Main purpose of this report is to analysis Training and Development and Employee Performance. Other objectives are to find out the influential factors which pursued by employees in training and development and identify the relationship between employee satisfaction and training and development. Here also discuss on the general information of training and development and employee perceptions.
Training Development is the framework that focuses on the organizations competencies at the first stage, training, and then developing the employee, through education, to satisfy the organizations long-term needs and the individuals’ career goals and employee value to their present and future employers. Human Resources Development can be defined simply as developing the most important section of any business its human resource by, “attaining or upgrading the skills and attitudes of employees at all levels in order to maximize the effectiveness of the enterprise”.
Employee attitude are evaluative statement either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events. Employee reflect how one feels about something. When he/she says they like their job, employees expressing there attitude about work. Attitudes are not the same as value but the two are interrelated.
In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behavior. If workers believe, for example, then supervisor , auditors , bosses, & time & meson engineer are all are conspiracy to employees work harder for the or less money, then it make sense to try to understand how these attitudes ware formed, their relationship to actual job behavior , & how they might be change.
In our report we are discussing to training & development session how to be continue how to be developed & how it is attractive to the employee. & what are employee attitude, dimension & forms. In here include a survey analyses & finding analyses.
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are as follows:
- The main objectives of the study is to find out the influential factors which pursued by employees in training and development.
- To identify the relationship between employee satisfaction and training and development.
- To identify the general information of training and development and employee perceptions.
The study is basically quantitative in nature. This analysis is based on the primary data collected from different organizations. Data have been collected from 105 respondents from 5 different sectors namely Pharmaceuticals, Textile, NGO, Banking and Insurance sectors. The sample technique used is non probabilistic in nature, more specifically sample is purposively taken from different occupational groups. The data are collected by using self-administered questionnaires from each respondent. In this paper all the variables are examined on five point’s scale of Liker. Data are related to the characteristics of the satisfaction in light of which employees’ performance is tried to evaluate. Here the factor analysis, factor matrices are rotated by using varimax rotation technique for analyzing the data for identifying the relationship between job satisfaction and performance of employees.
Training & development
At the organizational level, a successful Human Resources Development program will prepare the individual to undertake a higher level of work, “organized learning over a given period of time, to provide the possibility of performance change.
Human Resources Development is the framework that focuses on the organizations competencies at the first stage, training, and then developing the employee, through education, to satisfy the organizations long-term needs and the individuals’ career goals and employee value to their present and future employers. Human Resources Development can be defined simply as developing the most important section of any business its human resource by, “attaining or upgrading the skills and attitudes of employees at all levels in order to maximize the effectiveness of the enterprise”.
The people within an organization are its human resource. Human Resources Development from a business perspective is not entirely focused on the individual’s growth and development, “development occurs to enhance the organization’s value, not solely for individual improvement. Individual education and development is a tool and a means to an end, not the end goal itself”.
The broader concept of national and more strategic attention to the development of human resources is beginning to emerge as newly independent countries face strong competition for their skilled professionals and the accompanying brain-drain they experience.
Concept of Training & Development
The quality and variety of the employee training provide is key for motivation. Reasons for employee training range from new-hire training about operation, to introducing a new concept to a workgroup to bringing in a new computer system.
Reason for conducting an employee training session, need to develop the employee training within the framework of a comprehensive, on going, and consistent employee training program. This quality employee training program is essential to keep staff motivated about learning new concepts and department profitable.
Program with an overview of the job expectations and performance skills needed to perform the job functions. A new hire training program provides a fundamental understanding of the position and how the position fits within the organizational structure.
A training program begins with the creation of an employee training manual, in either notebook format or online. This manual acts as a building block of practical and technical skills needed to prepare the new individual for his or her position. In order for the department to understand current policies and procedures, a manager must ensure the department manuals or online employee training are kept current. This includes any system enhancements and / or change in policy or procedure.
Another of training includes having the new associate train directly next to an existing associate. Some call this On the Job Training (OJT) or side-by-side training. This type of employee training allows the new associate to see first hand the different facets of the position.
