Modern banking system plays a vital role for a nation’s economic development. Over the last few years the banking world has been undergoing a lot of changes due to deregulation, technological innovations, globalization etc. These changes in the banking system also brought revolutionary changes in a country’s economy. Present world is changing rapidly to face the challenge of competitive free market economy. It is well recognized that there is an urgent need for better, qualified management and better-trained staff in the dynamic global financial market. Bangladesh is no exceptions of this trend. Banking Sector in Bangladesh is facing challenges from different angles though its prospect is bright in the future.
The course under M.B.A program designed with an excellent combination of theoretical and practical aspects.
Origin of the report:
This report titled “The Premier Bank Ltd. Critical Analysis of Credit Approval Process in The Premier Bank Ltd.” is an internship report, which is the integral part of M.B.A program.
Scope of the Study
In this report, I am trying to portray the overall scenario or performance of Credit of The Premier Bank Ltd. As I have been working in The Premier Bank Ltd., Imamgonj Branch as a result this Branch has been an essential basis of this report. More over, I will be focusing on the critical analysis of credit approval process in The Premier Bank Ltd.
Objectives of the study
The objective of the study is to combine the theoretical exposure gathered from the MBA program with the practical knowledge on banking system and operation. This is a great opportunity to co-ordinate with the theoretical knowledge and the practical experience. The following are of objective for internship in bank:
• To apply theoretical knowledge in the practical field.
• To analyze the service procedure of Prime Bank Ltd.
• To portray the banking operation.
• To reveal the area of General Credit.
• To describe the process of loan disbursement.
• To analyze the process of loan recovery.
• To describe the documents of credit.
Some fundamental steps of research methodology have been adopted through my specialization field of study of M.B.A program and also from the fields of other areas. In my study I had to go for personal interaction with my colleagues of The Premier Bank Ltd, Imamgonj Branch and Head office to conduct the research work.
Sources of information:
Both primary and secondary sources of information were being pursued with regards to the presentations of this study. The following procedure and sources I accessed:
• The web page of The Premier Bank Ltd.
• Prior researches report on this topic.
• Face to face interaction with all employees of the branch
• Significant amount of information was gathered from secondary sources, such as bank’s brochures, relevant different printed formats, different printed manuals and policies of The Premier Bank Ltd.
Limitations of the Report:
I have tried my best to provide with all necessary information about The Premier Bank Ltd. But due to exhaustive nature of this study most secret & strategic ethics could not be brought in this report. As having the status of the empirical study, this report is subject to following limitations.
The Premier Bank is fully a centralized bank and all information is available in head office. Branch gets information when special request is made. Branch employees only can know the information that’s available in EBBS (Electronic Base banking System).
Some of the data are self-generated by ratio analysis, so it was difficult to draw inference.
A worthwhile study requires the analysis of as much data as possible covering various aspects of the study. But I did not have access to the various types of information about Loans & advances.
To protect the organizational loss in regard of maintaining confidentiality some parts of the report are not in depth.
I carried out such a study for the first time. So, in-experience is one of the main factors that constituted the limitation of the study.
Another Problem was time constraints. The duration of my internship Program was only two months. But this time is not enough for a complete and fruitful study.
The bank was a busy one having heavy rush of people, whom officers need to deal with. So allocation of time for an internee is very much tough for the officers of the bank.
Backdrop of The Premier Bank Limited
The Premier Bank Limited is incorporated in Bangladesh as banking company on June 10, 1999 under Companies Act.1994. Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, issued banking license on June 17, 1999 under Banking Companies Act.1991. The Head Office of The Premier Bank Limited is located at Banani, one of the fast growing commercial and business areas of Dhaka city. The Bank has a
Authorized Capital of BDT 2000.00 Million and the Paid up Capital is BDT 845.00 Million.
The Bank has clear vision towards its ultimate destiny – to be the best amongst the top financial institutions.
To be the most caring and customer friendly provider of financial services, creating opportunities for more people in more places.
To ensure stability and sound growth whilst enhancing the value of shareholders investments.
To aggressively adopt technology at all levels of operations to improve efficiency and reduce cost per transaction.
To ensure a high level of transparency and ethical standards in all business transacted by the Bank.
To provide congenial atmosphere which will attract competent work force that will be proud and eager to work for the Bank.
To be socially responsible and strive to uplift the quality of life by making effective contribution to national development.
Goals and objectives
To build up strong pillar of capital.
To promote trade, commerce and industry.
To discover strategies for achieving systematic growth.
To improve and broaden the range of product and services.
To develop human potentialities by increasing employment opportunities.
To enhance asset of shareholders.
To offer standard financial services to the people.
To create congenial atmosphere so that the client becomes interested to deal with the premier bank limited.
To keep business morality.
To develop well fare oriented banking service.
To offer highest possible benefit to customers.
As to its position among its counterparts is held high to let the viewers cast their very first look at it.
To carry on the business of discounting and dealing in exchange of specie and securities and all kinds of mercantile banking.
To provide for safe-deposit vaults and the safe custody of valuables of all kinds.
To carry on business as financiers, promoters, capitalists, financial and monitory agents, concessionaires and brokers.
To act as agents for sale and purchase of any stock, shares or securities or for any other momentary or mercantile transaction.
To establish and open offices and branches to carry on all or any of the business abroad and within the country provided prior permission is obtained from Bangladesh bank.
Organizational Organ gram:
The Premier Bank Ltd. is one of the dynamic banks in Bangladesh. Within a short period of time, the bank has achieved an emerging success and this bank has lot of potentiality to become a leading bank in the banking sector. For me it is very difficult to explain bank’s solidity as I am doing my internship for only three months. But From my practical observation, I have tried to define The Premier Bank ltd by analyzing a SWOT Analysis:
It has well reputation in the market
Not engaged in unfair business practice.
Officers are highly educated.
Executives are highly qualified and experienced.
Bank has many attractive deposit schemes.
Efficient management practices in the Bank.
Well diversified Credit Portfolio.
Deposit mix is very sound.
High Cost Deposit is more than low cost deposit.
Short time experiences of the Bank.
Officer has limited experience and not enough trained.
Long-term credit is not sufficient.
Small market shares in Banking-business.
Can increase the credit scheme.
Can increase the advertising of the Bank.
Private Banks becomes more reliable to local public.
Govt. has banned some ‘Jatiya Sanchaya patra’.
There are many competitors in the market.
Competitors have more deposit.
Govt. imposes tax and VAT on profile.
Govt. pressures to reduce interest rate.
Financial performance of The Premier Bank Ltd:
The financial performance of The Premier Bank Ltd. shows the greater steadiness that the bank has perceived since the last few years. Here I have shown the some positive financial indicators of The Premier Bank Ltd. that I have collected from the Annual report of The
The authorized capital of the Bank is Tk.2,000 million and Paid up Capital of is Tk.845.00 million as on 31 December 2006. The Bank is processing to issue share to public within this year to raise capital of the Bank by about 24% from the present level. Capital Adequacy Ratio was 10.66% on risk weighted assets as on 31 December 2006 which is above the stipulated requirement for all Banks in Bangladesh. (9.00%).
Product and Services offered by The Premier Bank Ltd.:
Deposit Related Products
Deposit is often called the lifeblood of commercial banks. As blood is essential and vital for life is deposit for commercial banks. No commercial bank can be thought of without deposit. In fact modern commercial banking starts with deposits from the public followed by lending or financial trade, commerce and industry. The most of the deposit of a bank come from the various type of bank account that is provided by a bank. Those bank accounts are described below:
• Types of bank account
1. Savings Account
The Premier Bank Ltd. have added a special feature to their Savings Deposit Accounts. They pay interest (6.5% p.a.) on daily balances on Savings Accounts. Most of the Banks in Bangladesh pay interest on monthly minimum balance. So, if we are maintaining say Tk. 10.00 Lac in our Savings Account with our present Banker for 29 days and our deposit balance drops below Tk. 1000 even for a single day, we are not getting any interest on that amount. There are also several restrictions on withdrawal from the Account to qualify for interest.
In Premier Bank, however, we will get interest on any amount that we keep in the account. There is no restriction for withdrawal from the account and they are paying interest @ 6.5 % p.a. on daily balance. They hope that we will take full advantage of this offer and place our deposits with their Bank to earn more.
2. Current Account
The current account is probably the most useful bank account. This is a non-interest bearing deposit account.
3. Foreign currency (FC) account
It is an account in foreign currency that can be opened in any of authorized dealer branches. Bangladesh nationals residing abroad, foreign nationals residing abroad or in Bangladesh and also foreign firms registered abroad and operating in Bangladesh or abroad may open and maintain this account. This account may also be opened in the names of resident Bangladesh nationals working with the foreign/ international organizations, operating in Bangladesh provided their salary be paid in the foreign currency. This bank offered a number of foreign currency accounts such as RFCD and NFCD. Other account includes Convertible taka Account, which is an account in taka, and the account holder has the option to convert taka into foreign currency and vice versa.
4. Corporate Account
The Premier Bank Ltd. is also paying interest @ 6.5% p.a. on daily balance for Corporate customers. It is a savings account that operates like a virtual current account. There are no restrictions on withdrawal.
Now we can have all the features of current account with the interest of savings account.
5. Short Term Deposit (STD) Account
The Premier Bank Ltd. pay interest @7.00% p.a. for minimum 1 Crore and @6.00% p.a for bellow 1 Crore on the daily closing balance of Short Term Deposit (STD) Account. Interest is payable on daily closing balance. Any individuals and corporate bodies can open STD account.
6. Fixed Deposit
The Premier Bank Ltd. offers very competitive rate of interest on Fixed Deposit (FDR). Indicative rate for one-year deposits at present is 12.75% p.a. The customer could also deposit for 1/2/3/6/12/24/36 months term – The choice depend on the customer.
Term Interest (%) Taka 10 Crore & above Interest (%) Taka. 40 Crore & above Interest (%)
1 Month 9.50 9.50 9.50
3 Month 11.75 11.75 12.00
6 Month 12.00 12.00 12.25
1 Year & above 12.25 12.50 12.50
7. Double Benefit Scheme :Under this scheme, any deposit becomes almost double after only 6 years! The accepts deposits in multiple of Tk.10,000.00.
Specially designed instrument shall be issued for the deposit under the scheme in the same manner as issued in case of FDR. The instrument is not transferable and renewable. In case of premature encashment after 3 months, benefits may be allowed on the deposit amount at ruling savings rate.
Loan facility may be allowed up to 80% of deposit against lien/pledge on such instrument at bank’s prescribed rates and rules. Here the DBS rate is 12.54%..
Terms Initial Deposit Payable at Maturity
6 – Years Tk.1,00,000/- Tk.2,00,000/-
6 – Years Tk.2,00,000/- Tk.4,00,000/-
Deposit Amount: Minimum Tk. 1,00,000/- or its multiple(s).
8. Dui Bochore Digoon
The Prime objective of the scheme is to offer attractive investment opportunity. The individual/institutions have opportunity to invest for meeting any large expenditure in short future for various purposes. Different organizations, schools, colleges, universities may also invest their provident funds, security funds, trust funds of reserve funds for higher rate of return under the scheme. Under this scheme, the initial investment will be double after two years subject to the additional 24 equal monthly deposits. This scheme will build an attractive deposit base in a convenient way to meet the customer future business requirement. The duration of the scheme is two (2) years.
9. Monthly Income Scheme
Customer’s saving is precious. The Premier Bank Ltd. helps their customer’s investment to generate a regular monthly income for their wish through this scheme. The account holder shall get benefit of Tk. 1000.00 every month against deposit of Tk. 1,00,000.00 for 5 years and Tk. 980.00 every month for 3 years.
10. Monthly Savings Scheme
A regular savings pay off when the customer really needs it. Save small amount in the customer account each month and let customer savings grow with time through this Monthly Savings Scheme.
11. Education Savings Scheme
The scheme has been designed to make future educational expenses of The customer children easier. Against an initial deposit, the bank provides a monthly amount after maturity or payment at a time as the depositor desires. A deposit of Tk. 50,000.00 will be Tk. 88,000.00 after 5 years. The customer may draw the amount at a time or the customer may choose to draw by monthly installment of Tk. 1,800.00 for a period of 5 years. Deposit of Tk. 25,000.00 or its multiple is acceptable.
1. Locker Service: For safekeeping of customers’ valuables like important documents and goods like jewelries and gold ornaments, Premier Locker Service is available in most of the Branches in urban areas.
2. Evening Banking Services
“Evening Banking”, a unique service of The Premier Bank, only for receiving Cash and Documents beyond transaction hours till 8 o’clock in the evening, is available at Premier Bank. The service is attractive for those, like shopkeepers, who accumulate cash as sales proceeds in the afternoon when counters of Bank branches usually remain closed.
3. Online Branch Banking Service: Online Branch Banking Service is designed to serve its valued clients. Under this system, the customer will be able to do the following type of transactions:
• Cash withdrawal from the account at any branch of the Bank.
• Deposit in the customer account at any Branch of the Bank.
• Transfer of money from customer’s account to any other account with any Branch of the Bank.
4. SWIFT Service
Premier Bank Limited is one of the first few Bangladeshi Banks to obtain membership of SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Telecommunication). SWIFT is a members’ owned cooperative which provide a first and accurate communication network for financial transactions such as Letter of Credit, Fund Transfer etc.
5. Premier bank SMS
Premier Bank launched Premier SMS (SMS Banking Service) on 30 January 2006 at Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, Dhaka.
6. ATM Information
Premier Bank Visa Credit card is an ATM card and ATM booth too, accepted by 8,40,000 ATMs worldwide. For withdrawal of cash the customer can use those ATMs as well as ATMs possessed by Standard Chartered bank in Bangladesh.
The Premier Bank Ltd. has plans to install ATMs around the country to enable their Account Holders & Card Members to draw cash; do fund transfer, payments and balance inquiry on line.
8. Banking Software
Robust banking software, which will integrate the Total Banking Operation and provide total solutions to customer needs, is under selection. Implementation is expected soon by The Premier Bank Ltd.
Premier Bank holds IPO Lottery
IPO share lottery of Premier Bank Ltd was held on April 23, 2007 at Bangladesh China Friendship Conference Centre in Dhaka. Under the auspices of Securities & Exchange Commission the lottery was conducted by Department of Science & Technology, BUET in presence of the representatives from CDBL, DSE, CSE, ICB, Issue Manager and a considerable number of applicants cum investors. Bank’s Chairman of Board Audit Committee Miss Nowrin Iqbal, Director Nurul Amin, Managing Director Abu Haniff Khan, Addl. Managing Director Nurul Alam Chowdhury & Board Secretary Syed Ahsan Habib was also present on the occasion.
