appraisal
- PBL uses credit appraisal technique comprising technical, market, financial, economic, and management & organization analysis.
- Credit appraisal technique is good enough itself, but the problems lie with personnel involves in appraisal process
- The main problems can be summarized in the following way:
- One of the problems with credit appraisal is inadequate and inaccurate data.
- Sponsors always tend to overstate their future cash flow, revenue and income and understate the risk with capturing market and expenses.
- Market don’t remain same over the years especially over the time gap between loan sanction and loan recovery.
- Lengthy procedure and long time involved in the appraisal of project
- Sometimes, there is pressure groups’ involvement in sanctioning loan.
- Many viable projects do not get sanctioned loan due to absence of bribe and pressure from political and other pressure group.
- The personnel involve in project appraisal are either not quite expert in their respective field or corrupt.
- Physical verification is not rigorously done for every project that is why the project appraisal techniques do to bring any outstanding results.
- Sometimes, the amount of loan sanction is more than that is required by the project because of over invoicing from the part of sponsors.
Findings about the Credit Recovery
- Usually PBL inform the borrowers before 7 days of the scheduled date of payment about his/her next upcoming installment due.
- Visiting to the borrowers premises is hardly done before the loan is defaulted.
- The recovery department cannot coerce or make bound to repay the loan because of pressure from political and other higher management.
- Sometimes sponsors do like to linger the repayment time to have the replacement facilities.
- The recovery amount has been increasing for last 5 years, and the variance between recovery targets.
Findings about Credit Defaults
- The causes of the loan defaults are:
- Willing defaults
- Government policy, sometimes, causes a firm to stop business operation or due to changes in the government policy a firm may incur loss.
- Due to market changes firms may not get buyers to sell production resulting in a no sale, no cash, and no repayment.
- Technological change may also lead a firm to incur losses because of obsolete technology cannot compete with modern technology resulting in less cash generation.
- Sometimes, project is not implemented because the shortages of fund from the part of borrower.
- Lack of financial commitment from the part of borrower the result is the failure of mobilization of equity. They divert their equity in other purposes after getting the loan amount
- Default amount shows a down-ward trend during 5 years
- Law department functions very slowly and follow a difficult bureaucratic process.
- After enactment of the, the legal action has got speed and the number law suits have increased.
- Most of the cases settled outside the court.
- There are some problems of taking over the company, like maintenance of the property and selling the property.
- It takes time to settle a suit, because the borrower has right to writ against the verdict.
7.1.4 Analytical Findings
- Throughout credit analysis of Prime Bank Limited some mentionable results are found-
- Bank is doing well in its credit operation. The amount of interest earning shows the success.
- The bank’s Net Interest Margin is in the decreasing trend.
- ROI is very as compared with NBL, though Prime bank limited invested more amount than NBL.
- PBL has good credit ratings. That is a plus point for it.
- Strong financial condition helps the bank to be a market leader.
- From regression analysis it has shown that loan amount of the bank is inversely related with Interest rate.
- PBL is mainly focusing on Industrial credit beside other type of credit.
A banker cannot sleep well with bad debts in his portfolio. The failure of commercial banks occurs mainly due to bad loans, which occurs due to inefficient management of the loans and advances portfolio. Therefore any banks must be extremely cautious about its lending portfolio and credit policy. So far Prime Bank Limited has been able to manage its credit portfolio skillfully and kept the classified loan at a very lower rate —thanks go to the standard and stringent credit appraisal policy and practices of the bank.
But all things around us are changing at an accelerating rate. Today is not like yesterday and tomorrow will be different from today. Given the fast changing, dynamic global economy and the increasing pressure of globalization, liberalization, consolidation and disinter-mediation, it is essential that Prime bank limited has a robust credit risk management policies and procedures that are sensitive to these changes.
Prime bank Limited has an efficient & excellent credit management team and performing with great expertise and care. There are some limitations that can be overcome by some measures to make the performance outstanding. There are some suggestions for prime banks credit management team from my observation.
- In credit management, it is conventional that proposals of credit facilities must be supported by a complete analysis of the proposed credit. More importance should be given on refund of loans out of funds generated by the borrower from their business activities (cash flow) instead of realization of money by disposing of the securities held against the advance, which is very much uncertain in present context of Bangladesh, where a number of creditors are willful defaulters.
- For commercial lending, most of the time clients are unable to submit audited financial statements. The reason is no legal bounding to prepare audited financial statements for all commercial organization. So the credit officer has to face difficulties about the reliability of financial statements submitted. So there should be some flexibility for proprietorship concerns.
- Credit officer measures the risk associated with the credit facility. He should not be liberal in this respect; he should strictly follow the credit evaluation principle setup by the bank. It should improve in file management system to faster the dealings with the client’s proposal.
- On the basis of that Return on Equity (ROE) model, risk and return of the bank is analyzed. Prime Bank has a good return in the following years from its operation. But Bank should be careful in its riskiness. It should improve its liquid assets to reduce the liquidity risk. It should also try to increase its reserve.
- Prime Bank’s approving credit is sometimes very conservative. Through it classified loans can be minimized but the credit committee should be more liberal to faster the growth of its credit operation.
- In Bangladesh there is no risk measuring Model. Bangladesh Bank should take immediate steps to introduce a risk measuring model by which all Banks can measure the credit risk. Besides Bangladesh bank must enforce all the banks to introduce risk based credit pricing. There should be detailed guidelines in this regard.
- Bangladesh Bank should create a data storage cell for industry/business data so that while credit risk grading bankers can access those data.
Researchers support the fact that economic and financial development of a country are highly correlated to the development of its banking and financial system. The more developed and efficient the banking sector of a country is, the more developed is the business industry sectors will be.
With a view to improving the quality and soundness of loan portfolio, credit risk management methods were updated in 2005. The Bank is now applying a new system of credit risk assessment and lending procedures by striker separation of responsibilities between risk assessments and lending decisions and monitoring functions. The Bank monitors its exposure to particular sectors of economy on an ongoing basis. The Bank has undertaken the changes in policy of credit risk management, credit risk administration and credit monitoring and recovery in line with the guidelines of Bangladesh Bank, formulated in the last year.
Credit Appraisal system of this bank is pretty efficient. From the beginning of the process of credit appraisal system the credit committee is sufficiently committed and caring. After received loan application from the client, in-depth study of various related documents & gathering of information from different banks and other sources are performed. The loan proposal that is prepared by the credit officer and submitted to the higher authority for approval is the most important part of credit appraisal system because based on this proposal the granting of credit decision is made. Credit collection process of PBL is also strict and satisfactory.
We hope that PBL will lead by example by continuing its efficient lending policy in keeping the bank’s financial performance indicators at above industrial average and contribute to country’s economic development-thus attaining a middle income status in the world.