Chapter – 5
COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT Contents Of The Letter Of Credit In Apparel Industry
Banks normally issued letter of credit (L/C) on forms which clearly indicate the banks name and extent of the banks obligation under the credit. The contents of the L/C of different Banks may be different .In general L/C contains the following information:-
- Name of the buyer: who is also known as the accounted since it is for his account that the credit has been opened?
- Name of the seller: Who is also known as the beneficiary of the credit.
Moment of the credit: Which should be the value of the merchandise plus any shipping charges intent to be paid under the credit?
- Trade terms: Such as F.O.B and CIF
- Tenor of the Draft which is normally dependent upon the requirements of the buyer.
- Expiration date: Which is specified the latest date documents may be presented. In this manner or by including additionally a latest shipping date, the buyer may exercise control over the time of shipment.
- Documents required: Which will normally include commercial invoice consular or customers invoice, insurance policies as certificates, if the source is to be effected by the beneficiary and original bills of lading.
- General description of the merchandise: Which briefly and in a general manner duly describes the merchandise covered by a letter of credit?
Application Procedure to Bank for B/B L/C OpeningWhich L/C issued against the original Master L/C is called B/B L/. A back to back L/C is a letter of credit issued for the account of a buyer, who is already holding a Master L/C in his or her favor. The back to back L/C is issued in favor of the supplier to import raw materials required to produce the item meant for export as stipulated in the credit being held by the buyer.
Papers / documents required for submission to the bank for opening of back to back L/C are-
1. Master L/C.
2. Valid Import registration certificate & Export registration certificate.
3. L/C application & LCA form duly filled-up & signed.
4. Pro-forma Invoice or Indent.
5. Insurance cover note with money receipt.
6. IMP From duly signed.
In addition to the above the following papers / documents are also required for export oriented garment industries while requesting for opening of back to back L/C:-
a) Textile permission.
b) Valid bonded ware house license.
c) Quota allocation letter issued by EPB in fervor of the applicant in case of quota items.
d) In case the factory premises is a rented one, letter of disclaimer duly executed by the owner of the house / premises to be submitted.
Application format of B/B L/C to the bank are as follows.
July 20, 2010
The Manager (Import)
The X Composite knitting Industry Ltd.
Ref: Account name …. Holding account no… with your Branch.
Sub: Request for Opening a Back to Back L/C against Export L/C Number…..Received by Buyer.
We would request to you please open back to back L/C for US$ against above mention to enable us to import fabric to execute the stipulated in the said master L/C.
You are here by authorized to keep the aforesaid original master L/C…..to cove the finance involved in the opening back to back L/C.
Checking M L/C Related with Terms Condition Mention in M L/C
- Export LC no.
- LC opening data.
- Name of the L/C opening bank.
- Whether issued as per UCP.
- Name of the beneficiary.
- Name of the foreign buyer.
- Whether it is authentic/ test agreed.
- Whether it is irrevocable.
- Whether it is transformable.
- Whether it is confirmed by third bank.
- Whether transfer is restricted.
- Whether transfer is regular.
- Expiry date of Export L/C.
- Place of Expiry L/C.
- Amount of Export L/C.
- Last data of shipment of Export L/C.
- Port of destination.
- Negotiation period.
- Whether negotiation is restricted.
- Bill of Lading clause/air way ball clause.
- Whether Export L/C is genuine.
- Payment clause.
- Basis of L/C Whether FOB/C and F/CIF.
- Name of Esportable category no.
- Export promotion bureau allocation no.
- Quantity of exportables.
- Name of the county to export.
- Name of particular shipping line if any.
- Reimbursement instruction on export L/C.
- If the export L/C opening bank is not required.
- Fabric description of export L/C.
- BBLC proforma invoice description.
- Documents Required:
- Commercial invoice.
- Packing list
- Original inspection Report.
- Order confirmation certificate.
- GSP form.
- Packing list approval.
- Additional condition. (required amendment)
- Bank to bank documents send to.
Acceptance Procedure of M L/C
Copy of master L/C or received of this documentation from the buyer, the exporters become sure that they would obtain foreign currency after the perches shipment.
Contract sheet – Sing by buyer and vender (2 pages)
- Style number
- Shipment date
- Mode of shipment (sea / air)
- Order quantity and size ratio….XL, XXL, SML
- Fabric description
- Spec sheet.