OJT allows the new hire the opportunity to develop a working relationship with an existing associate. This type of employee training reinforces concepts learned in the initial training and should be used to reinforce and apply those same learned concepts.
A continuing education program for a department is just as important as the new hire training. When training a new associate, I have found that they will only retain approximately 40 percent of the information learned in the initial training session. Therefore, a continuous effort must be placed on reminding the staff about various procedures and concepts. This continuing education can be formal or informal. The author’s preference is always with a more informal approach.
The formal or traditional approach, to employee training often includes a member of management sending a memo to each associate. The informal, and often more appealing approach to a visual learner, is to send a one-page information sheet to staff. This information sheet, called a training alert, should be informative and presented in a non-threatening manner. Therefore, if the policy or procedure changes the informal approach would better prepare the department to receive this presentation.
Given bellow the various kinds of employee training & development concept:
One Time TAD Clinic Concept
The one time clinic concept is perfect for those leagues that want to offer some type of programming but are limited to space and or volunteers. The concept is as follows:
- Select a date that is following regular season but before other sport seasons are starting.
- Find a number of volunteers that can commit time for that date.
- Send home flyers to all players during the regular season and inform them of this clinic date.
- Find a site, a field, a local gymnasium or cage.
- Organize the agenda which should have instructional components as well as a game or contest component to create some fun.
- Determine if participation awards are needed.
- Identify players who are “natural leaders” and utilize them as mentors for younger / more inexperienced players
Regular TAD Clinics Concept
The regular TAD clinic concept is arranged around a number of set dates throughout the late summer and/or fall. It is designed to provide numerous opportunities for instruction through a specified time frame. The concept is as follows:
- Select the dates to operate the concept.
- Find a number of volunteers to assist in the training.
- Send home flyers during the regular season announcing the fall program.
- Organize your instruction.
- Interlinguas play could possibly be arranged with surrounding leagues.
- Determine if participation awards are needed.
- Introduce baseball or softball related skill game.
- Identify players who are “natural leaders” and utilize them as mentors for younger, more inexperienced players.
- Determine the number of volunteers needed
Informal League Play TAD Concept
The informal league play TAD concept is designed for those leagues that strictly want to play extra Determine Number of players needed to form teams
- Inform players during the regular season of the Fall Ball availability
- Determine length of Fall Schedule
- If more than one team and not Interlingua playing, determine draft method.
- Determine if participation awards are needed.
- Alternate managers and coaches between teams so players are exposed to varying leadership / teaching methods.
- Identify players who are “natural leaders” and utilize them as mentors for younger / more inexperienced players.
Purpose of Training & Development
While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs.
It helps in adhering to a plan. Given bellow the objective of training & development
At its most basic form, a piece of information about something is a “unit of awareness” about that thing. (A field of philosophy, epistemology, includes analysis of what is really information and what isn’t. This field might visit the question: “If a tree falls in the forest, does it make a sound?”) Some people think that this awareness occurs only in the brain and, therefore, usually comes from some form of thought. Other people also accept information as a form of realization from other forms of inquiry, e.g., intuition.
Training provides many kinds of information for the employee:
- What’s kind of job
- What’s to be doing to hear?
- Position to the organization.
- Competitor to the organization.
Knowledge is gleaned by organizing information. Typically, information evolves to knowledge by the learner’s gaining context, perspective and scope about the information. Gathering knowledge for employee is the most important objective to organization.
Many kinds of knowledge gather to be hear such like:
- Job knowledge.
- Know to be organization.
- Know to be competitor
Skills are applying knowledge in an effective and efficient manner to get something done. One notices skills in an employee by their behaviors. When employee skill will be developed then organization will give better output.
- Employee will be gendered professional skill
- In this sector employee will know to the organizational environment.
- Employee will know to how facing to organizational situation.
- Organization build quality employee.
A task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in the organization may include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions.
- What is the organizational objective it will know to the training & development.
- Organization know to who a perfect to which sector.
- Organization finds out the best employee.
A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct.
- Employee finds out the best carrier.
- Organization finds out the best employee.
