Efficiency Ratios

Efficiency ratios, also known as activity ratios, are measures used to assess a company’s ability to efficiently use its resources, such as capital and assets, to generate revenue. Efficiency ratios typically consider the time component engaged with an organization’s assortment interaction to put it plainly, how long it requires for their stock to clear and be changed over into deals. The ratios are used to compare expenditures to profits generated, basically representing how much revenue or benefit a corporation can earn from the money it spends to run its business.

Efficiency ratios are regularly viewed as one next to the other with benefit proportions. The more productively an organization is overseen and works, the more probable it is to create the most extreme benefit for its proprietors and investors over the long haul. In most cases, businesses that are more capital productive are also more successful. Multinational retail companies that market high quantities of low-margin goods are perfect examples. Financial analysts can inspect an assortment of effectiveness proportions to make a widely inclusive appraisal of an organization’s generally operational proficiency, as various productivity proportions center around various spaces of activity, for example, how well an organization deals with its resources, income, and stock.

Efficiency levels may be compared to rivals in the same industry to classify companies that are better run than their competitors. In essence, financial analysts consider efficiency ratios to be a critical indicator of an organization’s current and short-term success. Some basic efficiency ratios are money due turnover, fixed resource turnover, deals to stock, deals to net working capital, creditor liabilities to deals, and stock turnover ratio. Analysts usually go through the financial statements of a business, such as the balance sheet and income statement, to gather data for efficiency ratio calculations.

Example of Efficiency Ratios

An efficiency ratio has a particular significance in the banking industry. Non-interest expenses/revenue is the efficiency ratio for banks. Subsequent to doing the math, it is acceptable to contrast productivity proportions and friend organizations in the business to get a knowledge into how the organization performs comparative with the opposition. Overall, productivity ratios and profitability ratios have a strong relationship. Companies become prosperous because they effectively distribute their capital. As a result, if the productivity levels have changed over time, it could mean that the business has become more efficient.

Among the most popular efficiency ratios are the following:

Inventory Turnover Ratio: The inventory turnover ratio is a metric that calculates how well a business handles its inventory. It is defined as the number of times a company’s stock of products runs out in a given period of time. The formula of inventory turnover ratio is:

Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory

A lower inventory turnover ratio means that a company’s inventory is not well managed. It may be a case of overstocking or a sales problem. A higher inventory turnover ratio is often preferable because it means that inventory does not sit on shelves for long periods of time but instead rotates quickly.

Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio: This ratio indicates how easily a business receives payments from its customers. It is a measure of how effective a company’s credit practices are and the amount of receivables expenditure needed to sustain the firm’s revenue level. The formula of accounts receivable turnover ratio is:

Accounts Receivables Turnover = Net Credit Sales / Average Accounts Receivable


  • Net Credit Sales are sales where the proceeds are collected at a later point in time. Net credit sales = Sales on credit – Sales returns – Sales allowances.
  • Average Accounts Receivable is the sum of starting and ending accounts receivable balances over the time period (e.g., monthly or quarterly), divided by 2.

Any business that has a higher accounts receivable turnover is better off. When an organization’s accounts receivable turnover is too poor, it means that it is having trouble collecting from its clients or that it is overly generous with credit.

Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio: Despite the fact that accounts payable are liabilities rather than assets, their trend is significant because they are a major source of funding for operational operations, impacting operational performance. This ratio is important because it reflects a company’s ability to manage its own bills. The formula of account payables turnover is:

Accounts Payables Turnover = Net Credit Purchases / Average Accounts Payables


  • Net Credit Purchases = Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) + Ending Inventory balance – Starting Inventory balance for a specified period. This is, however, the general purchasing formula. Only transactions made on credit are counted as net credit purchases. Analysts sometimes use COGS as the numerator instead of net credit purchases because the figure for net credit purchases is difficult to come by.
  • Accounts on the Average The number of beginning and ending accounts payable balances over a time span (e.g., monthly or quarterly) divided by two equals payable. Both balances can be found on the balance sheet of the organization.

A high accounts payable turnover ratio shows that firm isn’t dealing with its bills quite well, perhaps it isn’t getting ideal credit terms from its providers. A low accounts payable turnover ratio is better. The ratio likewise fills in as an estimation of transient liquidity. A higher payable turnover ratio is advantageous because it allows the organization to have cash on hand for longer periods of time. As a result, the working capital funding gap or working capital cycle is reduced.

Working Capital Turnover: The amount of operating capital required to sustain a given level of revenue is reflected in this ratio. This ratio can only be calculated using operating assets and liabilities. The formula of the working capital ratio is:

Working Capital Turnover = Sales / Average Working Capital

It is often preferable to have a higher working capital turnover ratio. A higher working capital means that a business is getting the most out of its cash. A low working capital ratio indicates that the business is not performing at its best.

Asset Turnover Ratio: By combining the effect of both short-term and long-term assets, this ratio offers a measure of overall investment performance. The following formula can be used to measure the ratio:

Assets Turnover Ratio = Net Sales / Average Total Assets


  • Net Sales = Sales minus Sales returns, Sales discounts, and Sales allowances
  • Average Total Assets = (Total assets at the end of the period + Total assets at the beginning of the period) / 2.

This ratio is influenced by numerous conditions, for example, the life pattern of an organization, the life pattern of an item, the beginning plant limit, and relative deals. Additionally, there are factors like resource valuation (accounting of depreciation), the circumstance of the company’s resource buy, and so forth that influences this ratio.

Finally, productivity ratios are beneficial to a company’s management in assessing its activities. A 50 percent or lower performance ratio is considered ideal. When the efficiency ratio rises, it indicates that a bank’s expenditures are rising while its profits are falling. Also, financial backers and moneylenders utilize the ratios when leading monetary investigation of organizations to choose whether they address wise speculation or a trustworthy borrower.

Information Sources:

  1. efinancemanagement.com
  2. investopedia.com
  3. studyfinance.com
  4. corporatefinanceinstitute.com