The Premier Bank Ltd. has some future plan that they want to implement in the near future. In most cases they wants to extend their existing facilities that they are providing to their customer but they are now trying grab more potential customer by implementing some lucrative features and these are:
• They have planned to extend their branch from the existing branch numbers.
• They have planned to recruit more skilled human resource for the development of the bank.
• They have a plan to open some foreign subsidiary in different countries.
• They have a plan to implement an international banking system, which is known as “BASEL II” which is going to be approved by Bangladesh Bank to all local banks in Bangladesh.
• They have planned to extend their ATM facilities.
• They are going to launch Debit Card in this month.
Any person or corporate body may become a customer by opening a deposit or credit current account or by negotiating an advance on current or loan account. This definition also implies that the legal relationship of banker and customer begins as soon as an account is opened.
The opening of a bank account involves the making of a contract between the bank and the customer and practically all the bankers’ business relations with his customers are known as contractual relationships.
Every banker must have some knowledge of the law of contract and especially of those parts that govern the manner in which contracts are made; the capacity of different classes of people to bind themselves by contract; the effect on contracts of mistake, misrepresentation or fraud of the parties, and the manner in which contracts are terminated.
MINORS – LUNATICS – DRUNKEN – BANKRUPTS have no power of entering into binding contracts.
Just like other banking structure, In The Premier Bank Ltd., there are mainly three departments or functions on the basis of which total banking system is performing and these are –
• General Banking Department
• Foreign Exchange Department.
• Credit Department.
Beside these three main departments there is another department, which is also subdivision of General Banking department that is known as Financial Administrative Department (FAD). Basically this department is mainly responsible for all sorts of bookkeeping related responsibilities.
As I am doing my internship program only for three months, I did not have that opportunity to perform in all three departments. But I had a golden opportunity to perform in General Banking and Credit Department. As my internship report is based on Credit evaluation process, I had performed mostly in credit department to assemble my experience and knowledge about credit related tasks. Here I want to share some experiences that I have achieved from these two departments. And it will consist about job description, responsibilities, critical observation and recommendations of these two departments.
General Banking Department:
This is very important department which help to attract, motivate the customers when the customer keep his steps in the bank. From this department a customer can get a sweet impression about a particular bank. If this department is unable to create a good impression in the mind of the customer, then a bank can loose their potential and valued customer, which will carry negative impression about the bank.
Deposit Accounts of The Premier Bank are detailed step by step with the method of working and should be strictly adhered to, and will not deviate without the authority of an approver who has been authorized to do so.
Deposit Accounts basically are of three types:
o Current Deposit Account
o Savings Deposit Accounts
o Short Term Deposit Accounts
Term Deposit Account
o Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR)
o Monthly Savings Scheme (MSS)
o Monthly Income Scheme (MIS)
o Double Benefit Scheme (DBS).
o Education Savings Scheme (ESS)
Current Deposit may be opened by an:
Personal and Joint Account
Sole Proprietorship Account
Limited liability Company Account
Account for Association, Clubs, Committees, and Societies etc.
Similarly Savings Bank Account / Term Deposit Accounts are opened in The Premier Bank Ltd.
RESTRICTION ON DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION
The banker is under obligation to maintain secrecy about the accounts of his customers unless it is specifically enjoined by law or practices and usage customary among bankers, necessary or appropriate for them to divulge such information.
When the customer is approaching for information regarding his accounts by his personal presence or through phone the under noted procedure should be followed:
Balance of the account if requested by the Customer by his personal presence may be passed in a manner so that other do not hear provided the passing Officer is absolutely sure of the identification of the person requested for the balance.
If the customer approaches the request through an authorized agent, the information should be in closed cover duly sealed by the Bank round rubber stamp and the envelope marked “STRICTLY PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL” and acknowledgement obtained from the bank.
Balance information or any other information regarding the account should not be conveyed over phone without being sure of the customer’s voice.
INDIVIDUAL / PERSONAL ACCOUNT:
This is an account for an individual/person who wishes to open a Current/Savings/Term Deposit Account(s) in his own name has the unquestionable authority to open the account with full control over his account.
The Bank while accepting advice under mandate must obtain: –
Photograph of the agent duly attested by the Account holder and verified by the authorized Bank Officer under bank’s rubber stamp.
Specimen Signature Card of the agent completed and attested by the Account holder and verified by the authorized Bank Officer under bank’s rubber stamp.
If the AOF (Account Opening Form) has been correctly completed and all formalities/requirements met to bank’s satisfaction the bank official i.e. the approver will approve the acceptance of the opening of the account giving his signature with bank’s rubber stamp affixed and dated.
Other deposit Accounts:
1. Partnership Account .
2. Limited Liability Company Account
3. Non-Trading Associations Account
4. Trust account
5. Foreign Currency Account(FCY):For Bangladeshi Nationals/Firm/ Company
6. For Foreign National Individual / Firm / Company:
CLOSING OF ACCOUNTS:
Submit application for closing Accounts
1. To close an account, parties may be requested to send an application along with the un used leaves of the Cheque Books if any, issued to them.
2. On receipt of the application, the following to be taken:
The signature of the account holder shall be verified and
The number of unused Cheque Leaves shall be noted thereon.
The application shall then be sent to the Ledger Keeper, who shall write thereon the balance of the account and initial it.
Approval of application
3. Before the account is closed the Manager shall approve the application after ascertaining the liability, if any, and closing charges to be debited to the account.
A bankers’ draft, is an order to pay a specified amount to the named payee, or to his order issued from the bank’s emanating branch to another branch and / or bank’s one branch to other named bank’s branch with whom we have Agency arrangements.
A Demand Draft is a bill of exchange as such becomes a negotiable instrument.
The purchaser of the Draft can cancel the draft before passing it to the payee, But once the draft has been delivered to the payee or his agent the purchaser is not entitled to stop payment of the draft to the payee and the bank cannot refuse to pay the amount thereof unless there is reasonable ground for disputing the title of the person presenting the draft.
PAY ORDER / TELEGRAPHIC TRANSFER:
The Bank also provides pay order / Telegraphic transfer on behalf of their customer from originating branch to other locations in the country where we have branch office(s).
SAVINGS ACCOUNT RULES
Account may be opened in the following names
In the name of an individual
Jointly in the names of two or more persons, to be payable to either or both or all of them, or to the survivor or survivors
May be opened in the names of Associations, committees, Societies, Clubs, School, College and of similar nature.
Some specific requirements are followed and these are:
Follow instructions under New Account Opening Documentation.
Ensure that amount/interest rate/Terms/Maturity are clearly stated.
Customer should be advised that interest payment is subject to the deductions of tax, Levy etc. imposed by Government.
The depositor will select a nominee(s) whose passport size photograph(s) is/are attached with the nominee form, duly completed and signed by the Account .
SPECIMEN SIGNATURE CARD
The Bank’s Specimen Signature Book is kept with the Deposits In charge.
SPECIMEN SIGNATURE OF OTHER BANKS
The Specimen Signature of the other local banks are obtained on Form and kept in a bounded form with the Deposits In charge.
CLEARING OF CHEQUES
Clearing of customers’ cheque in Dhaka and other cities in Bangladesh are held through Bangladesh Bank that means the central Bank where all scheduled Bank accounts are maintained.
On all working days in the morning the members of each bank attend the clearing house at Bangladesh Bank and exchange their Cheques/negotiable instruments through Debit/Credit of their accounts maintained with Bangladesh Bank.
In the afternoon they meet again to know the fate of Cheques/negotiable instruments, and if any return of cheque/negotiable instruments is made the settlement of the Debit/Credit is made through account with Bangladesh Bank.
Where Bangladesh Bank does not have a Branch the clearing system is conducted by SONALI BANK and/or other Bank nominated by the Bangladesh Bank.
When the bank decides not to honor a cheque, it is returned to the presenter, stating the reason in a slip. The remarks on the slip are brief. The remarks are as follows:
Refer to drawer (RD)
Countermanded by the drawer i.e. Payment stopped by the drawer
Full cover not received i.e. fund insufficient.
Effects not yet cleared,
Discharge required that means, Payee’s endorsement required
Alterations / cuttings require drawer’s authentication by his full signature.
Drawer’s signature differs
Crossed Cheque to be presented through a Bank
Crossed “account payee only”
Cheque is post dated / stale / out of date
Cheque is mutilated
Amount in figures and words differ, etc.
PAY ORDER / TELEGRAPHIC TRANSFER
The Premier Bank Ltd. Is also provides pay order / Telegraphic transfer on behalf of our customer from originating branch to other locations in the country where we have branch office(s).
Financial Administrative Department (FAD):
FAD is also a very important and crucial department for any bank because this department represents a total scenario of a particular branch performance. Basically this department is mainly responsible for preparing all types of book keeping related jobs like monthly, weekly, quarterly and yearly statements that will be recorded for further use. Preparing all types of bills payment, salary statement of a branch, implementing the instructions of Head Office, performing all sort of General Service Department (GSD) related jobs like marinating furniture, fittings, equipment, machineries, depreciation statement, creating all sort of debit and credit vouchers, sorting the vouchers, preparing daily Statement of Affairs through using PCBANK 2000, online transaction to transfer fund from one bank to another. This department is also responsible for enlisting a customer’s information that has been making transaction above their transaction limit with our bank. The Premier Bank Ltd. is using software, which is named Financial Inspection unit (FIU) that was provided by Bangladesh Bank to enlist the customer information in that software and that will be verified by Bangladesh Bank to make necessary actions. Overall this department is also known as central point of a particular branch.
INTER BRANCH / BANK DEPOSIT OR WITHDRAWAL OF CASH:
DEPOSIT OF CASH WITH FEEDING BRANCH
If the cash in hand exceeds the limit as authorized by the Head Office, Feeding Branch is informed to collect the excess cash.
On receipt of information, Feeding Branch deputes an Authorized Officer along with a letter of authority to collect the cash.
WITHDRAWAL FROM FEEDING BRANCH OR ANY OTHER BRANCH:
If a branch is in need of cash, Feeding Branch is informed to send the cash.
Feeding branch deputed Officer for delivery of cash.
Retirement of Documents, Bills
When the party approaches the Bank along with Advice to retire the Bill, the intimation is taken back and checked.
The following vouchers are prepared:
When the proceeds are to be remitted to our branch:
Credit: Premier General Account (Branch concerned) with’ the amount of the Bill including commission, postage and interest.
When the proceeds are to be remitted to outstation Banks
Credit: The Premier General Account (Branch on which DD is to be drawn) with the bill amount of the including their charges.
Credit: Income Account Commission (others)
Credit: Income Account Postage recoveries.
When proceeds are to be remitted to local Banks
Credit: Bills payable Account Pay order issued with the amount of Bill including their charges)
Credit: Income Account Commission (other)
When the party retires the Bill against cash, the vouchers are handed over to him to deposit the cash. If the party retires the Bill against a cheque, the cheque is attached with the voucher and is sent to Clearing Department.
In case the proceeds in respect of Bill is received from another Bank through a Pay Order, the Pay Order is attached with the vouchers and is sent to Clearing Department.
Bank is required to submit its Budget for each calendar year to the Board for their scrutiny and approval.
Budget estimates should accurately reflect income and expenditure for the calendar year.
Budget estimate should be prepared keeping in view the expansion program, expected income in business and administrative & establishment expenses.
The branches in the forms prescribed for the purposes should prepare budget estimate.
These statements should be submitted to Head office within the time frame fixed.
On receipt of the statements from all the branches, Head Office will examine the proposals and prepare a consolidated Budget estimate for the Bank.
The approved Budget estimates are forwarded to the branches.
The amount provided in the Budget does not imply that these are automatically available for expenditure. The expenditure should be incurred within powers or against approval.
Utmost economy should be exercised to keep the expenditure within the budget limit.
Managers will be personally liable for any expenditure, which they may incur in excess or outside the approved budget without prior approval of Head Office.
Managers should make immediate reference to Head Office giving full justification for the excess expenditure for approval, in case expenditure under any head cannot be kept within the budget limit due to circumstances beyond their control
Bank is a financial intermediary whose prime function is to move scarce resources in the form of credit from savers to those who borrow for consumption and investment. The fundamental nature of credit is that an element of trust exists between buyer and seller-whether of goods or money. In a modern industrial society Banks are uniquely important because of their ability to create money. Lending comprises a very large portion of a Bank’s total assets and forms the backbone of the Bank and interest on lending constitutes the highest proportion of income of a Bank. As such credit quality remains the prime indicator of its commercial success. Unsound credit reduces the ability of a Bank to provide credit towards profitable borrowers and undermine liquidity and solvency. Therefore lending is very important for the profitability and success of a Bank.
The Premier Bank Ltd. follows strict guidelines in terms of making disbursement of loans to the customer. They have a strong evaluation process through which the entire lending procedure is performed. As my internship report is based on credit department, I have tried to come up with the basic understanding of the entire credit department. Credit department is multitasking department because when we make any loan disburse, our responsibly is not done. We have to take different initiatives to recover the loan from the customer. And this is a very difficult job to do. In The Premier Bank Ltd. the total loan and advance structure is centralized and it is performed in a systematic and efficient way. In this part I am going to describe the job responsibilities and nature of the job in a concise way. Because the total credit evaluation process will be described more elaborately in the next chapter.
Nature of the job:
To plan, organize, direct, control and review the operational and administrative functions of credit administration department to ensure efficient and effective support to the related banking departments in line with regulatory and Bank requirements while exercising appropriate control and independent judgment.
Primary job Responsibilities:
To ensure loan documentation and securities are duly completed and in place prior to disbursement of loans.
To ensure accurate and timely submissions of returns of both the Central Bank and the Bank’s head office.
Act on exception reports and ensure timely receipt of loan installments.
Ensure that adequate insurance is in place on all pledged assets, all approval conditions have been met, and any exceptions are appropriately approved prior to disbursement of loans.
Ensure that department operations, including the preparation of loan documentation, recording of charges, and reporting of exceptions is done in a timely and efficient manner.
Ensure compliance with internal policies and procedures and external regulatory requirements, and that all internal and external audit recommendations are implemented.