- Employee gander that kinds of knowledge thaw is suitable for carrier.
A role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles.
- Organization maintains proper rules & regulation.
- Employee knows to organizational maintaining role.
- Organization can find out to rules breaker.
Typically, learning is viewed as enhancing one’s knowledge, understanding or skills. Some people see learning as enhancement to one’s knowledge, awareness and skills. It’s important to note that learning is more than collecting information — more than collecting unredeemed books on a shelf. Depending on the needs of the learner, knowledge is converted to skills, that is, the learner knows how to apply the knowledge to get something done.
Ideally, the skills are applied to the most appropriate tasks and practices in the organization, thereby producing performance — results needed by the organization.
- Employee learn to how to doing work.
- Employee know to how maintained rules & regulation.
- Employee learn to job responsibility
viii) Continuous Learning:
Simply put, continuous learning is the ability to learn to learn. Learning need not be a linear event where a learner goes to a formal learning program, gains areas of knowledge and skills about a process, and then the learning ceases. If the learner can view life (including work) as a “learning program”, then the learner can continue to learn from almost everything in life. As a result, the learner continues to expand his or her capacity for living, including working.
- When training will be continuing than employee will be learn many things.
- System wise gander knowledge.
- Provide best learning things.
This term seems to be the most general of the key terms in employee training. Some professionals view education as accomplishing a personal context and understanding of the world, so that one’s life and work are substantially enhanced, e.g., “Go get an education.” Others view the term as the learning required to accomplish a new task or job.
- Organization provide training for find out best employee
- Employee takes training to give best out put.
- Organization provides training for maintaining organization perfectly.
This term is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. This development often includes a wide variety of methods, e.g., orienting about a role, training in a wide variety of areas, ongoing training on the job, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view development as a life-long goal and experience.
- Best employee provides best output.
- Developing employee’s the best asset of the organization.
Methods of Training & Development
There are various methods of training, which can be divided into mainly two types given bellow:
- Cognitive Method
- Behavioral Method
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.
Some say it reminds them of the immeasurable potentiality of life, and by analogy, of human growth. While it seems that the sky is the limit regarding the possibilities for human beings, Edison’s quote, “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99% perspiration,” applies to the intricate and challenging process of learning. The root of the word education means to draw out, suggesting that individual’s potential abilities may be drawn out in an excellent educational environment, one which meets the challenges of diverse needs. We share a dream that each student will be able to unfold his or her academic potential in college.
Because education in the community college system is open to all, and learners from all backgrounds attend college, professors must be ready to make learning opportunities accessible for all types of learners. In response to this goal, the focus in this section will be on how people learn, what we can do as teachers to promote student success.
Why Cognitive Method is important
Both learning style and cognitive testing indicate that several pathways to learning exist. Professors who teach in the way they best learn appeal most effectively to students who learn in a similar manner. Unfortunately, other students whose learning styles differ often miss out on gaining knowledge and mastering the content. This section gives teachers an opportunity to build on their knowledge gained from the learning style inventories in other parts of this online course and relate it to their own teaching styles. In addition, this section points out how different people learn cognitively, and how this surfaces in everyday teaching-learning situations. You will see how to pinpoint possible causes of student error. You will read about research-based instructional methods for insuring access to all students. You will also have an opportunity to explore methods for promoting student success culled out of the fire of everyday teaching experience by peers. This section ends by giving you a chance to practice solving some problems that may arise in the course of the term.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are given bellow:
- COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)
- INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)
- PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)
- VIRTUAL REALITY
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.
Behaviorism, along with several newer variations that have names like information processing theory, emphasize the learning of facts and skills that authorities, such as teachers or school boards, have decided are important. While these theories have many different names we will use the term behaviorism here. Another American psychologist who had a tremendous impact on education in the 1950s and 1960s. Behavioral approaches to teaching generally involve the following:
- Breaking down the skills and information to be learned into small units.
- Checking student’s work regularly and providing feedback as well as encouragement
- Teaching “out of context.” Behaviorists generally believe that students can be taught best when the focus is directly on the content to be taught. Behavioral instruction often takes the material out of the context in which it will be used.
