The Objective of Human Resource Management
Managers and HR departments achieve there purpose by meeting objectives. Objectives are benchmarks against which actions are evaluated. Four HR objectives are given below:
A: Organizational objective:
To recognize that Human Resource management exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. Even when a formal HR department is created to help managers, the managers remain responsible for employee performance. The HR department exists to help managers achieve the objectives of the organization. HR management is not an end in itself; it is only a means of assisting managers with their human resource issues.
B: Fictional objective:
Maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organizations needs. Resources are wasted when Human Resource management is more or less sophisticated than the organization demands.
C: Societal objective:
Ethically and socially responsive needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands on the organization. The failure of organizations to use their resources for society’s benefits in ethical ways may result in restrictions.
D: Personal objective:
Assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as those goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. The personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained, and motivated.
Personnel management VS Human resource management:
Although on some key issues- a natural concern for people, and their need, together with finding efficient means to select, train, appraise, develop and reward them, there are some point of dissimilarities between personnel management (PM) and human resource management (HRM). Traditional personnel management tends to be parochial, striving to attend line managers, with a strong proactive stance and a bias towards business. PM has a history of placing emphasis on bureaucratic control often in a reactive sense, i.e., control of manpower and personnel systems. Some would argue that PM represented a highly compartmentalized system.
By contrast, HRM makes a determined effort to be a more integrative mechanism in bringing people issue into line with business issues, with a pronounced problem – seeking and problem solving orientation, and a determination to build collaborative organizational systems. The role of top management in setting the agenda for change and development is very much in evidence in Human Resource Management.
Some personnel managers will no doubt see the growing influence of HR managers as a threat fearing that they may just become custodians of personnel systems. Beer (1997) identified major obstacles in transforming the traditional administrative personnel function and moving to a fully fledged HRM system. He function is that most HR professionals do not possess the requisite analytical and interpersonal skills.
In Human Resource Management there is a greater emphasis on strategic issues and on the way which the human resource contributes to the achievement of corporate objectives. HRM underlines the importance of flexibility and the ability to react and adapt quickly to changes in the organizational environment.
PM can be described as a series of activities related to various aspects of an employee’s relationship with the organization. Human Resource Management is also concerned with these issues, but in addition stresses the primacy of business needs. Other points of departure are that HRM embraces individual flexibility and congruency between individual and organizational goals, whereas PM is concerned with systems applied to individuals and collectivism.
Meaning and recruitment:
Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting qualified or suitable applications to fill vacancies. This is the process of locating potential candidate for selection. It is the discovering of potential candidate for selection. It is the discovering of potential candidates for actual or actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. During this process, efforts are made to inform the applicants fully about the selection criteria, i.e. the required competences, which will lead to effective performance and the career opportunities the organization can provide for them.
Dale Yoder (1986) defines recruitment as a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is pool of qualified applicants from which new employees are selected. Recruiting is important because the best- qualified applicants must be found to fill vacancies.
Objectives of recruitment policy:
Objectives are targets and goals. According to Yoder, following are the main objectives of recruitment policy:
– To find and employee the best qualified person for each job.
-To retain the best and most promising ones.
-To offer promising careers and security
-To provide facilities for growth and development
-To minimize the cost of recruitment
-To reduce scope of favoritism and malpractice.
Factors Affecting Recruitment:
There are many factors affecting recruitment. These factors may be considered in to two broad groups:
Internal factors: These are the factors with in organization. These factors are listed down here:
– Image of the organization. An origination with poor image cannot attract a large number of applicants. For example, among most university graduates Dhaka University has a positive image.
– Image of job or attractiveness of the job. If the job to be filled is unattractive, recruiting a large and qualified pool of applicants will be difficult.
-Size and growth potential of the organization. Higher the size and growth potentials, higher the advancement opportunities.
-Internal policies. Internal organizational policies such as promote from within will give priority to individuals inside the organization. Such a policy will usually ensure that all positions will be filled form within the ranges.
-Trade union requirements.
External factors: these are the factors over which organization has little or no control. Some of these are given below:
-Demographic factors: gender ratio, age group, and educational level.
-Industrialization: industrialization within the geographical area and geographical concentration will have influence on employment market in recruitment.
-labor market: supply of labor may be plenty or shortage. In Bangladesh, supply of labor of unskilled labor is abundant but there is shortage of skilled labor. The right type is difficult to find.
Sources of Recruitment:
There are basically two sources of supply from where potential employees can be drawn. These are internal sources and external sources.
A: Internal sources: internal source indicate recruiting qualified people from within the organization it self (from the present working force). When reference is made to the number of employees already employed by the organization we speak of the internal supply. Whenever any vacancy occurs, someone form within the organization is upgraded, prompted or transferred to another department.
B: External sources: recruitment form outside the organization is known as external source. All firms more or less rely on external sources.
Meaning of Selection:
Once a pool of suitable applicants is created through recruiting, the process of selecting applicants begins. Selecting means choosing form those applicants who are most likely to succeed in the new job. It is the technique of choosing a new member of the organization from the available candidates. The selection process is a series of steps used to decide which recruits should be hired.
Dale Yoder (1972) defines selection as a process by which candidates are divided into class-those who will be offered employment and those who will not. The process begins when recruits apply for employment and ends with the hiring decision.
Training and Development:
Training is continues process of helping employees to perform at a high level. It is a process of acquiring new skills to do job properly. Training changes and modifies employee’s attitude and behaviors that will improve his ability to perform on the job activity. The main purpose of training is given below:
- Training mainly focus on current job
- Its short term and long term oriented.
- Training is given at the beginning of job.
- The reason of training is employee development.
Importance of Training:
- Economy in operation
- Minimization of supervision
- Better performance of employees
- Increase morality
- Uniformity in performance
- Effective control
There are two type of training basically given on organization. They are:
- on the job training:
- off the job training
Compensation and other benefits:
Compensation and salary is an amount of money which is given by organization to their employees for performing the recent job. Well compensation structure is help to increase employee’s motivation, and attention to give better performance to their organization. Every organization should select the proper compensation structure for their employees. Compensation or salary amount is depending on the employees post, work activity, work place etc.
Benefit is indirect financial payment given to the employees for their employment in their organization. Example: health and life insurance, vacation, pension, education plans and discounts on company products e.t.c.