Other responsibilities performed by branch level:
Review of credit proposals received from branches for sanction.
Review of loan commitment, outstanding, overdue, classification status and documentation.
Determine price of loan, charges and commission.
Identify the priority sectors and sector wise lending exposure on the basis of national and global economic trend.
Evaluate and recommend delegation of business power and suggest for amendment based on corporate objective of the bank.
Review policy and process manual at least annually and update as required.
In this department, I did not have that much flexibility to perform my job, which I got in other departments. Because the entire loan processing activities is performed in a systematic way by the experienced officer. Most of the time it was confidential and I was not allowed to perform. But I had performed some most important activities in loan evaluation process and these are –
I have prepared loan application letter on the behalf of the customer.
I have learnt how to make sanction letter for a customer and which of the elements to be focused on the sanction letter to get approval from the Head Office.
I have prepared a CIB report, which is done for an inquiry for a particular customer from Bangladesh Bank.
I had performed in mortgage utilities, inspected the customer’s real and financial assets that they have shown as a collateral.
I have performed in preparing Stock report and Net Worth Statement of a customer.
I have learnt some basic understanding in preparing Credit risk Grading (CRG) report.
Arranging some legal documents for a customer.
So far it was a concise portrayal about the credit department. It will be described more elaborately in the next chapter.
The Premier Bank Ltd. is one of the leading Third Generation bank in Bangladesh. State and federal authorities to make loans to their customer characterize the principal reason of this bank. Bank is expected to support their local communities with an adequate supply or credit for all legitimate business and consumer activities and to price that credit reasonably in line with competitively determined interest rates. The Premier Bank Ltd. is providing different types of loan facilities (which will be discussed later on) to the customer, which is sometimes attractive to the customer, but the duty is not done after completing disbursement of loan. The bank follows strict rules and regulations in terms of selections of borrower, evaluation the borrower’s background, transaction performance, financial statements and other relative information that defines a borrower’s characteristics. For maintaining the standard evaluation process, Imamgong branch has a good recovery ratio so far compare to other branches. Most of the branches have been maintaining their standard level in terms of credit evaluation process. But Imamgonj branch is showing their outstanding performance in terms of loan and advance policy. After a successful completion of last fiscal year, Imamgonj branch has only 0.45% classified loan and 99.55% unclassified loan out of 100% of total loan and advance section. On the other hand this particular branch has only 2.5% overdue of loan, which will be collected by the subsequent period. This figure indicates the greater strength of this particular branch in terms of loan and advance section, which has a positive impact that will help them to achieve a greater size of 100% loan and advance recovery ratio. As this is the most critical part to explain, I have tried to observe each and every credit evaluation process very carefully to get the overall view of loan and advance section.
Lending is the principal function or the “Bread and Butter” of a banking company. It applies most of its resources to loans and advances in favor of a broad spectrum of clientele ranging from housewives to mammoth size conglomerates. The business of lending, nevertheless, is not without inherent risks. Since the banks deal with borrowed funds they cannot afford to put at stake these resources on risky ventures. While lending his funds, a banker, therefore, follows a very cautious policy and conducts his business by using sound lending principles.
Bank is a financial intermediary whose prime function is to move scarce resources in the form of credit from savers to those who borrow for consumption and investment. The word “credit” is derived from the Latin word “credere”, which means to trust. The fundamental nature of credit is that an element of trust exists between buyer and seller-whether of goods or money. In a modern industrial society Banks are uniquely important because of their ability to create money. Lending comprises a very large portion of a Bank’s total assets and forms the backbone of the Bank and interest on lending constitutes the highest proportion of income of a Bank. As such credit quality remains the prime indicator of its commercial success. Unsound credit reduces the ability of a Bank to provide credit towards profitable borrowers and undermine liquidity and solvency. Therefore lending is very important for the profitability and success of a Bank.
When a bank advances a loan, it does not pay the amount in cash. But it opens an account in his name and allows him to withdraw the required amount by cheque. Banks provide credit facilities to businessmen by way of loans and advances, overdraft and cash credit. When a loan is granted or overdraft is sanctioned, the amount of loan or overdraft is entered in the account of the customer and he is allowed to draw a cheques up to the amount agreed upon. Thus the bank creates a deposit in the name of the borrower. Basically credit is the function by which people can perform their job by depositing and lending money from the bank with an implied interest rate and bank performs here as a middleman. Banks create money and credit. It happens in two ways. First, when a customer is granted loan, he has to sign a promissory note and receive in turn, a bank’s demand deposit, or cash. The promissory note does not act as money but it receives money and can readily spend almost everywhere. Thus it creates credit. Second, the entire systems of banks also create money as the deposits generated by lending flow from bank to bank. By law, each bank must set aside a fractional reserve behind each deposit it receives and the remaining excess can be loaned out. No single bank can lend out more than its excess reserves, the entire banking system can create a multiple volume of deposit money through credit creation.
Importance of Bank Credit – Macro and Micro Aspects:
At Macro level, credit influences, and is influenced by, quantity of money, level of economic activity (GNP), imports and net foreign assets.
At Micro level, credit influences behavior of economic sector (industry, agriculture) and behavior of economic agents (business, financial institutions, households).
Credit provides vital linkage among government sector, private sector, financial sector and foreign sector.
Credit is an important determinant of money creation and hence of production, consumption and national income.
Credit influences imports and capital movements and hence the outcome of balance of payments. For example, excessive credit can lead to inflation. Over importation, capital flight and balance of payments deficit.
It has two-way relationship between credit and deposits.
Credit is the most important activity of banks. Because interest on loans constitutes the major part of bank income. Hence, vital importance of making good loans.
Credit is important to business and industrial firms. Banks provide financing for imports, working capital and investment.
Credit is important to agriculture. Banks provide crop loans and financing for agro-business and for investment.
Credit is important to households since it enables them to incur expenditures in excess of income in a given time period. Thus credit supplements savings.
Credit is an important input in the production processes of a country as well as the income generation activities of an individual. But the demand for credit in a developing economy like Bangladesh is much higher than its supply. Since credit is a scare resource, its use has to be planned carefully so as to obtain optimum benefits. There are Macro and Micro aspects of credit planning. Bangladesh Bank being the central bank of Bangladesh is responsible for formulating monetary and credit program of the country. Credit Budgeting exercise at the macro level is, therefore, done by Bangladesh Bank every year having regard to the following objectives:
To contain inflation in order to remain within safe limit of monetary expansion.
To maintain price stability.
To increase production and employment opportunities.
To ensure balanced development of all regions and sectors.
To maintain socioeconomic priorities.
The macro aspect of credit budgeting has to take into account the overall volume of credit expansion to meet the requirements of the economy in the context of certain broad considerations, the overall increases in money supply and the trends in real output. A monetary budget projecting the rate of increase in money supply in the context of expected increase in real output has to be prepared in this regard. The factors affecting the money supply are mainly two:
Net domestic credit to the Govt., public and sector and private sector.
Net Foreign Assets of the banking sector.
Net domestic credit is composed of credit to Govt., public and private sectors by the banking sector. Net foreign assets are arrived at after deducting the foreign liabilities from the foreign assets of the banking sector. Money supply can be defined as the Currency outside banks + Demand Deposits + Time Deposits.
Credit budget has to be prepared at the micro level that means at the individual bank’s level. There should be greater efforts on the part of individual banks to formulate appropriate credit budgets at the micro level in the context of available lendable resources and in the light of directions and guidelines given by Bangladesh Bank on broad sectoral deployment of credit. This has to be done by the preparation of a business plan by a bank, which includes amongst others, a credit budget.
Credit Division structure in The Premier Bank Ltd.:
Bank is a financial intermediary who take deposit from customers which is payable on demand or at maturity and also arrange lending of loanable fund among the potential borrowers to earn some income in the form of interest. But in lending there are always risks of non-payment or not repayment in time. Credit risk management has to be a robust process that enables banks to proactively manage loan portfolios in order to minimize loss and earn an acceptable level of return for shareholders.
In The premier bank Ltd. there are three core departments are operating the entire credit division and the segmentation of duties is being defined on the following lending functions:
Credit Approval / risk Management.
Relationship management / Marketing.
These three departments have different job responsibilities and tasks to improve the knowledge levels and expertise in a departmental level; to impose control over the disbursement of authorized loan facilities and obtain an objective and independent judgment of credit proposals. The credit approval section is to be centralized within the CRM function at Head office by the delegated Head office Executive (credit) / Head of Credit and Risk Management (CRM) / Credit Approval Committee / MD / CEO / EC / Board.
The following represents the Management structure, which may be revised from time to time.
The Key responsibilities:
In part of head of CRM, the Credit Approval Committee (CAC) will discharge the following responsibilities:
CRM: The head of CRM, executes the under stated functions through the branch managers who is henceforth act a Relationship Manager is assisted by the branch credit administration officer.
Managing bank’s credit policies.
Managing bank’s asset quality.
Managing classified loan to maximize recovery ensures appropriate and timely provisioning for loans.
Approve / recommend credit proposal recommended by RM.
Providing advice on all credit matters to line management / RM’s.
The responsibility of Head office, credit Administration is on the following lines, which are monitored through the branch credit administration department, and the deputy manager and branch credit administration officer supervise it.
Ensuring that all security documentation complies with the terms of approval and is enforceable.
Monitoring insurance coverage is in place over pledged assets and are properly assigned to bank.
Controlling loan disbursements only after all terms and conditions of approval are met and all security documentations are in place.
To maintain control over security documentation.
Monitoring borrower’s compliances with agreed terms and conditions and general monitoring of account performance.
Relationship Management / Marketing (RM):
Act as the branch’s contact with borrowers.
Have thorough knowledge of borrower’s business and industry through regular contact, factory / warehouse inspection etc. Proactive monitoring of the financial performance and account conduct of borrowers.
Officer is responsible for the timely and accurate submission of credit application for few proposals and annual reviews taking into account the credit assessment requirements are as per norms.
Highlighting any deterioration in borrower’s financial standing and amend the borrower’s risk grade in a timely manner where change in risk grades should be advised to and approved by CRM / Credit Approval Committee.
Seeking assistance / advice at the earliest form CRM / CAC regarding the restructuring of facilities.
Responsibilities at Branch Level:
The functionalities of the respective Officer / Executive relating to Credit Marketing, Processing and Administration at Branch level is:
Manager acts as Relationship Manager to maintain liaison with credit clients and act as prosper to their credit requirement.
Credit officer acts as Relationship Officer and he / she will support Relationship Manager.
Deputy Manager and Credit Administration Officer acts as Head of Branch CRM by disbursing authority with the support of the credit administration officer responsible for issuance of compliance certificate.
In absence of Manager, the Deputy Manager / Designated Branch in charge acts as the relationship manager. Under this situation the in-charge FCD of the branch acts as the disbursement authority supported by the credit administration officer.
The approval process reinforces the segmentation of relationship management / marketing from the approving authority. Relationship Officer (RO) initiates all credit applications / Relationship Manager (RM) at the branch level and it is forwarded to Head Office. Head Office approves / declines the applications. The following illustrates the approval process –
1. Application forwarded to Head Office for approval.
2. HOCRM advises the decision as per delegated authority to branches.
3. HOCRM and HOCB supports and forwards to the Managing Director.
4. Managing Director advises the decisions as per delegated authority to HOCRM and HOCB.
5. Managing Director presents the proposal to EC / Board.
6. EC / Board advises the decision to HOCRM and HOCB.
The delegated authority HOCRM advises the decision (approval / decline) directly to the branches.
Any declined credit may be represented to the next higher authority for reassessment / approval. However, there should be no appeal process beyond the Managing Director.
In Head Office Credit Administration monitors its functionalities on the basis of the compliances certificate provided by the branch. The Credit Administration function is critical in ensuring that proper documentation and approvals are in place prior to the disbursement of loan facilities. For this reason, it is essential that the functions of Credit Administration is strictly segregated from Relationship Management / Marketing in order to avoid the possibility of controls that are compromised or issues not to highlight at the appropriate level.
All securities, documents are prepared in accordance with approval terms and are legally enforceable. Standard loan facility documentation that has been reviewed by legal counsel should be used in all cases. Exceptions should be referred to legal counsel for advice based on authorization from an appropriate executive in CRM. Disbursements under loan facilities which are both funded or non-funded, are only made when all security documentation are in place. CIB report should reflect / include the name of all the lenders with family, limit and outstanding. All formalities regarding large loans and loans to Directors is guided by Bangladesh Bank circulars and related section of Banking Companies Act complemented by fulfillment of approved and terms and conditions.
Loan disbursements and the preparation and storage of security documents is centralized at the branch. The loan disbursement / limit loading checklist and authorization certificate is initiated by the branch credit administrative officer. The branch Deputy Manager only upon completion / meeting of approved and accepted terms and conditions detailed in the sanction advice approves disbursement of the credit facility. They also issue a compliance certificate to that effect directly send the compliance certificate to Head office, Credit Administration Department. The compliance certificate which certifies the mitigation of the term and condition as approved and agreed upon by the parties concerned prior to disbursement is the responsibility of the Deputy Manager and the Credit Administration officer who is accountable and liable for any deviation of the approved term / conditions of the credit facilities.
The Lending Guidelines shall be updated annually reflecting changes in the economic outlook and the evolution of the bank’s loan portfolio. Any departure or deviation from the Lending Guidelines shall be explicitly identified in credit applications and a justification for approval provided. Approval of loans shall not be allowed that do not comply with Lending Guidelines.
The Lending Guidelines always updated annually reflecting changes in the economic outlook and the evolution of the bank’s loan portfolio.
Any departure or deviation from the Lending Guidelines is explicitly identified in credit applications and a justification for approval provided. Approval of loans will not be allowed that do not comply with Lending Guidelines. In general the bank follows some general policy and rules to conduct a successful loan disbursement to the customer which are given below:
In the normal course of conducting its business, the bank will prefer trade financing in the form of short term (up to 12 months) self-liquidating cash-flow supported well collateralized trade transaction.
The bank will consider lending short-term working capital finance to well established entities engaged in manufacturing, assembling, processing of goods and commodities for domestic consumption or export market.
The bank will selectively, on a case-by-case basis, carefully approve term loans (loans with original tenor exceeding one year) with proper credit risk assessment by satisfactory cash flow statement.
The bank will, on a case-by-case basis, approve disclosed participation in syndication.