Collection of All Relevant Document from Different Companies and Organizations Like GSP. CO, EXP, LD
GSP means generalized system of preference. Bangladeshi garments are exported in the European Union market at a quota free system. EEC sectioned duty free status for Bangladeshi in 1992 for importing of our readymade garments in their market which is known as GSP.
If any importer can prove in European Union market that his garments is produced by the Bangladeshi fabric, he will get this facility. EEC importers get 12% duty rebate on woven fabrics and 12.50% duty rebate on knit fabrics on their CIF invoice value.
In order to quality for the GSP facility we have to abide by some terms and conditions relevant to the rules of origin. Following is the terms and conditions.
- Three stage transformation for woven fabrics i.e.
a) Grey fabric to be produced in Bangladesh.
b) Dyeing printing and finishing of these fabrics to be done here.
c) Finally readymade garments to be produced here by these fabrics.
- Four stage transformation for knit fabrics i.e.
a) Yarn to be produced here from raw cotton.
b) Grey fabric to be produced.
c) Dyeing printing and finishing to be done.
d) Finally knit garments to be made here.
It is a common demand by the customer’s authorities in EU.GSP facility get EU importers when they import garments from third world country.
The certificate of origin is a document that is required in certain nation. It is a signed statement as to the origin of the export item. Certificate of origin are usually signed through a semi-official organization such as local chamber of commerce.
Preparation of Commercial InvoiceAn invoice is a commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer, indicating the products, the quantity and description of the goods the loading port and destination port, the mode of transportation, the country of origin, the price per unit and total cost of the goods with which the seller has already provided the buyer. An invoice indicates that payment is due from the buyer to the seller, according to the payments terms. The shipper gets the invoice ready at the time the goods are being is prepared for shipping.
Document Submission Procedure in BankHave to fill up the forms mentioned above and after verifying and signing the following documents should be submitted to the bank: –
- Trade license (valid)
- IRC (import Registration certificate)
- Membership certificate
- Memorandum of association
- Income tax declaration
- A photograph
- Bill of exchange.
- Packing list.
- Co/ delivery challan / truck challan
- Good production certificate (BTMA) original copy.
- GP2 challan
- Bill of exchange.
- Packing list.
- Bill of lading.
- GSP/CO/Inspection certificate
Application procedure to Procedure for Cash Incentive from BankProcedure for cash intensive from bank with reference to the above we enclosing relative document
- Application forwarding.
- Application form.
- Pay order.
- Bank certificate.
- Proceeds realization.
- Invoice for Export and B/C.
- Lock back to back related document.
- Utilization declaration.
- Copy of Export L/C.
Containers Sizes and Kinds
- Standard containers.
- High-cube containers.
- Hard-top containers.
- Open-top containers.
- Flat racks.
- Platforms (plats).
- Ventilated containers.
- Insulated and refrigerated containers.
- Bulk containers.
- Tank containers.
There are five common standard lengths, 20-ft (6.1 m), 40-ft (12.2 m), 45-ft (13.7 m), 48-ft (14.6 m), and 53-ft (16.2 m). United States domestic standard containers are generally 48 ft (15 m) and 53-ft (rail and truck). Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU, or sometimes teu). An equivalent unit is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) container. As this is an approximate measure, the height of the box is not considered, for instance the 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) High cube and the 4-ft 3-in (1.3 m) half height 20 ft (6.1 m) containers are also called one TEU.
The maximum gross mass for a 20 ft (6.1 m) dry cargo container is 24,000 kg, and for a 40-ft (including the 2.87 m (9 ft 6 in) high cube container), it is 30,480 kg. Allowing for the tare mass of the container, the maximum payload mass is therefore reduced to approximately 22,000 kg for 20 ft (6.1 m), and 27,000 kg for 40 ft (12 m) containers.
