Introduction to Management
raditionally, the term “management” refers to the activities (and often the group of people) involved in the four general functions: planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources. Note that the four functions recur throughout the organization and are highly integrated. Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions are carried out must change to accommodate a “new paradigm” in management. Managers at different levels of the organizational hierarchy should thoroughly understand each of the basic functions planning; organizing, leading and controlling that comprise their jobs. They should also recognize that while each is important in its own right, effective managers are skilled in performing each function, must be capable of moving back and forth among the functions as circumstances warrant, and must often juggle multiple functions and activities simultaneously. Managers cannot afford to be effective in performing only some of the functions because all are important. Few managers have equally strong skills in all areas. However, it is very useful for managers to understand their own strength and weaknesses if they want to achieve the organizational goals successfully.