The bank will consider financing construction contractors. However, all such transactions should be properly analyzed in line with the status of contract proceeds and proper cash flow justification.
The bank will at all times maintain at the minimum a pari-passu status to other banks in all lending relationships. Second mortgages or lower, or second charge or lower, are not to be accepted as primary security/collateral.
Industry and Business Segment Focus:
At the beginning of the year Credit Division prepares a business/industry wise growth target of the bank’s loan portfolio, which is approved by the EC/Board in Head office.
Credit Categories by Tenure:
In The Premier bank Ltd, Loan and advances may be primarily divided into two groups:
1. Fixed term loan: These are the advances made by the bank with fixed repayment schedules. The term of loan are defined as follows:
Short term : Up to 12 month.
Medium term : More than 12 and up to 36 months.
Long term : More than 36 months.
2. Continuous Credits: These are the advances having no fixed repayment schedule, but have an expiry date at which is renewable on satisfactory performance.
Credit facilities to the agricultural sector falls under this category. It is subdivided into two major heads:
a) Loans to primary producers: This sector of agricultural financial refers to the credit facilities allowed to production units engaged in farming, fishing, forestry or livestock but does not include traders of agricultural producers.
b) Loans to input dealers / distributors: It refers to the financing allowed to input dealers and distributors in the agricultural sectors. Until the bank mobilizes enough funds and extends its outreach to rural areas, there would not be much scope for disbursement of loans to primary products.
Term loan for large and medium scale industry:
This category of advances accommodate the medium and long term financing for capital machinery and equipment of new industries who are engaged in manufacturing goods and services. Term financing to teagardens is also be included in this category depending on the nature and size of investment requires.
Term loan for small and cottage industries:
These are the medium and long term loans allowed to small and cottage manufacturing industries. Small industry is presently defined as those establishments whose total investment in fixed capital such as land, building, machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed 30 million taka. Cottage industries also fall in this category.
Loans allowed to the manufacturing units to meet their working capital requirements, irrespective of their size, big, medium or small, fall under this category. These are usually credits and as such fall under the category. These usually take the character of continuing credits.
Credit facilities allowed to finance exports against letter of credit / an/ or confirmed export orders fall under this category. It is accommodated under the heads “Export Cash Credit (ECC)”, Packing Credit (PC), Foreign Documentary Bills Purchased (FDBP), and Local Export Bills Purchased (LEBP).
Short-term loans and continuing credits allowed for commercial purposes other than exports fall under this category. It includes financing, financing for internal trade, service establishment, etc. No medium and long-term loans are accommodated here. This category of advances are allowed in the form of
Loan Against Imported Merchandise (LIM).
Loans Against Trust receipt (LTR).
Payment Against Import Documents (PAD).
Secured Overdrafts (SOD).
Cash Credit (CC).
Loan (gen.) etc. for commercial purposes.
Loans under special credit scheme:
Consumer Credit Scheme.
Rural Credit Scheme for Poverty Alleviation.
Monthly Income Scheme.
Monthly Saving Scheme.
Education Saving Scheme.
Students Micro Credit Program for Higher Education.
Nature of Loan Facilities:
The Premier Bank Ltd. provides different types of loan in terms of both corporate loan and personal loan to the customer. Depending on the various nature of financing, all the lending activities have been brought under the following major heads:
All types of Short term, Medium term & long term loans allowed to individual/firm/industries for a specific purpose but for a definite period and generally repayable by installments fall under this head. These types of lending are mainly allowed accommodating financing under the categories (I) Large & Medium Scale Industry and (II) Small & Cottage Industry. Very often term financing for (i) Agriculture & (ii) Other lending are also included here.
Overdraft, Demand Loans and Cash Credit:
Overdrafts and demand loans are granted mostly to private individuals and firms. So far as the operation of accounts is concerned, there is little difference between a cash credit and overdraft as in both these cases banks place at the disposal of the borrowers a certain limit for certain period and interest is charged quarterly on the outstanding daily balance. The borrower enjoys the convenience of drawing as and when necessary and repaying the amounts thus overdrawn as and when he is in funds. In the case of demand loan, however, the drawing is only made at the time advance is sanctioned / disbursed and thereafter no further drawings are allowed, but debits are raised only in respect of interest and other charges till the entire loan is liquidated by partial or on lump sum repayment. On demand loans interest is charged on daily balance periodically usually on quarterly basis.
House Building Loan (General):
Loans allowed to individual /enterprises for construction of house (residential or commercial) fall under this type of advance. The amount is repayable by monthly installment within a specified period. Such advances are known as House Building Loan (General).
Cash Credit (Hypo.):
Advances allowed to individual /firm for trading as well as wholesale purpose or to industries to meet up the working capital requirements against hypothecation of goods as primary security fall under this type of lending. It is a continuous credit. It is allowed under the categories (i) “Commercial Lending” when the customer is other than an industry and (ii) “Working Capital” when the customer is an industry.
Hire –Purchase is a type of installment credit under the borrower agrees to take the goods on hire at a stated rental, which is inclusive of the repayment of Principal as well as interest for adjustment of the loan within a specified period.
Lease Financing is one of the most convenient sources of acquiring capital machinery and equipment whereby a client is given the opportunity to have an exclusive right to use an asset usually for an agreed period of time against payment of rent. It is a term financing repayable by installment.
Consumers Credit Scheme:
It is a special credit scheme of the Bank to finance purchase of consumers’ durable to the fixed income group to raise their standard of living. The customers allow the loans on soft terms against personal guarantee and deposit of specified percentage of equity. The loan is repayable by monthly installment within a fixed period.
These are advances allowed to individual /firms against financial obligation (i.e. lien on FDR/PSP/BSP/Insurance Policy/Share etc.). This may or may not be a continuous credit.
Advances allowed against assignment of work order for execution of contractual works falls under this head. This advance is generally allowed for a definite period and specific purpose. That means it is not a continuous credit. It falls under the category SOD “Others”.
Advance allowed for purchasing foreign currency for payment against LCs where the export does not materialize before the date of import payment. This is also an advance for temporary period, which is known as export finance and falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
Payment made by the Bank against lodgment of shipping documents of goods imported through LCs falls under this head. It is an interim advance connected with import and is generally liquidated against payments usually made by the party for retirement of the documents for release of imported goods from the customs authority. It falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
Advance allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through L/C falls under this head. The goods are handed over to the importer under Trust Receipt with the arrangement that sale proceeds should be deposited with Bank to liquidate the advances within a given period. This is also a temporary advance connected with import and known as post-import finance and falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
Payment made through purchase of inland bills/cheques to meet urgent requirements of the customer falls under this type of credit facility. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of bills/cheques purchased for collection. It falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
Export Cash Credit (ECC):
Financial Accommodation allowed to a customer for exports of goods falls under this head and is categorized as “Export Credit”. The advances must be liquidated out of export proceeds within a given period.
Packing Credit (P.C):
Advance allowed to a customer against specific LC/firm contract for processing/packing/transportation of goods to be exported falls under this head and is categorized as “Packing Credit”. The advances must be adjusted from proceeds of the relevant exports within a given period. It falls under the category “Export Credit”.
Payment made to a customer through purchase/negotiation of a Foreign Documentary Bills falls under this heads. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of the shipping/export documents within 21 days, failing which interest shall be charged at normal rate. This advance falls under the category “Export Credit”.
Payment made against documents representing sale of goods to Local export oriented industries which are deemed as exports and which are denominated in Foreign Currency falls under this head. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of the Bill within 21 days, failing which interest shall be charged at normal rate.
F B P:
Payment made to a customer through Purchase of Foreign Currency Cheques/Drafts falls under this head. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of the cheque/draft.
I D B P:
Payment made to a customer through purchase of inland documentary bills. This temporary liability is adjustable from the proceeds of the bill.
Special Credit Program’s:
Bank may evolve special credit schemes catering to the requirements of the clients of various categories/professions.
House Building Loan (Staff):
Loans allowed to our Bank employees for purchase/construction of house/flat shall be known as House Building Loan (Staff).
Any purpose loan for salaried person including PBL staffs. It could be anything from buying household appliance to emergency medical needs. Some of these could be –
• House renovation
• Hospitalization or other emergency medical needs
• Marriage in the family
• Travel or holiday expenses
• Advance rent payments
• Educational/ professional training
• Payment of taxes.
Other Loan to Staff:
Loans allowed to employees other than for House Building shall be grouped under head, Staff Loan (Gen).
Single Borrower/Group Limits/Syndication:
The bank’s Single Borrower/Group limits shall not exceed the limit permitted by Bangladesh Bank.
Policy of Financing to Ready Made Garments Industries (RMG):
It may be mentioned that the following types of financing are made to export oriented garment / textile industries:
a) Capital financing (Term Loan) for import of machinery.
b) Back-to-Back L/C facility.
c) Packing Credit facility and
d) Negotiation/purchase of export bills.
Financing to export oriented Garments industries is lucrative and remunerative to the Bank in the following considerations:
1) Major finance is in the form of BTB L/C, which is non-funded.
2) Bank earns from export oriented RMG finance in different form:
a. L/C commission;
b. Acceptance commission;
c. Exchange Gain;
d. Interest and other miscellaneous income.
3) It is self-liquidating from export proceeds.
4) Once a Garment client inducted it becomes a captive client for future & continuous Back-to-Back L/C, Export and other allied business.
5) It is Bulk Credit.
6) It continues throughout the year and not seasonal.
7) Moreover, it contributes to the national economy in generation of Foreign Exchange as well as Employment.
Side by side, financing to Garments sector is associated with considerable risk, which are as follows:
1) Export failure with resultant stock-lot is a common phenomenon in this sector for various reasons. Once stock-lot is created, Bank’s finance of large amount get stuck-up. Exporters are not in a position to repay Bank’s dues from their own source until the export of stock-lot is made.
2) The exporters generally cannot provide adequate collateral security compared to the quantum of credit facilities exposing the Bank to risk.
3) It is Buyers’ market. Very often, buyers refuse payment of export bills on flimsy ground and bargain for exorbitant discount, causing shortfall in adjustment of Bank’s dues.
4) Global Economic and Political conditions usually affect the RMG Sector to a great extent. Knit Garments enjoy cash subsidy from the Government, timely release of which by the Government is also very essential. However, recent Government move is to withdraw this facility.
In view of the above advantages as well as the risk factors the Bank should be very selective in allowing finance in the sector. For safety of Bank’s finance in Garments sector, the following points are to be taken in view:
1) The bank should avoid Project / Capital Finance in RMG & give preference for working capital financing to self financed projects. However, their existing factories shall be allowed to import additional machinery for balancing / expansion purpose.
2) The bank should induct only those clients who have minimum 5 years experience in this line & has and excellent proven track record.
3) The credit limit should be consistent with the production capacity & performance of the factory.
4) Back to Back L/Cs should be opened after examining the Credit report, reputation and past performance of the buyers as well as of the export L/C opening Banks.
5) There should be sufficient time gap between arrival of fabrics, accessories and validity of export L/C for completing production of RMG to ensue export shipment in time to avoid stock-lot. Minimum 60 days gap is preferable.
6) Effective follow-up, supervision and monitoring at the respective Branch should be made. At least once a month the factory should be visited to evaluate performance & a report be submitted.
7) Adequate collateral securities should be insisted against Garments finance. Additionally 2.50% to be deducted from each export bills to build up FDRs, which should be held under lien as security. The deduction to be made up to 20% of limits sanctioned /outstanding whichever is higher.
8) Pre-shipment Export Credit Guarantee from Sadharan Bima Corporation shall be a general condition for Garments financing. For any deviation from this condition waiver shall be obtained from EC/Board.
9) Fire and RSD Insurance Policy shall be obtained on the book value of Plant & Machinery and while on the raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods on it should be obtained on stock declaration basis.
In order to make close & effective monitoring & supervision, it may be a good idea to have a separate Garments Cell. The proposed Cell shall function from Credit Division, Head Office and supervised by an SEO / FAVP.
Requirements for the 100% Export Oriented Garment Industry:
1) Account Opening Stage:
a. Trade License;
b. Memorandum of Association;
c. Articles of Association;
d. Certificate of Incorporation;
e. Resolution of the Board of Directors.
2) Admissibility for Export Business:
a. Trade License (Renewed);
b. Export License (Renewed);
c. IRC (Renewed);
d. Bonded Warehouse License (Renewed);
e. Tax Holiday Approval from NBR;
f. (if expiry may be noted for information)
g. BGMEA Membership (Renewed);
h. Fire Protection License from Civil Defense Authority (Renewed);
i. Fire Insurance of Factory stipulating the bank as Beneficiary (Renewed)
Insurance policies should be obtained for Fire, RSD & Flood for the Machinery (Written Down Value) and for the Stock covering the BTB Limit on declaration basis.
Policy of Small & Medium Enterprise (SME) Scheme:
Bangladesh is a high densely populated and one of the poorest countries of the world. Per capita income of our country is $ 385 (app). Job opportunity is very scanty. Unemployment rate is approximately 45% and population below poverty line is 36%. So, it is a prime issue for the nation to generate income through creation of job opportunity & employment. It is not easy to create job opportunity at large scale. As a financial institution, we can increase self-employment through financial support.
There are many small and medium entrepreneurs in our country who have innovative ideas, spirit and potentiality to do something productive for local consumers as well as export abroad. They can generate income and contribute to the GDP. They may also provide employment to other people. Development and growth of Small and Medium Enterprises is playing a vital role in the National Development. Such type of entrepreneurs can not go a long way for want of financial support because they have no access to institutional credit facilities, as they cannot provide collateral security as demanded for such credit facility.
The entrepreneurs who have no scope to avail any credit facility from formal financial institutions they are bound to take credit facility for maintaining their entrepreneurship from non-formal institutions/individuals with high rate to continue their effort.
The Premier Bank Limited is committed to play positive role in the socio-economic development of the country. So, we can introduce Small & Medium Enterprise (SME) Credit Scheme to contribute our effort in the socio-economic development of our country.
Credit Scheme for Small and medium Enterprises is very popular in most of the developed and developing countries of the world. If we look at south East Asia, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea etc, we will find that small and medium businesses are the real engine of growth in those countries. The global economy of the 21st century will be dominated by Small and Medium sized players.
A good number of banking and non-financial institutions in our country are successfully operating this Scheme.
Objectives of the Scheme:
To provide credit facilities to the small and medium size entrepreneurs located in Urban & Sub-urban areas and easily accessible by our Branches.
