Put-Call Parity

Put–call parity is a principle in financial mathematics that describes how the values of puts, calls, and the underlying asset must be compatible with one another. It is a rule that characterizes the connection between the cost of European put alternatives and European call options of a similar class, that is, with a similar fundamental resource, strike cost, and termination date. This is since, in such a case that the price at expiry is over the strike value, the call will be worked out, while in the event that it is underneath, the put will be worked out, and consequently, regardless of one unit of the resource will be bought at the strike cost, precisely as in a forward agreement.

Hans Stoll was the first to identify the theory in 1969. This formula creates a connection between the prices of call and put options with the same underlying asset. The call and put options must have the same expiration date and strike price for this partnership to work. The legitimacy of this relationship necessitates that specific suspicions be fulfilled; these are determined and the relationship is inferred underneath. In practice, transaction costs and borrowing costs (leverage) mean that this relationship does not hold exactly, but it is similar to exact in liquid markets.

A portfolio consisting of a long call option and a short put option should be equivalent to a forward contract with the same underlying asset, expiration, and strike price, according to the put-call parity relationship. The equation expressing put-call parity is:

C + PV(x) = P + S


C = price of the European call option

PV(x) = the current value of the strike price (x), discounted at the risk-free rate from the value on the expiration date

P = price of the European put

S = spot price or the current market value of the underlying asset

Put-call equality can be utilized to distinguish exchange open doors on the lookout; it is a static replication, and hence requires negligible presumptions, in particular the presence of a forward agreement. Put-call parity only applies to European options that can only be exercised on the expiration date, not to American options that can be exercised at any time. Without exchanged forward agreements, the forward agreement can be supplanted (surely, itself reproduced) by the capacity to purchase the hidden resource and account this by acquiring for fixed term (e.g., getting securities), or then again to get and undercut (short) the basic resource and credit the got cash for term, in the two cases yielding a self-financing portfolio.

Since this relationship must hold in principle, the put-call parity theory is crucial to comprehend. If the relationship between European put and calls does not hold, there is a potential for arbitrage. These suspicions don’t need any exchanges between the underlying date and expiry, and are subsequently essentially more fragile than those of the Black–Scholes model, which requires dynamic replication and persistent exchange in the hidden. Put/call parity states that the price of a call option means a certain equal price for a put option with the same strike price and expiration date (and vice versa). When the prices of put and call options diverge, arbitrage opportunities emerge, allowing some traders to benefit without risk.

Notwithstanding, certifiable business sectors might be adequately fluid that the relationship is near precise, most altogether FX markets in significant monetary standards or significant stock files, without market choppiness. Comparing the efficiency of a defensive put and a fiduciary call of the same class is another way to think about put-call parity. A defensive put is a long stock position paired with a long put that limits the stock’s downside risk. Put-Call parity hypothesis just remains constant for European style choices as American style alternatives can be practiced whenever preceding its expiry.

C0+X*e-r*t = P0+S0

This condition is additionally called as Fiduciary Call is equivalent to Protective Put. Here, the left half of the condition is called Fiduciary Call in light of the fact that, in trustee call technique, a financial backer restricts its expense related with practicing the call alternative (regarding the charge for thusly selling a hidden which has been truly conveyed if the call is worked out).

Protective Put is the name given to the right side of the equation because in a protective put strategy, an investor buys a put option as well as a stock (P0+S0). If share prices increase, the investor can reduce their financial risk by selling company shares and preserving their portfolio; if share prices fall, the investor can close his position by exercising the put option.

A fiduciary call is a long call joined with money equivalent to the current worth (adapted to the rebate pace) of the strike value; this guarantees that the financial backer has sufficient money to practice the choice on the lapse date. Put-call parity has been practiced since the Middle Ages, and it was formally defined by a number of scholars in the early twentieth century. Russell Sage, a financier in the nineteenth century, used put-call parity to construct synthetic loans with higher interest rates than the time’s usury laws would have permitted.

Put-Call Parity doesn’t remain constant for the American choice as an American choice can be practiced whenever preceding its expiry. In 1908, mathematics professor Vinzenz Bronzin derives the put-call parity and applies it to his arbitrage claim to construct a set of mathematical choice models for a variety of distributions. In fact, arbitrage opportunities are fleeting and difficult to come by. Also, the edges they offer might be slender to the point that a gigantic measure of capital is needed to exploit them.

Information Sources:

  1. wallstreetmojo.com
  2. investopedia.com
  3. corporatefinanceinstitute.com
  4. wikipedia