40′ high-cube container
45′ high-cube container
18′ 10 5⁄16″
39′ 5 45⁄64″
7′ 8 19⁄32″
7′ 8 19⁄32″
7′ 8 19⁄32″
7′ 9 57⁄64″
7′ 9 57⁄64″
8′ 9 15⁄16″
7′ 8 ⅛″
7′ 8 ⅛″
7′ 8 ⅛″
7′ 5 ¾″
7′ 5 ¾″
8′ 5 49⁄64″
Chapter – 06
Preparation of Total Seasonal Production Plan
Yearly order projection needs to be consolidated into yearly order plan. Order plan is based on already negotiated orders. Projection of orders is generally based on preliminary discussion & guesswork but order plan is based on agreed contracts with the customers.
|Company: Balaka Stitch(Pvt)Ltd||Item of Production: TANK TOP|
|2010 Target||Quantity in pcsQty in US $||Tesco||Triburg||Jecko||Total|
|January||Qty in pcs||10,000||5,000||10,000||25,000|
|Amount US $||160,000||125,000||150,000||435,000|
|February||Qty in pcs||7,000||3,000||8,000||18,000|
|March||Qty in pcs||5,000||3,000||5,000||13,000|
|April||Qty in pcs||10,000||5,000||10,000||25,000|
|May||Qty in pcs||30,000||20,000||25,000||75,000|
|June||Qty in pcs||20,000||20,000||30,000||70,000|
|July||Qty in pcs||39,500||15,000||10,000||64,500|
|August||Qty in pcs||25,000||5,000||10,000||40,000|
|September||Qty in pcs||10,000||5,000||10,000||25,000|
|October||Qty in pcs||8,000||16,000||10,000||34,000|
|November||Qty in pcs||30,000||7,500||10,000||47,500|
|December||Qty in pcs||25,000||30,000||12,000||67,000|
|Total||Qty in pcs|
Work-study or Industrial Engineering ProcedureWork study is the analysis of the operations required to produce a style. Effective work study requires both methods analysis and work measurement. Methods are studied, analyzed, and the elements of the method measured in terms of time consumed. Data are collected, analyzed and used to support decisions on rates and methods. Work study is also important to ergonomic decisions, job design, and work station development. Decisions must be based on extensive study and documentation that is developed with work measurement procedures. Unsubstantial opinions are not sufficient justification for change.
Production calculation formula:
- BPT (Basic Pitch Time) = Total standard time÷ No of operator
- UCL (Upper Control Limit) = Basic pitch time÷ 0.85
- LCL (Lower Control Limit) = 2×BPT-UCL
- Organization Efficiency = BPT÷ Highest bottleneck time×100
- Productivity = per hour production ÷ Total operator
- Production Target = (No of operator×3600) ×85% ÷ Total standard time
- Actual production = 3600÷Height bottleneck time
Process of work study practice in Apparel Industry-
Basic concept and purpose of Process Analysis
Rules and procedure of Process analysis
How to Draw process analysis
Practical process analysis(T-Shirt, Polo Shirt, Dress shirt, Denim)
Operation Analysis:(Understanding of Allowance Rate)
Basic concept and Purpose of Operation Analysis
Classification of Operators Bhaviour(Operation & Allowance classification)
How to do operation Analysis, Calculate and evaluate
How to find out hidden problem and take action immidiately by using Graph
How to Improve Each of the Allowance in the Factory
Basic concept and Purpose of Time Study
Procedure of Time Study, Data analysis and Calculation
How to Draw pitch Diagram with time study data
How to find Bottleneck and Efficiency of Sewing Line
How to Use Pitch Diagram to solve line balancing
Basic concept and Purpose of Motion Study
Understanding of Waste in details
Points of Motion Economy
14 rules of Motion Study and Motion Economy
How to Do method Study(Practical Session)
Practical example of Method improvement through brainstorming and demo
Production Design and Layout:
Different types of production System and layout
How to select optimum layout system for any product
How to make Operation Bulletine, pitch diagram, layout by analyzing any Garment
How to make different forms and software’s for IE analysis, Diagnosis and improvements.
Quality Management SystemA quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. Early systems emphasized predictable outcomes of an industrial product production line, using simple statistics and random sampling. By the 20th century, labor inputs were typically the most costly inputs in most industrialized societies, so focus shifted to team cooperation and dynamics, especially the early signalling of problems via a continuous improvement cycle. In the 21st century, QMS has tended to converge with sustainability and transparency initiatives, as both investor and customer satisfaction and perceived quality is increasingly tied to these factors. Of all QMS regimes the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 series are probably the most widely implemented worldwide – the ISO 19011 audit regime applies to both, and deals with quality and sustainability and their integration.