- Direct or “teacher centered” instruction. Lectures, tutorials, drills, demonstrations, and other forms of teacher controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral classrooms.
Types of behavioral theories
Behavioral theories support a number of different approaches to teaching. Almost all of them fall under the general category of “direct” or “teacher-centered” instruction. The approaches include tutorials, drill and practice, behavioral simulations, and programmed instruction.
An approach that combines all these teaching strategies into one “system” is called an “integrated learning system”.
The sections below explain several popular types of behavioral instruction. The explanations are, however, very brief. You may want to explore the links in each section that take you to examples of the different types of software.
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:
- GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
- BUSINESS GAMES
- CASE STUDIES
- EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS
- IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE
- ROLE PLAYS
Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.
Management Development Methods
The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities.
Management development method is further divided into two parts:
On the job training
Formal OJT programs are quite different from informal OJT. These programs are carried out by identifying the employees who are having superior technical knowledge and can effectively use one-to-one interaction technique.
The procedure of formal on the job training program is:
- The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled trainer (employee)
- The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before, during and after trainer has explained about performing the tasks
- When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the work place
- The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback
- The trainee is given more and more work so that he accomplishes the job flawlessly the development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job.
The four techniques for on the job development are
- JOB ROTATION
- JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)
Off the job training:
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:
- SENSITIVITY TRAINING
- TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
- STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
- SIMULATION EXERCISES
Training need Assessment
A training need assessment is a set of nationally-endorsed standards, qualifications and guidelines used to recognizes and assess the skills and knowledge people need to perform effectively in the workplace. Training packages are developed by industry through Industry Skills Councils or by enterprises to meet the training needs of an industry or group of industries. Training packages prescribe outcomes required by the workplace, not training or education.
A Training need assessment contains three compulsory endorsed components—
- Competency Standards
- Qualifications Framework and
- Assessment Guidelines.
Competency Standards are a set of benchmarks used to assess the skills and knowledge that a person must demonstrate in the workplace to be seen as competent. These benchmarks are packaged into combinations to form Units of Competency.
Units of Competency
Units of Competency consist of—
i) Unit Code
A Unit Code is made up of letters and numbers. Using the unit code TAADES401A as an example, units must contain—
Training Package identifier: “TAA” refers to the Training Package in which it resides—in this example, the Training and Assessment package.
The next three letters identify the industry field: “DES” refers to the industry field of Learning Design. Sometimes the industry field identifier can be more generic, allowing use of the unit across various sectors and training package e.g. “COM” often refers to Communication.
The first number is called the “AQF indicator”, which indicates the AQF qualification in which the unit was first packaged, e.g. the “4” represents the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (noting however that Roman numerals must always be used in Certificate qualification titles). AQF indicators are indicative only and not prescriptive. As such it is common to see units with various AQF indicators packaged into a qualification. A unit with an AQF indicator of 3 should not be considered a “level 3 unit”, as units do not have levels. A unit of competency describes the skills and knowledge required to undertake the job function described. As such, assessment of a unit should not vary depending on the level of qualification in which it is packaged. Assessments must be established to determine whether a learner/worker is competent in the function.
The next two numbers (11) are call the sequence identifier and identify where the unit is in the sequence of units, e.g. 01 is the 1st unit in the Learning Design sequence of units in the TAA training package.
The last letter in the code is the version identifier: “A” shows it is the first version of the unit describing a competency outcome. Should the training package be updated and the competency outcome of the unit not change, the unit will be recoded as “B” (Note: When NTIS functionality permits, newly allocated codes will not include this—see Transitional note under “Coding maintenance”).
The Unit Title is a brief statement of the outcome of the Unit of Competency for example “Maintain workplace safety”.
The Unit Descriptor broadly communicates the intent of the Unit of Competency and the skill area it addresses.
These are units that should be completed before commencing the unit.
vi)Unit application Statement
This component describes the unit’s application within the work place. It indicates the environments in which the skills and knowledge may be applied and sets out the parameters of the unit, its potential audience and its relationship to other units in the Training Package.