To flow credit for creation of employment and generation of income on a sustainable basis through development of small & medium enterprises.
To assist potential entrepreneurs to improve their living standard.
To reduce dependence on money lenders.
To make self-reliant small and medium enterprises.
To develop savings habit and making social contact with banking facilities.
To inspire for undertaking small projects for creation employment through income generating activities.
To participate in the socio-economic development of the country.
Eligibility for Credit Facilities:
The following criteria have to be met by the applicant to qualify for a loan from The Premier Bank Limited under its SME Credit Scheme:
The entrepreneurs must be literate i.e. capable of reading & writing.
The entrepreneurs should be skilled in managing his / her business and has experience of successfully managing the business for at least 5 (five) years at the same location. If they have moved their business location before 5 (five) years, satisfactory reason must be available.
The age of the entrepreneurs must be between 20 years to 55 years.
If the applicant is an individual, the Borrower must be a national or permanent resident of Bangladesh. If the Borrower is a company / firm or other business entity it must be registered in Bangladesh and majority shares owned by Bangladeshi’s.
The applicant must be 100% privately owned, controlled and operated.
The applicant’s principal place of business must be in Bangladesh.
If acceptable collateral security cannot be provided, the borrower should arrange for 2 (two) acceptable personal guarantees. The type of guarantors depends on size of the loan and business. In accepting a person as guarantor his social standing, income and asset shall be considered. Any default borrower or unreliable person shall not be accepted as guarantor. However, guarantor will be determined on a case-to-case basis. The decision whether collateral will be required or not shall rest with the Bank.
If the applicant is a member of any social organization / association, he should arrange a corporate guarantee of the association / organization through formal regulation (if any).
The applicant should arrange to execute a tripartite agreement with the Bank and any third person who is financially related with him directly (if any).
The project shall be financially viable and socially desirable.
The Sponsor / applicant shall have reputation in the society.
There should be some innovation / creativity in the project.
Proper utilization and timely repayment of previous loan will be considered as a proven track record of the applicant for renewal & enhancement of credit facility.
Loan Ceiling: for urban area
Minimum Tk 1.00 Lac.
Maximum Tk 75.00 Lac.
Delivery Van / Transport for business purpose;
Refurnishing office / Business premises.
Mode of Finance:
Hire purchase / Lease Finance;
Policy of Doctors’ Loan Scheme:
The bank hope that providing loan under easy terms & conditions will certainly have an important / positive effect on their medical services and will enhance the opportunity for their doctors to establish themselves as well as to contribute to make our medical services modern enough compared to other countries. This will also enable them to establish Banking Relationship with the Doctors Community who is rich & resourceful. The bank can get good deposits and also develop profitable lending relationship with the Doctor’ community.
Purpose of Loan:
Purpose of this loan is to create opportunity for self-employment of the registered MBBS /FCPS / Post Graduate doctors, medical Practitioners by financing them for the following purposes: –
Up-to 100% Lease Finance for acquiring Medical Equipment.
Up-to 100% Lease Finance for Motor Cars / Ambulances.
Term Loan for rental advance / decoration & furnishing of chambers.
Loan for purchasing of Apartment / Chamber up-to 50% of the cost.
Registered Doctors such as MBBS, FCPS & Post Graduates, Surgeon and Dentist, Eye Specialists, Heart Specialists, Child Specialists as well as Hospitals, Clinics, Diagnostic Centers owned & operated by registered Doctors.
Terms & Conditions:
The loan amount would be based on the needs / requirements of the borrower on case-to-case basis. Borrower can avail one or more of the following:
Lease finance for medical equipments.
Lease finance for motor vehicles / ambulances.
Term loan for renting / decorating & furnishing chambers.
Personal Loan under Consumer Credit Scheme.
Loan for purchasing apartment / medical chamber.
Lease may be allowed up-to 100% of acquisition cost.
Term Loan up-to 80% of cost.
For purchase of Apartment / Chamber – loan up-to 50% of purchase price.
Security: (one or more of the following)
3 (three) advance installments (Compulsory).
Leased financed items ensured in the sole name of the Bank (Compulsory).
Personal guarantee of the Borrower(s) & their spouse(s) (Compulsory).
Third Party guarantees.
For purchase of Apartment / Chamber – loan to be secured by Registered Mortgage of the Apartment / Chamber (Compulsory).
Collaterals in the form of mortgage.
Lien on deposits / other financial obligations.
Repayment term will be up-to 4 (four) years for Lease / Loan.
Apartment / Chamber loans may extend up-to 10 (ten) years.
Payments will be made in equal monthly installments (EMI).
Early repayment may be allowed without any penal interest / charges.
Initially the following categories of people shall be eligible to apply for availing loan facilities under this product:
Registered Medical Practitioners / Doctors such as MBBS, FCPS, Eye Specialists, Heart Specialists, Child Specialists, Surgeon, Dentist etc should have at least 5 years experience.
Hospital, Clinic, Diagnostic Centers owned & operated by registered Doctors.
Interest Rate & Charges:
Interest Rate @ 15% p.a. with monthly rest.
Application form will cost Tk 100.00.
Loan Processing fee at 0.50% of the loan amount payable along with the submission of the Application Form. In the event of non-approval, the loan-processing fee will be refunded.
Other charges for Lease finance shall apply such as:
o Service Charge – 1.00%
o Risk Fund – 1.00%
o Transfer fee – 1.00%
Consumer Credit facilities shall be guided by existing policy approved by Board in its 345th EC Meeting held on 07.04.2003.
Policy of Consumer Credit Scheme (CCS):
To extend credit facility to the limited income group.
To develop living standard of middle and upper middle class people.
To participate in the socio-economic development of the country.
Eligibility of the Borrowers:
Officer / Executives from following organizations having confirmed / permanent job and getting the salary as mentioned below with minimum length of service of 2 (two) years within the age between 20-55 years will be eligible for availing loans under Consumer Credit Scheme (CCS):
Officers / Executives of any Scheduled Bank and getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 12,000.00.
Officers / Executives of any other financial institutions and getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 15,000.00.
Officers / Executives of any Multinational Company getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 15,000.00.
Officers / Executives of any Public Limited Company and getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 20,000.00.
Officers of Private Limited Company having corporate structure and getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 30,000.00.
Officers of any Government Organization and getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 8,000.00 per month.
Teachers of Universities, Colleges and Schools and getting minimum monthly gross salary of Tk 12,000.00.
Officers of Semi Government Organizations and Autonomous Bodies and getting monthly gross minimum salary of Tk 10,000.00.
The self employed persons, such as, Doctors, Chartered Accountants, Lawyers or who have their own Business by any nature having minimum income of Tk 35,000.00 per month may be eligible to get loans under CCS. The length of profession shall not be less than three years. (In this case he / she will have to submit supporting papers of profession for last three years).
For defense service personnel CCS may be provided, in addition to the conditions and guidelines of this circular, subject to fulfilling the following conditions as per circular no. 3204/R/AG/(PS-1) dated 3rd March, 1999 and any subsequent amendments thereto issued by army headquarter, Adjutant General Branch, Dhaka Cantonment:
Employers Certificate should be obtained only form the Commanding Officer of Borrower’s unit.
In case of providing credit facility to a soldier, the guarantor should not be below the rank of Junior Commission Officer.
The respective unit of the borrower will provide a guarantee certificate that the borrower will pay the monthly installment in due course.
Other than Car, Microbus, Pick-up & Jeep the maximum Loan Limit is Tk 1.00 Lac only but the amount shall be fixed in such a manner that the monthly installment of the loan will not be more than 25% of his / her monthly income. For Car, Microbus, Pick-up & Jeep:
Maximum limit Tk 20.00 Lac for new Car;
Maximum limit Tk 10.00 Lac for reconditioned Car;
Maximum limit Tk 6.00 Lac for Microbus and
Maximum limit Tk 5.00 Lac for Pick-up.
The client will apply as per prescribed Form along with the copy of the following papers for approval:
Application Form duly filled in and verified by the Branch officials.
Price quotation / indent of the item to be purchased.
Price quotation of the item to be purchased or service to be availed such as home repair, redecoration etc.
Cost estimation for Intangibles (medical expenses, holidays, marriage).
One copy of attested photograph of the applicant (one copy should be retained with the Branch).
Guarantor’s information in the prescribed form.
Borrower’s net worth statement.
In respect of Service Holder:
Salary certificates from the employer;
Letter of surety / assurance (where applicable);
Last 3 (three) month’s Salary Account statement.
In respect of Business Persons / self-employed Persons:
Last 6 (six) month’s personal Account statements;
Trade License / Letter of Incorporation;
Tax Return (last three years).
It is noted that all favorable considerations of an applicant and respective guarantors to sanction / forward any CCS loan facility must be mentioned and recorded in the loan proposal.
Policy of Credit Facility secured by Deposit/Cash Collateral (SOD):
Terms & Conditions:
The Credit facility must be 100% covered by Deposit in Premier Bank under lien. 10% margin shall be retained in respect of funded facility that means Loans & Advances will not exceed 90% of the deposits. In case of non-funded facility such as L/C or B/G, 100% exposure may be taken.
Interest differential between the Loans & Advances and deposits held with the Bank will be 3% P.A.
Commission / Charges for non-funded facility may be reduced by 25%.
Proper Letter of Lien and other charge documents shall be obtained. In case the deposits are held in the name of the Third Party, Personal Guarantee of the Depositor will be obtained.
The Branch Management Committee shall approve the facility and they shall submit a monthly statement of all such credit facility extended in the following form, which shall be signed by all the members of the Branch Management Committee.
Photocopy of Deposit Receipt and Letter of Lien shall be attached with the statement.
Head Office Credit Division will review the statement and bring any irregularity to the attention of Management Committee of the Bank for further action including report to EC / Board.
Policy of Purchase / Discount / SOD (acceptance finance) of Local Export Bills and opening of L/Cs at 50% cash margin /en-cashable securities:
The Branch may exercise the delegation for Purchase / Discount & SOD (Acceptance Finance) of Local Export Bills and opening of L/Cs at 50% cash margin / en-cashable securities without any post import facility under the following terms & conditions:
1. The following delegation of business power for purchase and /or discount of Local Export Bills may be exercised:
EVP/SVP : Tk 200.00 Lac
VP/FVP : Tk 100.00 Lac
AVP/FAVP : Tk 50.00 Lac
MANCOM : Tk 500.00 Lac
Conditions for the Delegation:
The above limit is for single customer or group. (All companies in a group shall be treated as single customer).
The bills must be purchased / discounted strictly as per policy.
In case of SOD (Acceptance Finance) the branches must comply with the same policies procedure as for the discount / purchase.
Any exception to policy will require approval from EC / Board.
The authority shall be exercise by the FAVP / AVP / FVP / VP / SVP / EVP when they are posted as a Branch Manager along with the other members of the Branch Management Committee.
The following delegation of business power for opening of Sight Documentary L/Cs at 50% margin in the form of cash or en-cashable securities without any post import facility as under:
EVP/SVP : Tk 200.00 Lac
VP/FVP : Tk 100.00 Lac
AVP/FAVP : Tk 50.00 Lac
MANCOM : Tk 500.00 Lac
Conditions for the Delegation:
The above limit is for single customer or group. (All companies in a group shall be treated as single customer).
L/Cs where not less than 50% margin in the form of cash or en-cashable securities received and where no post import finance is required shall be eligible.
Stand by L/C will not be eligible.
L/Cs for import of capital machinery will not be eligible.
DP L/Cs or BTB L/Cs will not be eligible.
L/Cs for import of perishable goods will not be eligible.
No funded facility shall be allowed for such L/C.
The authority shall be exercise by the FAVP / AVP / FVP / VP / SVP / EVP when they are posted as a Branch Manager along with the other members of the Branch Management Committee.
Fortnightly statements as per prescribed format of all credit facilities extended by the Branch Management Committee should be sent to Head Office for review to enhance compliance of the rules and regulations. The statement should be sent as on every 15th and last day of the months.
These Policies may be called the Premier Bank Personal Loan Policy.
The purpose of this product is to sanction personal loan for any purpose of the customer who will fulfill certain criteria mentioned in this policy.
Purpose of Loan:
This is any purpose loan. It could be anything from buying household appliances to overseas vacation or emergency medical needs. Some of these could be:
o House Renovation
o Hospitalization or other emergency Medical needs
o Marriages in the family
o Advance Rent Payments
o Travel / Holiday Expenses
o Educational / Professional Training
o Payment of Taxes
o Any other personal needs
Salaried persons working as confirmed employee in established organizations such as multi-national companies, banks & other financial institutions, government and semi-government organizations, autonomous bodies, universities, reputed schools and colleges, reputed private limited company having corporate structure.
Amount of Loan:
Depending on the customer’s repayment capability & cash flow, amount of loan could be from minimum Tk. 50,000.00 to maximum Tk. 10.00 lac. The applicant’s repayment capability will be calculated by 10 (ten) times of monthly net/take home salary but not more than Tk. 10.00 lac. However, in case of Government employee management has got the discretion to allow loan upto any amount above Tk. 50,000.00 and not exceeding Tk. 10.00 lac considering the repayment capability of the employee irrespective of net/take home salary.
Maximum repayment period for the loan up to 5.00 lac will be 4 (four) years and for more than Tk. 5.00 lac this period will be 5 (five) years. However, this repayment arrangement will be fixed by equal monthly installments depending on the loan amount, loan assessment & client’s convenience and the repayment will start from the 1st week of the following month of disbursement. Customer has to provide declaration of his loan with other banks and repayment capability will be calculated on that basis. But in any circumstance, it must not extend beyond the applicant’s / borrower’s 58 birthday or retirement date in service whichever is earlier.
Eligibility for Loan:
For the Government/Semi-government/Autonomous body Gross Salary should be Tk. 10,000/- per month
Other than Government/Semi-government/Autonomous body Gross Salary should be Tk. 15,000/- per month
Age between 21 to 58 years
At least 1 year service length with the present company and minimum 3 years service length all together. He/She must be a confirmed employee in the present organization.
If any one of the same family (particularly in case of husband and wife) has already taken loan from the Premier Bank Limited under this scheme other one of that family (particularly in case of husband and wife) will not be eligible for this loan. But the Managing Director will have the discretion to allow loan to both husband/wife on case-to-case basis.