Other QMS, e.g. Natural Step, focus on sustainability issues and assume that other quality problems will be reduced as result of the systematic thinking, transparency, documentation and diagnostic discipline that sustainability focus implies.
Elements of a Quality Management System
- Organizational structure
- Data Management
- Processes – including purchasing
- Resources – including natural resources and human capital
- Customer Satisfaction
- Continuous Improvement
- Product Quality
- Sustainability – including efficient resource use and responsible environmental operations
- Transparency and independent audit
Flow Chart of QMS
Fabrics Cutting and Management Procedure
Production Meeting in Factory
In this meeting everybody concerned with the style sits together to make sure that everybody is on the same page and understands the product. Hence, this meeting has the merchandiser, production in-charge, cutting, finishing, fabric in-charge, line supervisor, pattern master, sample master etc. All tentative problems are discussed and solutions sought to execute the order smoothly. Once pre-production meeting is done the factory does PILOT RUN. Factory cuts 100 – 200 garments based on the order quantity. The pilot run is done on the assembly line and is aimed at ensuring that the operators of the assemble line understand the required quality levels. This is very essential since all samples prior to the pilot run (fit samples, PP & size set) are made in the sampling unit. Once PILOT RUN is approved the factory goes into bulk production. In line and interim inspections are preformed during the production process to ensure that the final product quality meets the required quality level. In the other hand PP meeting can be done between the production manager, planner, merchandiser & buyer. PP meeting is basically for made confirm or negotiation between buyer & the merchandiser & production manager that assuring that the style of this respective volume will be produce in this dead line. If sometime the style is very difficult or critical than the production become slowly in that case if buyer need to hurry about the production than there is some modification comes up.
Before going to sewing the authority is arrange a meeting is called pre production meeting this meeting is so important without the pre production meeting if go to the sewing there are some problems may be arisen the whole blame will suffer the supplier so to avoid this kinds of problems the pre production meeting is important in the meeting discuss some points which are given below –
Lab Dips Preparation procedure
It is the merchandiser’s responsibility to get the Lab dips from the processing mill and to get approval from buyer.
There are different matching systems followed in Labs. They are
- Tube light matching.
- Sun light matching.
- Ultra Violet matching.
- Sodium light matching (show room).
Each of these above matching will give different results. For example, if a lab dip matches to the original in tube light, it will differ in sun light. So the lab dips are to be made according to the buyer’s matching system.
Different buyers follow different matching. Hence before proceeding lab dips, merchandiser should be aware of the buyer’s matching system. Accordingly he should arrange to make lab dips.
Also he must be sure of making the lab dips in the actual production fabrics. It is better to make lab dips in more than 3 closer shades. (Some times, the processing factory will make lab dips in 2 shades and will make them in to 4 bits. If we send the same to buyer and if buyer finds out this, he will think that he had been cheated purposely by the merchandiser. Our reliability will get questioned here).
Before sending the lab dips to buyer, the merchandiser should verify whether they are closer to the required shade. And he should send them to buyer only if he is confident that they will get approved. If he sends them with a doubt and if they are not approved, he will have to make them again. By this way, at least 1 week time will be wasted; courier expenditure will be wasted unnecessarily. To adjust this wasted time, we will have to urge the production which may lead to quality problem. So if he is not satisfied with the lab dips, he should arrange for the revised lab dips from the processing mill immediately.
When sending the lab dips to buyer, he has to take some extra care. The lab dip fabric bits are to be ironed and cut into a clean shape. They should be attached to the shade card in an attractive presentation. This will give a pleasant mood to buyer when he verifies the shades. (Here we should understand the psychological effect in this regard. If we see lab dips in the morning, we may think they are not suitable. If we see the same in the evening or the next day, we may think they are closer. Our presentation of lab dips will help to get quick approvals. This is not cheating; just a tip).
While making lab dips, the lab in processing mill will have the recipes noted. They will give different reference numbers to different lab dips. Accordingly each lab dip will have different reference number. When sending lab dips to buyer, the merchandiser should keep one set of counter lab dips with reference numbers. He must be sure that the reference numbers mentioned to buyer’s set are the same in his counter set also. It is advised to follow the same reference numbers by everybody – processing mill, merchandiser and buyer. This will help to avoid confusion when processing.
