Concept of Delegation of Authority
The process of assignment of specific work to individuals within the organization and giving them the right to perform those works is delegation. It is about entrusting someone else to do parts of your job. Delegation of Authority means division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinate. It is one of the most significant concepts in management practice, which affects managerial functions. Management is the art of getting things done through others and delegation means to get the results through the subordinates. The expansion of business volume and diversification of line of business makes it impracticable to handle all the business by a single manager. Therefore, the concept of delegation of some managerial authority to subordinates comes into practice in present day business organizations. Here, the manager delegates some of his authority to his subordinates. This helps in developing a feeling of dedication to the work among the subordinates. The top level management plays only the role of a supervisor and visits them to provide guidance, suggestions and instructions. It minimizes the work load of the top manager and also develops the overall working efficiency of the organization.
For achieving delegation, a manager has to work in a system and has to perform following steps :
- Assignment of tasks and duties
- Granting of authority
- Creating responsibility and accountability
Delegation of authority is the base of superior-subordinate relationship, it involves following steps:-
Assignment of Duties – The delegator first tries to define the task and duties to the subordinate. He also has to define the result expected from the subordinates. Clarity of duty as well as result expected has to be the first step in delegation.
Granting of authority – Subdivision of authority takes place when a superior divides and shares his authority with the subordinate. It is for this reason, every subordinate should be given enough independence to carry the task given to him by his superiors. The managers at all levels delegate authority and power which is attached to their job positions. The subdivision of powers is very important to get effective results.
Creating Responsibility and Accountability – The delegation process does not end once powers are granted to the subordinates. They at the same time have to be obligatory towards the duties assigned to them. Responsibility is said to be the factor or obligation of an individual to carry out his duties in best of his ability as per the directions of superior.
Therefore, delegation of authority is assigning work to others and giving them the required authority to perform the assigned task effectively. The concept of delegation has been developed due to the increase in the size of business and its complexity. A manager needs to delegate some of his authority to subordinates along with a specified responsibility. It is necessary to complete the work efficiently and effectively.