Training and development activities are designed in order to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to employees.
Methods and Techniques of Training
A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Training methods are categorized into two groups and they are:
- On-the-job training (OJT)
- Off-the-job training
On-the-job training: On-the-job training is primarily learning by doing and, as such, is probably the most used and most abused approach to training. Like other form of training, OJT requires planning, structure and supervision to be effective for developing a variety of practical and customer-oriented capabilities. When done correctly, OJT is a sensible and cost effective method for training and assessing trainees’ progress in jobs such as retail sales, food and beverage operatives, and check-in and check-out positions. Some of the On-the-job methods of training are orientation training, job-instruction training, apprentice training, internships and assistantships, job rotation etc.
For example, at Domino’s Pizza, approximately 85% of employee training is OJT, delivered by store managers using extensively by Ramada Inns, Inc., which has developed an OJT training aid. It also provides trainees with a list of sequential steps that should be followed to perform the task correctly, as well as the list of tools, materials, and equipment needed to do the task. Finally, the training aid provides an evaluation form for providing feedback to the trainees.
Off-the-job training: Off-the-job training allows for the development of broader and more conceptual skills while providing a practice environment in which error need not be so costly. There are three main forms of off-the-job training: In-house, External, and Independent.
In-house off-the-job training may take several formats including lectures and other classroom techniques, discussions, demonstrations, case studies and role plays, and simulations. What distinguishes in-house off-the-job training from other type of off-the-job training is that in-house training is conducted away from the physical location where the job is actually carried out, but still on company premises.
Like in-house off-the-job training, external off-the-job training can also take a variety of forms. Such training may be tailored to the company’s specific need or it may be offered on a more general basis; it may focus on special disciplines related to hospitality.
Independent off-the-job training refers to training methods that are controlled and managed by the learner. A number of these training options which are becoming increasingly important to employees in the hotel industry are:
- Distance/open learning or training (may involve correspondence teaching, use of television or radio, video-conferencing, etc.)
- Computer-assisted learning
- Interactive-video learning
- A combination of the above method