The lab dip procedure is as follows-
- Lab Test
- Dimensional Stability
- How to check dimensional stability
- Color Fastness
- Color Fastness to Crocking
- Color Fastness to Wash
- Color Fastness to Perspiration
- Light Fastness
Dia Selection on the Basis of Count and Construction
Single jersey dia and gauge
- 30”20( fleece fabric)
GSM range for single fabric
Rib fabric ( 1*1, 2*2) gsm range.
Lycra rib gsm range
Fleece fabric gsm range
Different Types of Dyes and Their Brand Name:
NAME OF DYE
|Bodactive Red- CFBSolazol red- SP3BSolazol Yellow-SP3R|
Solacion Red- HE3B
Solacion Navy Blue-HEXL
Re blue- 2GX
R.B. Blue GHB
Kiractive Red – RGB
Kiractive Yellow- 4GL
Kiractive Yellow RGB
Kiractive Blue – BRF
Kir deep Red-HB
Kir Red CD
|Dry Blue- CLBRKir Yellow – W2BRL|
Drimaren Red CL-5B
Larperse Black- KAP
|Remazol Red -RRRemazol Yellow- RRRemazol Blue- RR|
Remazol Blue- BB
Remazol Yellow- RGB
Remazol G. Yellow- RGB
Remazol T Blue-G
Rema Red – R.B
|Everzol Yellow -3GLEvercion Red –HE7BEvercion Orange – HER|
Evercion Navy/Blue – HER
|Sun White -4BKSam. Whit-BYB||Koria|
|Nova Groam Red- FN2BLNova Groam Blue- FNG|
Different Types of Chemicals Used In M.M Knitwear
|Imarol – PCLFAlvatex LFKFinoscous – OSP|
Eco – softner
Kappasoft BD new
Geitex – QSE
Geitex – BST/POS
Chimefix – ASCOW
Geitex – DRF
Kappayon – CL
Kappaquest – AA1
Kappasoft – SM
Mesoft – ECO
Bioace – Olive – X
Jhsq.117 – CA
Depicol – TLK
Depicol – RC9
Antifoam – MX
Silicons – THS – 180
Optovon – SV
Croscololk – USRS
Croscolor – ADM
Sei Soap – AWICTI
Radicioan – AL – 60
|Beza Pink – BBHydrozen PeroxideCaustic Soda|
Same White 4BK
S – 3000
SKA Whit BVB
Deri Binder GFC
Beza Green BR
Ablutex WA 70
HK – 1036 – TPP
Sw – 14N – Orange
Dyeing Procedures Step by Step
There are many inspections are being made. They are initial, pilot batch, middle, online, pre-final and final inspections. The Quality Department in a company or factory should do all these inspections routinely and regularly by themselves to get improved and consistent quality. The buyers or their nominated agents or buying agents may do any of these inspections. Some buyers or buying agents will do only the final inspections. This is unsafe for the factory. When they do only final inspections, without doing initial or online inspections, they have only two options – either to accept or to reject the consignment. If they are not satisfied with the quality, sometimes, they may ask the factory to recheck and repack the garments. It is obvious that there will not be any improvement by rechecking and repacking. At the same time, the look and finish of the garments get disturbed; the handling stains can not be avoided fully. So after rechecking, the garments will become worse than before rechecking. On the other hand, if the buyers or buying agents do initial and online inspections, it will definitely help the factory to improve the quality and workmanship. The more number of online inspections; the more quality can be improved. Also by these inspections, as they can correct all the mistakes according to their quality standards, both the buyer and the factory can be confident of the quality. Then the final inspection will be very easy. Then the question of either-to-accept-or-to-reject will not arise. When we do the inspections, as it is not possible to inspect the whole consignment, only some garments can be checked selectively. These selected garments are called ‘Sample units’. Since the inspection is based on limited quantity of these sample units, there is some risk that good lots may be rejected if the quality levels of the sample units are not within the specified quality limits. The inspections are being done based on AQL which is Acceptable Quality Level. This is also called Assured Quality Level. There are different quality levels and different
inspection methods. Also there are various numbers of levels from 0.065 to 15. Usually the levels 4.0 and 2.5 are used in garment inspections.