Since “Personal Loan” is a no security & no cash margin loan, it is important to carefully analyze the repayment capability of the borrower. In this case, borrower’s age, monthly income, profession, value of other assets, savings habit, number of dependants, additional or spouse’s income, etc. has to be considered on a case-to-case basis.
Applicable rate of interest:
Interest on “Personal Loan” will be calculated on a monthly reducing balance method which is followed by most of the banks now days. There will be following two categories applicable rates of interest:
Customer without Collateral: For customers without collateral, rate of interest will be @ 16.00% p.a. with monthly rest.
Customer with Collateral (who will have at least 50% cash deposit such as FDR and any other deposit or any register mortgage of property): For customer with acceptable collateral, rate of interest will be @ 15.00% with monthly rest. In case of deposit of other Bank letter of lien confirmation has to be obtained from that bank in this regard.
There will be a risk fund of 1.00% of the loan amount but not more than Tk. 5,000/- payable at the time of loan disbursement. This fund will be refundable only in the case of regular repayment of all monthly installments in time or early payment and with full adjustment of the loan. Customer with Collateral (who will have at least 50% cash deposit such as FDR and other deposit or any register mortgage of property) will not require providing any risk fund.
Cash collateral as security is not mandatory to obtain the loan. Personal Guarantee of a reputed person (acceptable by the bank) and Post Dated cheques must be required. However, following security documents will remain lodged with the Bank and will be enforceable by the Bank against the borrower in the event of breach of agreement by the borrower:
Letter of Introduction.
Demand Promissory Note.
Letter of Arrangement.
Letter of Continuity
Letter of Authority.
Letter of Disbursement.
Letter of Revival.
Letter of Personal Guarantee of the borrower and his/her spouse.
Letter of Hypothecation (in case of house renovation).
Post dated Cheque / Undated Cheque
Charge on Building or Apartment (in case of house renovation).
Terms & Conditions:
The Bank shall not be obliged to make the loan available until it has received formal written acknowledgement from the borrower accepting the facility on the basis outlined and subject to the terms and conditions specified in the Banking Arrangement Letter (Sanction Letter) and necessary security documents are properly executed.
The Bank reserves the right to withdraw the loan facility and thereby terminate the agreement, if, in the opinion of the Bank, there has been any material adverse change in the borrower’s financial condition or if there has been any default in repayment of the loan.
The loan shall be utilized for the specified purpose for which it will be sanctioned. Disbursement shall be made directly by the Bank to the borrower’s account.
The borrower unconditionally undertakes to repay the facility as per terms and conditions of the Banking Arrangement Letter.
All payments required to be made in respect of the loan, shall be made by the borrower on the respective due dates.
In the event of death of the borrower, the Bank shall be entitled to recover the outstanding amount from his/her legal heir(s) and or from the guarantor.
The Bank’s statement and records shall be binding on the borrower and constitute conclusive evidence of debt for all purposes.
If at any time, any provision hereof becomes illegal, invalid or enforceability of remaining provisions shall be affected or impaired thereby.
The Bank reserves the right to alter these terms and conditions at any time on notification to the borrower.
Any notice made by the Bank in respect of the loan shall be in writing and sent to the mailing address given by the borrower and shall be deemed to have been served on the customer 3 business days from the date of dispatch.
These terms and conditions shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of Bangladesh and the Borrower and the Bank hereby irrevocably submit to the jurisdiction of the courts of Bangladesh.
The Premier Bank Ltd. VISA Credit Card:
The Premier Bank is a 3rd generation private Bank that has been approved as a Principal & Plus Member of VISA International. We have launched our prestigious VISA Credit Card Services, a first of its kind by a local private Bank in Bangladesh. This is no doubt an exciting addition to our product line that not only brings additional satisfaction to our customers but also helps us achieve our goal in customer services.
No joining Fee
Auto Debit Payment
Cash Advance Facility
Zero Cost Liability
Free Credit up to 45 days
Photo Card Options
These are the different types of credit that is provided by the premier bank ltd.
The Bank will not grant any facilities to the following business types:
Military Equipment/Weapons Finance
Highly Leveraged Transactions
Finance of Speculative Investments
Logging, Mineral Extraction/Mining, or other activity that is Ethically or Environmentally Sensitive
Lending to companies listed on CIB black list or known defaulters
Counter parties in countries subject to UN sanctions
Taking an Equity Stake in Borrowers
Lending to Holding Companies
Bridge Loans relying on equity/debt issuance as a source of repayment.
Highly perishable goods stored in godown.
Lending to slow moving items.
Loan Facility Parameters
The Premier Bank Ltd. follows a parameter that is approved by Head Office and beyond this parameter they do not provide any loan facility to the customer. As general guideline companies forming their targets should have the following criteria: –
Their targets should normally be the top companies and business firms of Bangladesh with a good track record.
Included in the track record will be annual net worth increase over the past three years.
They should look for a debt / worth relation of 2:1 to maximum 3:1.
A minimum current ratio 1:1.
Borrowing covered at least by 100% of credit balance that means Fixed Deposit / Saving Bank balance/ margin etc. in the name of the borrower or guarantor.
The borrowers’ integrity and market report must be beyond any question.
Satisfactory CIB /bank report required.
Proprietor / partners /directors must have experience in business.
Where audited accounts are not available actual financials in proper Statements of Income & Expenditure and Balance Sheet form for hree years of which the latest one must not be older than three months from the date of submission of proposal should be made available to the bank.
Minimum after tax profit/ sales margin 5%.
Annual sales growth must not be less than 10%.
Minimum annual Net profit from each customer Tk. 2.00 Lac with minimum ROA 3%.
Cross Border Risk:
Risk associated with cross border lending. Borrowers of a particular country may be unable or unwillingly to fulfill principle and / or interest obligations. Distinguished from ordinary credit risk because the difficulty arises from a political event, such as: –
Suspension of external payments.
Synonymous with Political & sovereign risk.
Third world debt crisis, for example, export documents negotiated for countries like Nigeria.
Restrictions on Loans & Advances
The Premier Bank Ltd. does not make or commit any facilities to an entity or a number of entities under the ownership of one customer, which exceeds 50% of the capital fund of the bank without obtaining Bangladesh Bank approval.
Similarly the Bank does not make or commit any unsecured and/ or secured facilities to the own Bank Director(s) or his /their dependants exceeding 50% of the shares held by any Director subject to a maximum amount of Taka One million without the approval of the Bank’s Board of Directors and Bangladesh Bank.
Clearance of Bangladesh Bank, Credit Information Bureau (CIB) is required for granting Credit facility of any amount in order to ascertain that the prospective borrower has no classified loan with other Bank(s).
The Bank does not grant any facility to a customer having default loans outstanding with another bank.
The Bank does not grant Loans/Advances against security of its own shares.
The Bank does not grant advances to a minor or a company where a minor is holding the majority share.
The Bank does not make loans against second mortgage of properties whose value is equal and secured by 1st mortgage.
The Bank does not make advances / loans to enable the borrower to speculate in shares and debenture and / or commodities for hoarding purposes.
The Bank does not make advances against properties in locations where they do not have a branch.
The Bank does not grant loans against accommodation bills.
The Bank does not issue a guarantee of any type whose expiry is beyond three years without having 100% margin.
Application for Loan Advance:
An Application for a loan should be made by the intending borrower in writing normally in the prescribed form stating interlaid the purpose of the loan, the quantum of the loan needed, the repayment program and securities offered. Before processing of the advance proposal the dealing officer/ manager should ascertain the detailed information of applicant’s occupation / business and his assets and liabilities, collect market report about him and assess his overall credit worthiness in order to be reasonably sure that the borrower will conduct the loan account satisfactorily.
A thorough credit and risk assessment should be conducted prior to the granting of loans, and at least annually thereafter for all facilities. The results of this assessment should be presented in the Credit Application that originates from the Branch Manager (“BM”) or Relationship Manager (“RM”), and is approved by Credit Risk Management (CRM). The BM/RM should be the owner of the customer relationship, and must be held responsible to ensure the accuracy of the entire credit application submitted for approval. BMs/RM s must be familiar with the bank’s Lending Guidelines and should conduct due diligence on new borrowers, principals, and guarantors.
It is essential that BMs/RMs know their customers and conduct due diligence on new borrowers, principals, and guarantors to ensure such parties are in fact who they represent themselves to be and shall follow the bank’s “Know Your Customer” (KYC) and Money Laundering guidelines.
Know Your Customer (KYC):
The success of a bank and the consistency of it’s profits depend on the efficiency and safety with which it makes use of it’s resources- Capital and deposits by lending those resources to various types of borrowers. Selection of customer is important; therefore the first criterion should be “Know Your Customer”.
The major factor in successful lending is ability to judge the Character and Credit-worthiness of the borrower.
Credit worthiness can be judged on certain general principles, which the bank should follow in the decision-making: –
1. The integrity of the borrower: –
He should be a respectable and honorable man who can be relied on to keep his promises.
2. The ability to repay the advance: –
This ability will depend on his financial resources, which means not only his income but also the property or capital that he possess or will possess.
The purpose for which the advance is required: – The bank should ensure that the purpose of the loan is such as to make the advance suitable as a matter of banking business.
The source of repayment of the advance: – The bank should ensure that the product, which the borrower has been manufacturing/dealing with, has a good demand in the market.
The period for which the advance is required: – An advance to a manufacturer to enable him to buy raw materials to fulfill a profitable short-term contract is an advance of temporary character promising sound banking business.
Past dealing with the customer may give the bank a lead to the customers’ character and trustworthiness, and personal knowledge of the man may confirm any opinion the branch may have formed from the working of an existing account.
The branch will also consider the customers’ local standing, the influence he may be able to exert and whether he has been a good friend to the bank in the past.
Traders or industrialists who require advances for purpose of their business usually have some assets. When advancing to trading customers, therefore, the branch should ask for Balance Sheet and Statements of Income & Expenditure for the previous 2/3 years so that the branch can form an opinion of the value of the customers’ assets and liabilities, and may obtain a true perspective of the trend of the customers’/ borrowers’ affairs.
While meeting an existing / potential customer the officer of the branch must check whether the person with whom he will be dealing with that means proprietors/partners/directors are extravagant in personal life style? Living beyond his means? And resort to irregular behavior leading to evasive answers? to enable him to form an opinion of their relationship with the bank. While considering the business of an individual / entity the branch value each asset on a forced sale basis –
The bank does not grant loans for purely speculative purposes.
A business having negative net-worth should not be granted any credit facility if are not covered by cash/quasi cash securities with adequate margin.
Always refer to Account opening form at the initial stage of your dealings with the customers to establish the identity of the borrower.
If the customer is a Public figure the account must be considered a High Risk Account.
When opening accounts, the concerned officer must assess the risk that the accounts could be used for “money laundering” and must classify the accounts as either High Risk or Low Risk.
The bank must establish to their satisfaction that they are dealing with a real person (natural, corporate or legal) and must verify the identity of persons who are authorized to operate any bank or investment, or transact business for the customer. The Bank suggest an officer of this bank while meeting / discussing with a customer to prepare a file note of the contents of discussion for future reference which may disclose changes of address, telephone number and so on for incorporation/substitution in the AOF and other records.
Credit Applications should summarize the results of the BMs/RMs risk assessment and include, as a minimum, the following details:
Amount and type of loan(s) proposed.
Purpose of loans.
Loan Structure (Tenor, Covenants, Repayment Schedule, Interest)
In addition, the following risk areas must be addressed:
The majority shareholders, management team and group or affiliate companies should be assessed. Any issues regarding lack of management depth, complicated ownership structures or inter-group transactions should be addressed, and risks mitigated.
The key risk factors of the borrower’s industry should be assessed. Any issues regarding the borrower’s position in the industry, overall industry concerns or competitive forces should be addressed and the strengths and weaknesses of the borrower relative to its competition should be identified.
The purpose of the loan:
While lending a customer fund, The Bank does enquiries from the borrower the purpose for which a customer seeks the loan. The bank does not grant the loans for each and every purpose. They ensure the safety and liquidity of their funds by granting loans for productive purpose only. For meeting working capital needs of a business enterprise. Loans are not advanced for speculative and unproductive purposes.
The success of an enterprise largely depends on the ability, competence and experience of the entrepreneur. If the borrower possesses necessary technical skills, managerial skills and experience to run a particular industry or trade he or she is likely to succeeds in his or her chosen field of activities and will rank high on the scale of credit worthiness.
The importance attached by the banker to the adequacy of capital of the borrower is not without significance. The bank is the repositories of the public money and lends the money mostly borrowed from the public through deposit or otherwise. The bank therefore, does not lend the money to an entrepreneur who does not have adequate funds for his or her own. In case of failure of the business enterprise the bank will be able to realize his or her money if the borrower’s own capital is sufficient.
Any customer or supplier concentration should be addressed, as these could have a significant impact on the future viability of the borrower. The bank tries to find out the creditworthiness of the party by making enquiries from the brokers, traders and businessmen in the same trade or industry. Their individual opinions may differ but a balanced opinion may be formed about the borrower on the basis of the feelings expressed by a number of such people.
Past Financial Analysis:
An analysis of a minimum of 3 years historical financial statements of the borrower should be presented. Where reliance is placed on a corporate guarantor, guarantor financial statements should also be analyzed. The analysis should address the quality and sustainability of earnings, cash flow and the strength of the borrower’s balance sheet. Specifically, cash flow, leverage and profitability must be analyzed.
Projected Financial Performance:
Where term facilities (tenor > 1 year) are being proposed, a projection of the borrower’s future financial performance should be provided, indicating an analysis of the sufficiency of cash flow to service debt repayments. Loans should not be granted if projected cash flow is insufficient to repay debts.
For existing borrowers, the historic performance in meeting repayment obligations (trade payments, cheques, interest and principal payments, etc) should be assessed.
Adherence to Lending Guidelines:
Credit Applications should clearly state whether or not the proposed application is in compliance with the bank’s Lending Guidelines. The Bank’s Head of Credit or Managing Director/CEO should approve Credit Applications that do not adhere to the bank’s Lending Guidelines.
Mitigating factors for risks identified in the credit assessment should be identified. Possible risks include, but are not limited to: margin sustainability and/or volatility, high debt load (leverage/gearing), overstocking or debtor issues; rapid growth, acquisition or expansion; new business line/product expansion; management changes or succession issues; customer or supplier concentrations; and lack of transparency or industry issues.