This describes the activities that make up the broader function or job.
This further specifies what is to be assessed and the required level of performance of the activities.
ix)Required skills and knowledge
This details the requirements of pre-existing skills or knowledge i.e. language and literacy or specific industry knowledge.
All the qualifications for an industry and the Units of Competency required for each qualification make up the Qualification Framework.
Assessment guidelines are a set of requirements used to check that a person’s performance meets the Competency Standards. The Assessment Guidelines ensure assessment is Valid, Reliable, Fair and Consistent.
Employee Performance appraisal:
A employee performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performance review, or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career development. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee’s recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgment of an employee’s performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone.
Why Employee Performance:
Generally, the needs of a performance appraisal are to:
- Give employees feedback on performance
- Identify employeetraining needs
- Documentcriteria used to allocate organizational rewards
- Form a basis for personnel decisions:salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, bonuses, etc.
- Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development
- Facilitate communication between employee and administration
- Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federalEqual Employment Opportunity
- To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development.
Measuring of Employee Performance:
A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates, and customers, while also performing a self assessment. This is known as a 360-degree appraisal and forms good communication patterns.
The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal process include the following:
- Management by objectives
- 360-degree appraisal
- Behavioral observation scale
- Behaviorally anchored rating scales
Trait-based systems, which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness, are also commonly used by businesses. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factors such as these should be avoided. The reasons for this are two-fold:
1) Because trait-based systems are by definition based on personality traits, they make it difficult for a manager to provide feedback that can cause positive change in employee performance. This is caused by the fact that personality dimensions are for the most part static, and while an employee can change a specific behavior they cannot change their personality. For example, a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have been caught, but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caught is gone.
2) Trait-based systems, because they are vague, are more easily influenced by office politics, causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employee’s true performance. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to fill them out based on who they want to/feel should get a raise, rather than basing scores on specific behaviors employees should/should not be engaging in. These systems are also more likely to leave a company open to discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to back them up with specific behavioral information.
Relation between Training & Development and Employee performance
Training & Development:
The formal or traditional approach, to employee training often includes a member of management sending a memo to each associate. The informal, and often more appealing approach to a visual learner, is to send a one-page information sheet to staff. This information sheet, called a training alert, should be informative and presented in a non-threatening manner. Therefore, if the policy or procedure changes the informal approach would better prepare the department to receive this presentation
Performance appraisals are an instrument for social control. They are annual discussions, avoided more often than held, in which one adult identifies for another adult three improvement areas to work on over the next twelve months. You can soften them all you want, call them development discussions, have them on a regular basis, have the subordinate identify the improvement areas instead of the boss, and discuss values. None of this changes the basic transaction… If the intent of the appraisal is learning, it is not going to happen when the context of the dialogue is evaluation and judgment.
Actually this two are related with each other. Training & development enhanced the performance of the employee and employee performance appraisal evaluated the performance level.
- The training & development program can be made effective & successful if the following hints are considered:
- Top management support & active involvement is essential to make training & development program successful.
- Outlining specific training & development objective on the basic of the type of performance needed to achieve organizational goal.
- Making attempts to determining it the trainee has the intelligence & skills & movement to successfully complete the training & development programs.
- Increase employee interest in training by making him/her award of the personal benefits of training that he /she can attend through better performance.
- Planning training & development program an such a way so that it is related to the trainees previous experience & background.
- Making attempt in order to create organizational condition that are conductive to a good learning environment
- Selecting a combination of methods to permit in the training.
- Rewarding the trainee for better performance.
- Ensuring active participation of the trainee in the training program.
Training & development is a dynamic process where continues adjustment are necessary to make it relevant & useful. In this context the establishment ministry maintains a policy to design, develop organize & import training to meet the expectation & need of the employees. Field administrator has close relation with training because of its constant need & wide application. To meet the day to day work performance & to face the field realities Training & development has a greed impact & role to play. In time of national disasters like drought, floods industries accidents the field officials have to face a very hard reality where they need official type of training. Without proper training internal office management & external field work would not have been possible to complete in right manner.