Process Flow Chart of Final Inspection
Defect of Table Inspection after Dyeing
- Missing yarn
- Needle drop
- Crease mark
- Oil mark
- Rush stain
- Water drop
- Loop star
- Dirty spot
- Dyes stain
- Yarn contamination
- Broken needle
- Pin hole
- White slub
Reporting System in Production Department.
In production department prepared different types of report for smooth production. Like-
- Hourly production report.
- Daily production report.
- Monthly production report.
- Quality check report.
Idea About Different Types of Yarn
The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s, 4’s, 10’s, 16’s, 20’s, 24’s, 25’s, 30’s, 34’s, 36’s, 38’s, 40’s, 60’s, 80’s, 100’s, etc. We can consider like this. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. Likewise 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. So when the yarn counts are increasing, the thickness becomes lesser. We can see, the higher the counts, the lesser the thickness. Yarn prices based on the thickness. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. We must know, higher the counts, higher the prices. There are 2 qualities of yarn. Combed and Carded. Combed is superior quality. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0.25 inches to 2.5 inches. According to the technical parameters, the fibers with more length are considered to be better. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing
hairiness in yarns. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths, the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. For this purpose, a special process is being done. This process is called ‘Combing’. Because of the same longer length of fibers, the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. Hence after knitting or weaving, the fabric will have very even look. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done, the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this, the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness.
Because of this extra process, the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. We have to use either Combed or Carded yarn according to buyers’ requirements and to the suitable price range. Yarn prices will vary from Mill to Mill due to their different quality standards. As the yarn prices are fluctuated often and as the yarn is the major cost factor of garments, we have to pay more attention in yarn quality and its cost. When we think about the raw materials for knit garments, we can understand that there is only one raw material which is, the Yarn. Cost of yarn covers almost 20% to 30% of garment price. Cost of yarn depends on the quality standards like dyeing absorbency, hand feel, evenness, strength, raw material, availability, etc.
The processing (dyeing, bleaching and finishing) results will differ according to the yarn quality. If the yarn contains more lifeless and dull cottons, the dyeing absorbency will be very less. Also evenness and numbers of naps determine the yarn quality. The garment quality is based on the fabric quality; the fabric quality is based on the yarn quality. Hence the garment’s quality is lying on the yarn quality.
Melange means mixture. Melange yarn means mixture of different shades of yarns. There are different mélange yarns. They are Grey mélange, Ecru mélange, bleached mélange, Flax mélange, Colour mélange, etc. Melange yarns are generally made with Cotton and Viscose fibers. According to the required percentage and colour shades, the fibers are mixed together before making into yarn.
Grey Melange, Ecru Melange, Bleached Melange are used widely. These mélange yarns are generally in the composition of 85%Cotton / 15%Viscose approximately. In these yarns, the cotton portion will be in light shade and the Viscose portion will be in dark shade. In colour mélange yarn also, the cotton portion will be in light shade. For light colour mélange yarn, it is enough to add little percentage of Viscose. But for dark colour mélange yarns, higher percentage of Viscose to be added to get dark shades. For example, the Dark Blue colour mélange yarns will have 55%Cotton / 45%Viscose approximately. But we have to remember that if we use colour mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose, the fabric made with these yarns will have higher shrinkage; also the shrinkage can not be controlled. The fabric may have very soft feel and shiny look. But we must think of shrinkage, which is very important.
Hence, we have to be very cautious of the percentage or composition of Viscose. It is safer not to use mélange yarns with higher percentage of Viscose, due to higher shrinkage.
To avoid this shrinkage problem, colour mélange yarns made by 100%Cotton fibers are also used. But this is more expensive than normal colour mélange yarn with Viscose blend. But as we use 100% Cotton, the shrinkage can be controlled to the acceptable level.
Also there is another way to solve shrinkage problem. Fabric can be made with Ecru mélange or Grey mélange and can be over dyed to required dark shades. Cost wise, there will not be big difference between colour mélange yarn and over dyeing. But this method will solve the shrinkage problem.
Fabrics Cutting and Management Procedure
Organ gram of Cutting department:
Role and Responsibility of cutting department:
- Total responsibility of cutting section from cutting to delivery sewing section.
- Good knowledge in cutting.