The amounts and tenors of financing proposed should be justified based on the projected repayment ability and loan purpose. Excessive tenor or amount relative to business needs increases the risk of fund diversion and may adversely impact the borrower’s repayment ability.
A current valuation of collateral should be obtained and the quality and priority of security being proposed should be assessed. Loans should not be granted based solely on security. Adequacy and the extent of the insurance coverage should be assessed.
Credit proposals should not be unduly influenced by an over reliance on the sponsoring principal’s reputation, reported independent means, or their perceived willingness to inject funds into various business enterprises in case of need. These situations should be discouraged and treated with great caution. Rather, credit proposals and the granting of loans should be based on sound fundamentals, supported by a thorough financial and risk analysis.
Collection of credit information:
For the purpose of assessing the creditworthiness of a borrower, the bank collects the above-mentioned information from a number of sources. In foreign countries specialized agencies collect all information relating to the status and financial standing of businessmen and supply the same to the banks. Bangladesh Bank has developed a system to collect information regarding the financial position of the borrowers through its Credit Information Bureau (CIB).
Credit Information Bureau:
The bureau collects credit information from the bank under section 42 of the Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972. The bank is required to provide to Bangladesh Bank the data on credit facilities provided to the clients. Bangladesh Bank maintains a database in its Credit Information Bureau. The Bank enjoy access to these data in respect of their prospective borrowers. Thus, the bank can find out if any of their customers are having excessive borrowings from the banking system at any particular moment and how meticulous they are to meet their repayment obligations. The information is of limited assistance to the bank.
Exchange of credit information amongst banks:
It is the practice and customary usage amongst banks to exchange credit information relating to the constituents in their mutual interest. Bangladesh Bank has asked the banks to supply information in respect of defaulting borrowers.
Credit Risk Analysis:
Credit risk is the primary financial risk in the banking system. Identifying and assessing credit risk is essentially a first step in managing it effectively. In 1993, Bangladesh Bank as suggested by Financial Sector Reform Project (FSRP) first introduced and directed to use Credit Risk Grading system in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh under the caption “Lending Risk Analysis (LRA)”. The Banking sector since then has changed a lot as credit culture has been shifting towards a more professional and standardized Credit Risk Management approach.
Credit Risk Grading system is a dynamic process and various models are followed in different countries & different organizations for measuring credit risk. The risk grading system changes in line with business complexities. A more effective credit risk grading process needs to be introduced in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh to make the credit risk grading mechanism easier to implement.
Keeping the above objective in mind, the Lending Risk Analysis Manual (under FSRP) of Bangladesh Bank has been amended, developed and re-produced in the name of “Credit Risk Grading Manual”.
The Credit Risk Grading Manual has taken into consideration the necessary changes required in order to correctly assess the credit risk environment in the Banking industry. This manual has also been able to address the limitations prevailed in the Lending Risk Analysis Manual.
All Banks already adopted a credit risk grading system outlined in this manual. Risk grading is a key measurement of a Bank’s asset quality, and as such, it is essential that grading is a robust process. The Premier Bank Ltd also follows this system to analyze the borrower’s loan performance.
Credit risk grading is an important tool for credit risk management as it helps the Banks & financial institutions to understand various dimensions of risk involved in different credit transactions. The aggregation of such grading across the borrowers, activities and the lines of business can provide better assessment of the quality of credit portfolio of a bank or a branch. The credit risk grading system is vital to take decisions both at the pre-sanction stage as well as post-sanction stage.
At the pre-sanction stage, credit grading helps the sanctioning authority to decide whether to lend or not to lend, what should be the loan price, what should be the extent of exposure, what should be the appropriate credit facility, what are the various facilities, what are the various risk mitigation tools to put a cap on the risk level.
At the post-sanction stage, the bank can decide about the depth of the review or renewal, frequency of review, periodicity of the grading, and other precautions to be taken.
Having considered the significance of credit risk grading, it becomes imperative for the banking system to carefully develop a credit risk-grading model, which meets the objective outlined above.
DEFINITION OF CREDIT RISK GRADING (CRG):
The Credit Risk Grading (CRG) is a collective definition based on the pre-specified scale and reflects the underlying credit-risk for a given exposure.
A Credit Risk Grading deploys a number/ alphabet/ symbol as a primary summary indicator of risks associated with a credit exposure.
Credit Risk Grading is the basic module for developing a Credit Risk Management system.
FUNCTIONS OF CREDIT RISK GRADING:
Well-managed credit risk grading systems promote the bank safety and soundness by facilitating informed decision-making. Grading systems measure credit risk and differentiate individual credits and groups of credits by the risk they pose. This allows bank management and examiners to monitor changes and trends in risk levels. The process also allows bank management to manage risk to optimize returns.
USE OF CREDIT RISK GRADING:
The Credit Risk Grading matrix allows application of uniform standards to credits to ensure a common standardized approach to assess the quality of individual obligor, credit portfolio of a unit, line of business, the branch or the Bank as a whole.
As evident, the CRG outputs would be relevant for individual credit selection, wherein either a borrower or a particular exposure/facility is rated. The other decisions would be related to pricing (credit-spread) and specific features of the credit facility. These would largely constitute obligor level analysis.
Risk grading would also be relevant for surveillance and monitoring, internal MIS and assessing the aggregate risk profile of a Bank. It is also relevant for portfolio level analysis.
The proposed CRG scale consists of 8 categories with names and Numbers are provided as follows:
Risk Rating Grade Definition
Superior – Low Risk 1 Facilities are fully secured by cash deposits, government bonds or a counter guarantee from a top tier international bank. All security documentation should be in place.
Good – Satisfactory Risk 2 The repayment capacity of the borrower is strong. The borrower should have excellent liquidity and low leverage. The company should demonstrate consistently strong earnings and cash flow and have an unblemished track record. All security documentation should be in place. Aggregate Score of 95 or greater based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.
Acceptable – Fair Risk 3 Adequate financial condition though may not be able to sustain any major or continued setbacks. These borrowers are not as strong as Grade 2 borrowers, but should still demonstrate consistent earnings, cash flow and have a good track record. A borrower should not be graded better than 3 if realistic audited financial statements are not received. These assets would normally be secured by acceptable collateral (1st charge over stocks / debtors / equipment / property). Borrowers should have adequate liquidity, cash flow and earnings. An Aggregate Score of 75-94 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.
Marginal – Watch list 4 Grade 4 assets warrant greater attention due to conditions affecting the borrower, the industry or the economic environment. These borrowers have an above average risk due to strained liquidity, higher than normal leverage, thin cash flow and/or inconsistent earnings. Facilities should be downgraded to 4 if the borrower incurs a loss, loan payments routinely fall past due, account conduct is poor, or other untoward factors are present. An Aggregate Score of 65-74 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.
Special Mention 5 Grade 5 assets have potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention. If left uncorrected, these weaknesses may result in a deterioration of the repayment prospects of the borrower. Facilities should be downgraded to 5 if sustained deterioration in financial condition is noted (consecutive losses, negative net worth, excessive leverage), if loan payments remain past due for 30-60 days, or if a significant petition or claim is lodged against the borrower. Full repayment of facilities is still expected and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 55-64 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.
Substandard 6 Financial condition is weak and capacity or inclination to repay is in doubt. These weaknesses jeopardize the full settlement of loans. Loans should be downgraded to 6 if loan payments remain past due for 60-90 days, if the customer intends to create a lender group for debt restructuring purposes, the operation has ceased trading or any indication suggesting the winding up or closure of the borrower is discovered. Not yet considered non-performing as the correction of the deficiencies may result in an improved condition, and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 45-54 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.
Doubtful and Bad
(non-performing) 7 Full repayment of principal and interest is unlikely and the possibility of loss is extremely high. However, due to specifically identifiable pending factors, such as litigation, liquidation procedures or capital injection, the asset is not yet classified as Loss. Assets should be downgraded to 7 if loan payments remain past due in excess of 90 days, and interest income should be taken into suspense (non-accrual). Loan loss provisions must be raised against the estimated unrealizable amount of all facilities. The adequacy of provisions must be reviewed at least quarterly on all non-performing loans, and the bank should pursue legal options to enforce security to obtain repayment or negotiate an appropriate loan rescheduling. In all cases, the requirements of Bangladesh Bank in CIB reporting, loan rescheduling and provisioning must be followed. An Aggregate Score of 35-44 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard
(non-performing) 8 Assets graded 8 are long outstanding with no progress in obtaining repayment (in excess of 180 days past due) or in the late stages of wind up/liquidation. The prospect of recovery is poor and legal options have been pursued. The proceeds expected from the liquidation or realization of security may be awaited. The continuance of the loan as a bankable asset is not warranted, and the anticipated loss should have been provided for. This classification reflects that it is not practical or desirable to defer writing off this basically worthless asset even though partial recovery may be affected in the future. Bangladesh Bank guidelines for timely write off of bad loans must be adhered to. An Aggregate Score of 35 or less based on the Risk Grade Scorecard
Basis for Loan Classification in Premier Bank Ltd.:
□ Any Continuous Loan if not repaid/renewed within the fixed expiry date for repayment will be treated as irregular just from the following day of the expiry date. This loan will be classified as Sub-standard if it is kept irregular for 6 months or beyond but less than 9 months, as `Doubtful’ if for 9 months or beyond but less than 12 months and as `Bad & Loss’ if for 12 months or beyond.
□ Any Demand Loan will be considered as Sub-standard if it remains unpaid for 6 months or beyond but not less then 9 months from the date of claim by the bank or from the date of forced creation of the loan; likewise the loan will be considered as ‘Doubtful’ and ‘Bad & Loss’ if remains unpaid for 9 months or beyond but less then 12 months and for 12 months and beyond respectively.
□ In case any installment(s) or part of installment(s) of a Fixed Term Loan is not repaid within the due date, the amount of unpaid installment(s) will be termed as `defaulted installment’.
In case of Fixed Term Loans, which are repayable within maximum 5 (five) years of time:
If the amount of `defaulted installment’ is equal to or more than the amount of installment(s) due within 6 months, the entire loan will be classified as ‘Sub-standard’.
If the amount of ‘defaulted installment’ is equal to or more than the amount of installment(s) due within 12 months, the entire loan will be classified as ‘Doubtful’.
If the amount of ‘defaulted installment’ is equal to or more than the amount of installment(s) due within 18 months, the entire loan will be classified as ‘Bad & Loss’.
In case of Fixed Term Loans, which are repayable in more than 5 (five) years of time: –
□ If the amount of ‘defaulted installment’ is equal to or more than the amount of installment(s) due within 12 months, the entire loan will be classified as ‘Sub-standard.’
□ If the amount of ‘defaulted installment’ is equal to or more than the amount of installment(s) due within 18 months, the entire loan will be classified as ‘Doubtful’.
□ If the amount of ‘defaulted installment ‘is equal to or more than the amount of installment(s) due within 24 months, the entire loan will be classified as ‘Bad & Loss’.
If any Fixed Term Loan is repayable at monthly installment, the amount of installment(s) due within 6 months will be equal to the amount of summation of 6 monthly installments. Similarly, if repayable at quarterly installment, the amount of installment(s) due within 6 months will be equal to the amount of summation of 2 quarterly installments.
In Premier Bank Ltd. if any uncertainty or doubt arises in respect of recovery of any Continuous Loan, Demand Loan or Fixed Term Loan, the same will have to be classified on the basis of qualitative judgment be it classifiable or not on the basis of objective criteria.
If any situational changes occur in the stipulations in terms of which the loan was extended or if the capital of the borrower is impaired due to adverse conditions or if the value of the securities decreases or if the recovery of the loan becomes uncertain due to any other unfavorable situation, the loan will have to be classified on the basis of qualitative judgment.
Besides, if any loan is illogically or repeatedly re-scheduled or the norms of re-scheduling are violated or instances of (propensity to) frequently exceeding the loan-limit are noticed or legal action is lodged for recovery of the loan or the loan is extended without the approval of the proper authority, it will have to be classified on the basis of qualitative judgment. Despite the probability of any loan’s being affected due to the reasons stated above or for any other reasons, if there exists any hope for change of the existing condition by resorting to proper steps, the loan, on the basis of qualitative judgment, will be classified as ‘Sub-standard’. But even if after resorting to proper steps, there exists no certainty of total recovery of the loan, it will be classified as ‘Doubtful’ and even after exerting the all-out effort, there exists no chance of recovery, it will be classified as ‘ Bad & Loss’ on the basis of qualitative judgment. The concerned bank will classify on the basis of qualitative judgment and can declassify the loans if qualitative improvement does occur.
But if the Inspection Team of Bangladesh Bank classifies any loan, the same can be declassified with the approval of the Board of Directors of the bank. However, before placing such case to the Board, the CEO and concerned branch manager shall have to certify that the conditions for declassification have been fulfilled.
a) Any change in classification criteria provided by the Bangladesh Bank shall supersede this grading system for classified accounts.
b) An account may also be classified based on qualitative judgment in line with Bangladesh Bank guidelines.
c) A particular bank may have classification criteria stricter than Bangladesh Bank guidelines.
How to compute credit risk grading:
The following step-wise activities outline the detail process for arriving at credit risk grading In Premier Bank Ltd.
Credit risk for counterpart arises from an aggregation of the following:
Each of the above-mentioned key risk areas required be evaluating and aggregating to arrive at an overall risk grading measure.
Evaluation of Financial Risk:
Risk that counter parties will fail to meet obligation due to financial distress. This typically entails analysis of financials that means analysis of leverage, liquidity, profitability & interest coverage ratios. To conclude, this capitalizes on the risk of high leverage, poor liquidity, low profitability & insufficient cash flow.
Evaluation of Business/Industry Risk:
Risk that adverse industry situation or unfavorable business condition will impact borrowers’ capacity to meet obligation. The evaluation of this category of risk looks at parameters such as business outlook, size of business, industry growth, market competition & barriers to entry/exit. To conclude, this capitalizes on the risk of failure due to low market share & poor industry growth.
Evaluation of Management Risk:
Risk that counter parties may default as a result of poor managerial ability including experience of the management, its succession plans and teamwork.
Evaluation of Security Risk:
Risk, that the bank might be exposed due to poor quality or strength of the security in case of default. This may entail strength of security & collateral, location of collateral and support.
Evaluation of Relationship Risk:
These risk areas cover evaluation of limits utilization, account performance, conditions/covenants compliance by the borrower and deposit relationship.
The chart of overall Credit Risk:
According to the importance of risk profile, the following weight ages are given for corresponding principal risks.
Principal Risk Components: Weight:
Financial Risk 50%
Business/Industry Risk 18%
Management Risk 12%
Security Risk 10%
Relationship Risk 10%
Principal Risk Components: Key Parameters:
Financial Risk: Leverage, Liquidity, Profitability & Coverage ratio.
Business/Industry Risk: Size of Business, Age of Business, Business Outlook, Industry Growth, and Competition & Barriers to Business
Management Risk: Experience, Succession & Team Work.
Security Risk: Security Coverage, Collateral Coverage and Support.
Relationship Risk: Account Conduct, Utilization of Limit, Compliance of conditions and personal deposit.
After the risk identification and weight age assignment process (as mentioned above), the next steps is to input actual parameter in the score sheet to arrive at the scores corresponding to the actual parameters. This manual also provides a well-programmed MS Excel based credit risk-scoring sheet to arrive at a total score on each borrower. The excel program requires inputting data accurately in particular cells for input and will automatically calculate the risk grade for a particular borrower based on the total score obtained.
It may gives conflict ranking without consideration of risk.
It involves complicated computations.
Basically these are the conditions and guidelines on the basis of which a project selection is made. In Premier Bank Ltd., they have an agency for making a selection of a particular borrower’s project. That agency collects all sorts of information about a particular borrower and calculates all the above calculations on their own basis. The bank also provides all kinds of financial statement to analyze a borrower performance. After analyzing a borrower’s performance they recommend a result to the bank and on the basis of their recommendation the bank decides whether a particular borrower will get the loan or not. Basically the bank take the help of that authorized agency when a large investor or company wants to borrow from the bank.
Uses / Importance of project Appraisal:
From the view point of Bank:
Identification of right borrower.
Evaluation of the commercial, technical and socio-economic feasibility of a project.
Compliance with banking and legal laws of the country.
From the vie point of the Borrower:
Being sure about the overall viability of a project to be undertaken.
A way to receive suggestions to improve any shortcomings of the project.
The authority to sanction/approve loans will be as per bank’s Power of delegation. The following guidelines should apply in the approval/sanctioning of loans:
Credit approval authority must be delegated in writing from the MD, acknowledged by recipients, and records of all delegation retained in CRM.
MD must review delegated approval authorities annually.
The credit approval function should be separate from the marketing/relationship management (RM) function.
The role of Credit Committee may be restricted to only review of proposals that means recommendations or review of bank’s loan portfolios.
Approvals must be evidenced in writing, or by electronic signature. Approval records must be kept on file with the Credit Applications.
Executives within the authority limit delegated to them by the MD must authorize all credit risks. The “pooling” or combining of authority limits should not be permitted.
Credit approval should be centralized within the CRM function. Regional credit centers may be established, however, all large loans must be approved by the Managing Director / Board.
The aggregate exposure to any borrower or borrowing group must be used to determine the approval authority required.
Any credit proposal that does not comply with Lending Guidelines, regardless of amount, should be referred to Head Office for Approval
MD and Head of Credit Risk Management must approve and monitor any cross-border exposure risk.
Any breaches of lending authority should be reported to MD, Head of Internal Control, and Head of CRM.
It is essential that executives charged with approving loans have relevant training and experience to carry out their responsibilities effectively. As a minimum, approving executives should have:
At least 5 years experience working in corporate/commercial banking as a relationship manager or account executive.
Training and experience in financial statement, cash flow and risk analysis.
A thorough working knowledge of Accounting.
A good understanding of the local industry/market dynamics.
Successfully completed an assessment test demonstrating adequate knowledge of the following areas:
Introduction of accrual accounting.
Industry / Business Risk Analysis
Financial reporting and full disclosure
Financial Statement Analysis
The Asset Conversion/Trade Cycle
Cash Flow Analysis
Loan Structure and Documentation
A monthly summary of all new facilities approved, renewed, enhanced, and a list of proposals declined stating reasons thereof should be reported by CRM to the MD.
The Credit Administration shall ensure that proper documentation and approvals are in place prior to the disbursement of any loan facilities. Credit Administration procedures shall ensure the following:
Documentation and Disbursement:
Security documents are prepared in accordance with approval terms and are legally enforceable. Standard loan facility documentation that has been reviewed by legal counsel should be used in all cases. Exceptions should be referred to legal counsel for advice based on authorization from an appropriate executive in CRM. Disbursements under loan facilities are only be made when all security documentation is in place. All formalities regarding large loans & loans to Directors should be guided by Bangladesh Bank circulars & related section of Banking Companies Act. All Credit Approval terms have been met. It means execution of all papers & documents by the borrower incompliance with the terms & conditions of sanction letter. The documents to be obtained duly signed by the borrower generally depends on nature of advance, security offered there against & constitution of the borrower but following documents are mostly common.
Depending on the nature of advance & security offered there against sometimes sanction letter stipulates observance of certain legal aspects which must be complied with as per law of land for the protection of banks interest.
1. Registered Mortgage of landed properties to be executed by the owner of the land with the local sub-register office.
2. Registered power of attorney to be executed by the owner of the land with the local sub-register office to dispose off the same to liquidate loan liability without reference to the court in case of default.
3. Incase of work order finance, assignment of bill related to the work order to be done with the work order awarding authority for collection of the bill on behalf of the borrower.
4. Creation of 1st charge on fixed & floating assets of limited company with the Registered of Joint Stock Company.
5. Pari Passu Charge to be created with RJSC on fixed and floating assets of the company incase of loan syndication.
In all such cases documents is prepared by the legal advisor of the bank & to be executed in presence of authorized officer of bank. After completion of documentation lawyer’s satisfaction report is obtained for record.
Loan disbursements and the preparation and storage of security documents should be centralized in the regional credit centers.
Appropriate insurance coverage is maintained (and renewed on a timely basis) on assets pledged as collateral.
Security documentation is held under strict control, preferably in locked fireproof storage.
To minimize credit losses, monitoring procedures and systems should be in place that provides an early indication of the deteriorating financial health of a borrower. At a minimum, systems should be in place to report the following exceptions to relevant executives in CRM and RM team:
Past due principal or interest payments, past due trade bills, account excesses, and breach of loan covenants;
Loan terms and conditions are monitored, financial statements are received on a regular basis, and any covenant breaches or exceptions are referred to CRM and the RM team for timely follow-up.
Timely corrective action is taken to address findings of any internal, external or regulator inspection/audit.
All borrower relationships/loan facilities are reviewed and approved through the submission of a Credit Application at least annually.
Computer systems must be able to produce the above information for central/head office as well as local review. Where automated systems are not available, a manual process should have the capability to produce accurate exception reports. Exceptions should be followed up on and corrective action taken in a timely manner before the account deteriorates further.
The Recovery Unit (RU) of CRM directly manages accounts with sustained deterioration (a Risk Rating of Sub Standard (6) or worse). Banks may wish to transfer EXIT accounts graded 4-5 to the RU for efficient exit based on recommendation of CRM and Corporate Banking. Whenever an account is handed over from Relationship Management to RU, a Handover/Downgrade Checklist is completed. The RU’s primary functions are:
Determine Account Action Plan/Recovery Strategy
Pursue all options to maximize recovery, including placing customers into receivership or liquidation as appropriate.
Ensure adequate and timely loan loss provisions are made based on actual and expected losses.
Regular review of grade 6 or worse accounts.
The management of problem loans (NPLs) must be a dynamic process, and the associated strategy together with the adequacy of provisions must be regularly reviewed. A process should be established to share the lessons learned from the experience of credit losses in order to update the lending guidelines.
The Premier Bank Ltd. is one of the most potential Banks in the banking sector. It has a large portfolio with huge assets to meet up its liabilities and the management of this bank is equipped with the expert bankers and managers in all level of management. So it is not an easy job to find out the drawbacks of this branch. According to my observation and study the following limitations are prevailing:
Insufficient industrial loans:
Imamgonj is basically a commercial area. So the clients are engaged to do commercial activities. There are no industries that for the clients are interested to get the loan. So It seemed to me that the bank having a large amount of deposit is not encouraging the large scale producers that much of long term industrial loans to accelerate the economy as well as to help the economy to solve unemployment problem.
Problem with general loan:
The procedure and the process to getting the loan is not properly maintain by the customers. Even they have no proper documents that they can get the loan. But the authority provides them the loan facility only having the past experience. That may be a great threat for the bank.
Lack of documents in terms of cash credit:
Customers are always interested to get the CC loan facility from th e bank. So sometimes they mention different types of cause that are not always right. The bank also provides the facilities for its profit.
Improper justification in House financing loan:
It is a critical thing for the bank. The customer shows the co letters when they apply for the loan. But in the same time they may also apply for the loan in another bank showing the same things. In future it may create a great problem. And some times they cannot recovery the loan.
Problem in the lease financing sectors:
Banks provide the leasing facilities to a party. The party does not properly maintain the duty and the responsibilities. They have no idea about the leasing concepts. So they are not properly handling the products. The authorities are not capable to observe the right way.
Problem in the SOD (Export):
In this brunch, the export rate is so poor. Some times a few businessman exports their products in different countries. In this way they may create Money Laundering activities
Problem in the export (cash credit):
Some businessman applies for sanctioning the loan for the export purpose. They may get more loans that they actually export. It is a great problem to proper monitoring.
Problem in the credit card division:
Credit card is the most attractive credit related service in the premier bank. On the other hand, it also the most problematic section to recovery the credit. As the bank does not get any deposit against the card, the cardholders enjoy freedom. In this case the related officer has to face problem to recovery the loan.
Improper Division of Labor In The Desk:
There is lack of division of labor in the branch. Therefore every body has to handle every type of banking services. This decreases the level of performance of the personnel, though it reduces monotonousness. But lack of division of labor hampers the discipline of working environment. So customers are to wait for some time for the desired service, which is contrary to the Baking’s objective.
The number of human resources in import section and in clearing section is really insufficient to give services to huge number of customers. So, number of staff should be increased in those sections.
Lack of having Business Knowledge:
Most of the personnel have no business education. But they have strong educational background. So the are making mistakes in some cases like selection of customers, financial analysis, dealing with customers, selection of account holders and in some other cases.
Semi skilled Human Resources:
Human resource is another sector for the branch to be developed urgently. Human resources, in many cases, have limited banking knowledge. Majority of the human resources have limited basic knowledge regarding money, banking, finance and accounting.
Insufficient Cash Counting Facility:
Cash section is not well equipped. Limited cash counting machines create bottleneck, which delay to serve to customer. This is one of the busiest brunches of the premier bank. Huge amount of cash are handling in this brunch. But they cannot provide the best service.
Slow online service:
Online service is not dynamic and modernized. Sometimes services are being delayed. For this reasons, customers are to wait for long time, which is a threat for loosing customer.
It is a large organization and banking is a complex and comprehensive task. So it is difficult for me, by my little knowledge, to recommend solving the problems. But as an eyewitness of some problems I am just giving some instructions, which may be followed. So for the improvement of the service the following measures may be taken:
Providing more industrial loans:
Much of long-term industrial loans should be provided to accelerate the economy as well as to help the economy to solve unemployment problem.
Providing realistic data against loan:
The customer must have to provide the true and accurate data for getting the loan facilities.
Real judgment before sanctioning the credit card:
When a credit card is issued for the customer, he should justify by the KYC policy. It is a sanative issue for the credit division. So the relevant officer must take the responsibilities to recover the loan.
Regular monitoring of the loan / credit:
It should regular monitoring the loan and credit. Without doing so, sometimes it may create problem.
Proper maintenance of co- letterers:
The co letterers that the party submits against the loan must have to maintenance properly. For avoiding the future problem, all the documents should properly justified.
Ensure Proper Division of Labor In The Desk:
To ensure proper service proper division should be maintained.
Ensure Sufficient Manpower:
The number of human resources in import section and in clearing section is really insufficient to give services to huge number of customers. So, number of staff should be increased in those sections.
Need Personnel having Business Knowledge:
Most of the personnel have no business education. So selection of employee from business school can give proper solution.
Development of Human Resources:
Human resource is another sector for the branch to be developed urgently. Human resources, in the branch, need to be equipped with adequate banking knowledge. Majority of the human resources must have basic knowledge regarding money, banking, finance and accounting. Without proper knowledge in these subjects, efficiency cannot be optimized. Bank can arrange training program on these subjects.
Cash Counting Procedure Should Be Developed:
Cash section should be well equipped. More cash counting machine should set up.
Ensure Proper Maintenance of Files:
Premier Bank Ltd. gives personalized services. All the officers have to give concentration to the customers, while maintaining the customer files. Every staff should try to reduce these irregularities.
Ensure Proper Maintenance of Office Premises:
Imamgonj branch is supposed to be very neat and clean and well decorated. This habit must be changed. Moreover, the sitting arrangement is very insufficient comparing with the number of customers. So this branch of PBL must pay attention to this issue.
Ensure Proper Communication System and Maintenance of Machineries:
Sometimes Communication System remains out of order and it is also true for the photocopiers. Attention should be given on proper maintenance of phone, computer, fax machine and photocopier.
Offer Some Loan and Deposit Scheme Exclusively for The Premium Customers:
All the lending and savings packages offered to the Premium customers are same as offered to the general customers, excepting the waiver of service charges for Premium Ones. Premier Bank Limited should try to introduce more attractive lending and savings scheme to its Premium customers to create more business for the Bank. The Bank can pay more attention to this segment of customers, as it is the most solvent group from which income can be generated if the package is designed properly.
More Gifts and Discounts for The Premium Customers:
Premium Customer should be offered occasional gifts and discounts, which can make the Premium Service more attractive and keep consumer delight. The interest rates on several loan and deposit schemes should be differentiated for the Premium customers.
Fast online service:
Online service should be dynamic and modernized. Sometimes services are being delayed. For this reasons, customers are to wait for long time, which is a threat for loosing customer.
The main purpose of the report was to focus on the credit evaluation process provided by the Premier bank as comprehensively as possible. Notwithstanding some limitations The Premier Bank Ltd. is doing better and holding a good percentage of market shares in banking sector. Although I did not have much time to learn the whole procedures but it was supportive to understand and gather an initial banking management experience. In the long-term performance of any organization depends on its intake of qualified people and developing them to perform their best as a team, as well as individually. To cope with the recent challenges of banking sector Premier bank is creating an environment where employees are happy to build their career and customers feel good doing business with them.