- Hard working.
- Good knowledge in Computer & knows of buyer order.
- Skill in regular reporting to the management.
- Skill in handling the cutting section.
- Responsible for bulk cutting and necessary pattern changes if required.
- Will manage and assist others regarding cutting works.
- Have to posses work with quality system.
- Have to carry out quality production of the department.
- Daily planning for cutting quantity.
- Regularly fabric receive from fabric receive man.
- Checking marker.
- Must be knowledge about pattern.
- Sharing the tools & techniques in the cutting section of all staff.
- Complete knowledge about bundle.
- Good knowledge about lay, shading, sticker.
- Daily work & planning receive from cutting incharge then divided into the table to table in the table leader.
- Daily cutting fabric delivery from cutting section to sewing section.
- Calculate total delivery fabric.
- File up all of receive & delivery documents.
- He/she maintain the total work of table from lying to bundling.
- He/she flow the marker and cutting fabric.
- He/she laying the fabric then setting the marker.
- He/she cutting fabric by lay set up. When a cutter man cutting the fabric if fabric cutting is less, than seassor man cutting fabric for equal.
- He/she setting the lay and equal lay to lay.
- Bundling the cutting fabric flow the chart, bundling card, sticker, serial and size.
- At first he/she will see the chart & size then start stickering.
Some vital step before much cutting for production:
- Size set cutting: Cut two pieces body and relevant parts per size and check the measurement is it ok or not. Then send it to the sewing section. After sewing recheck all size, and ensure the correct measurement which has given in specification sheet. If find the measurement is short that time pattern size will increase. After correction pattern check it again. Check shrinkage and twisting.
- Trial cutting: After size set cutting some pieces of garments are going to random sewing up to finishing from each size. After sewing check all garments that, have any defect or not. If any defect happens in any garments, find out where it’s occurred. After then make pattern again based on defect.
- Test cutting: After trial cutting again some pieces of garments are going to sewing from each size. But at first must be over come all kinds of defect.
- Much cutting: when every step is ok, then much production will be started.
- Total Process of Cutting Section:
Step-01: Store Q.C Cutting Cutting Q.C
In the cutting section how work has been done:
At first fabric receive from Northern or some other place.
- Checking fabric delivery/receive copy. (Flow Buyer, Lot number, Dia, Type of fabric, color, Roll to Roll, see the total quantity)
- Checking the packing list.
- Approve the SR sheet. (SR came from cutting section) when cutting section takes the fabric from store then they see all of and making SR sheet.
- Receive G.S.M paper.
- Receive shade ban paper.
- File up with register. (All data such as color, quantity, buyer, lot number, challan number, type of fabric, dia etc.) Register stay in store.
Step – 02: A receives man of cutting section receive fabric from cutting store by SR sheet.
Step – 03: Fabric receiver sends the fabrics to Q.C for fabric check.
Step – 04: Before Q.C doing some test. Such as
- G.S.M test ( before wash 7 after wash)
- Shrinkage test.
- Twisting test.
Then approve shade ban & color shade by Q.C.
Step – 05: After checking and some test cutting incharge receive the fabric then transfer to cutting supervisor with planning for cutting.
Step – 06: cutting supervisor transfer this fabric to table leader and give work planning sheet of cutting incharge. It is including register khata.
Step – 07: Table leader transfer this fabric to lay man with marker. Then lay man starts fabric lying.
- If fabric is tube dia than doing fabric lay then width cutting 1 inch.
- Cutting 2 inch for open dia.
- When fabric lying increase 2 inch from marker length to fabric length.
- Fabric is cutting part by part if the fabric is strip.
- If the fabric length is more than 150 inch then setting 8 lay men and if the fabric length is Less than 150 inch then setting 6 lay man.
- Then maintain roll = bundle.
Example 1 roll = 1 bundle. 2 roll = 2 bundle…………………..
Step – 08: After lying fabric and sit the marker cutter man starts cutting fabric.
Step – 09: After cutting fabric, sticker man apply sticker in cutting fabric piece. In this time sticker man must be follow chart.
Step – 10: after stickering bundle man starts bundling. Here follow some process such as-
- Have any shade in fabric then bundling is roll to roll.
- Have not any shades or color then bundling is average.
- Serial may be starts any places in fabric.
Step -11: after bundling then fabric input for sewing. Here is printing, embroidery and quality check.
How to Cut Out and Mark Pattern Pieces on Fabric?
Accuracy in cutting your sewing pattern and in transferring the construction symbols, or marks, onto the fabric is crucial. These are the final steps taken before you begin to sew your garment.
- Pin sewing pattern pieces to fabric as explained in “Lay out Sewing Pattern Pieces,”.
- Use dressmaker shears to cut fabric along designated cutting line.
- Cut all notches – diamond-shaped symbols that appear along cutting line – outward from the cutting line. These notches will be used to match pattern pieces later on. Treat double and triple notches as one and cut them together with a continuous edge.
- Leave pins intact until all markings have been transferred from sewing pattern pieces to the fabric.
- Transfer all marks to your fabric. These marks include pockets, pleats, circles, darts and tucks. Mark a single dot with a small cross. Mark lining fabric only if you have chosen to pin and cut both lining and fashion fabrics as one.
Marking With Chalk, Marking Pen
- Transfer marks using pins and a chalk fabric pencil or marking pen.
- Support fabric with one hand, and insert pins through all layers of fabric along outline of pattern mark.
- Carefully turn pattern piece over and use a ruler and marking pencil or pen to trace along outline made by the pins.
- Turn pattern piece over so that tissue side is facing up.
- Unpin pattern and carefully pull the pattern piece over the heads of the marking pins.
- Once again, follow the outline made by the marking pins to trace the pattern mark onto your fabric.
Procedure of sending print or embroidery part:
There are some procedures of sending print or embroidery part, which is discussed in below:
- While bundles are ready to go in printing section must be send extra part with each bundle. Because if any part will reject by the extra part it can be recover.
- Every cutting should send in separate packet.
- While any part be reject or some other problem occur, must be send this part with bundle.
- Can’t send in wrong sticker serial.
- Can’t send less or more amount of cutting part then bundle record.
- All cutting part should be return while printing will complete.
Checking procedure of printing cut panel:
- To check the bundle serial and ensure good quality of product. Then hand over all products to the input man to maintain serial.
- After checking all parts if any one part absent or quantity short, it must be mention very clearly on the bundle card. And make it understand to the Input man.
- After cutting must make alter and reject report. Need to take sign on reject report of Q.I. And at the end of the day submit these entire things to Cutting In charge and make clear.
- Make report for each style and submit it to Quality Dept.
Checking system of printing or embroidery part:
- After print and embroidery when all parts back to cutting section as per bundle no and serial no, to ensure every parts are present a specific person count all pieces then keep it for inspection.
- Then Quality In charge check piece to piece as follow the sample. Ensure the good quality and serial no, and then pass all parts to next.
- If any alter are come out during the checking period, must be fill up by the extra part.
- Then ensure the product is 100% ok, and make it understand to the input man.
- Quality supervisor maintain whole process.
- Inform Quality Supervisor, Work study officer and Cutting in charge for any unaccepted problem.
Different types of documentation sheet in cutting section:Many format sheets & make record of every attempt related to this individual order or style. They maintain much documentation during the order running on which are as follows:
- Cutting Quality Control Sheet.
- Spreading Quality Control Sheet.
- Daily Cutting Output Status Sheet.
- Cutting Information Chart.
- Marker Preparation Chart.
- Cut Panel Inspection & Replacement Report.
- Fabric Shrinkage Report.
- Spreading Sheet.
- Input Record.
- Marker Check Report.
- Cutting Plan.
- WIP Report – Per Day.
- Cutting Report Size wise Ratio.
- Cutting Forecast Plan.
- Consumption Report.
Different Type Of Accessories Used In Apparel IndustriesDifferent Type Of Garment And Finishing Accessories Used In The Apparel/Garment Industries are given below:-
- Button for example: Snap button Plastic button. Metal button.
- Label: Main label Size Label Wash care label
- Motif: Leather Plastic batch Metal
- Pocketing fabric
- Collar bone.
- Finishing accessories:
- Hang tag
- Price tag
- Plastic/ poly bag
- Tissue paper
- Scotch tape
- PP belt
- Tag pin
- Plastic clip
- Collar insert
- Back board
- Necks insert
Some are parts: