Beximco Group is supposed to be Bangladesh’s largest private sector industrial enterprise. It has targeted the industries the country needs most for progress and improved living standards. Beximco is also focused on those industries, which make the most of Bangladesh’s competitive advantages in the international market. Through its ongoing growth, it has created industrial and management capabilities that will serve the country for generations. BEXIMCO’s industrial sector includes jute, textiles, basic chemicals and pharmaceuticals and marine foods. Non-industrial undertakings are focused on real estate and construction, engineering, media, information technology, trading and financial services.
BEXIMCO Group is the largest private sector industrial conglomerate in Bangladesh engaged in diverse business areas. BEXIMCO comprises of five publicly listed companies and sixteen private companies. The Group turnover in 2008 was BDT 18.5 billion. BEXIMCO employs 35,000 people and has 230,000 shareholders. BEXIMCO’s shares constitute 4.84% of the market capitalization of DSE.
History of BEXIMCO:
Since independence Bangladesh has come a long way, and the Beximco Group of Companies is honored to have had a role in the development of its parent nation. The Group has worked with a simple philosophy; identify an important need and then do everything possible to successfully satiate that need, in a manner which best facilitates the well being of the nation. As a result Beximco has focused on those industries which give Bangladesh a competitive advantage in the global market place in many cases creating the industries for the first time in the region. Throughout its four and a half decade journey the Group has been one of the leading innovators in the country. Presently Beximco Group comprises twenty one companies of which five are listed with the Dhaka Stock Exchange employing over 35,000 personnel and is the largest private sector industrial conglomerate in the nation. . In the course of its growth, it has created industrial and management capabilities that will serve the country for generations to come. It was the first local conglomerate to embrace an international corporate structure which is the foundation of its success. BEXIMCO’s industrial businesses include jute, textiles, basic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and ceramics. BEXIMCO’s non-industrial undertakings are focused on real estate and construction, engineering, media, information technology, trading and financial services. It is the creation and expansion of businesses critical to Bangladesh development, businesses, which are developed and run by Bangladeshis, businesses that develop technologies and practices specific to the needs of the country, which is the defining characteristic of the BEXIMCO story.
Each of their activities must benefit & add value to the common wealth of their society. They firmly believe that, in the final analysis they are accountable to each of the constituents with whom they interact; namely; their employees; their valued customers, their suppliers, their business associates, their shareholders & their fellow citizens.
Board of Directors:
A S F Rahman is Chairman of the Beximco Group, the largest private sector industrial group in Bangladesh. During the past 45 years A S F Rahman has played the leading role with his brother, Salman F Rahman, in building up the Group’s industrial and service activities. He has presided over an expansion and deepening of the Group’s interests, leading the flagship investments in textiles. The Group has been on the cutting edge of new technology and innovation in Bangladesh with an emphasis on Total Quality Management and international standards of corporate governance. With the Group’s exemplary performance in exports A S F Rahman has been awarded Presidents’ Export Trophy on several occasions. In addition to accomplishments as Chairman of the Group, he has-been active in continuously developing strategies targeting social welfare and poverty alleviation across the country.
Salman F Rahman Deputy Chairman, Beximco Group Mr. Salman F Rahman, the Deputy Chairman of the Beximco Group, has been one of the driving forces in the emergence of the Group as the largest industrial entity operating in the private sector in Bangladesh today. For the past four and a half decades he has been working closely with his brother, pioneering and expanding operations in a varied number of sectors particularly pharmaceuticals, ceramics, media and property development. But aside from his role as the Deputy Chairman of the group Salman F Rahman has had an ever increasing role in expanding the corporate climate and enhancing the role of corporate governance in the nation. His service to the business community is exhibited by his terms of Presidency of The Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Bangladesh Aushad Shilpa Samity, Bangladesh Textile Mills Association, The Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the SAARC Chambers of Commerce and industry. He is also the founder and chairman of the Bangladesh Enterprise Institute, a leading think tank on economic and social policy. He has also applied this tireless dynamism for social welfare and is an active philanthropist extraordinarily active in supporting and working with poverty alleviation and human rights groups. One of the main corporate facets which the Beximco Group brought into the business environment of Bangladesh is its emphasis on Corporate Social Responsibility and an active involvement in regional and national activities. Mr. Rahman is also the Chairman of the Abahani Krira Chakra a leading sporting club.
Human Resource Department:
The team of Human Resources and Compliance department in BEXIMCO consisting of highly qualified and vastly experienced personnel having appropriate training from both home and abroad made the department absolutely equipped with all necessary policies, guidelines, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Job Descriptions, training materials, Code of Conducts (CoCs) that the continuous development of human resources is also taking place simultaneously throughout each and every section of the company. The company, as invests for recruiting and retaining the qualified human resources, similarly spends a considerable amount of money and efforts after developing the skill levels and efficiencies of the human resources by arranging regular training courses and programs
for the employees. A separate training section is also working with necessary logistics and accommodation for providing necessary training for both the workers and officers, which has already earned an envious reputation among the competitors and made us a different among others in regard to the methods and techniques of developing the human resources which contributes in achieving the market share and leadership in the industry. The tangible and intangible benefits and facilities provided to the employees of BEXIMCO including the working conditions, physical infrastructures, accommodations and dormitories, arrangements for leisure and amusements. in the Beximco Industrial Park made the company a completely different type of employer acknowledging which the employees are also devoting their whole hearted and sincere efforts for each and every step of the production starting from sorting of cotton up to the shipping of the RMGs.
The transparency of management and the broad and open accessibility of employees enable both the parties to maintain a harmonious relationship and to reciprocally remain besides and make them feel a part of the team forthe improvements of production in quality and quantity for the ultimate development of the company as well as the division which also increases the aptness of the employee in their work. The Human Resources Department of BEXIMCO disseminates the achievements, recognitions, events &happenings within the company through publishing of Textalk, a monthly newsletter of the company.
The Textalk ensures the communications between all concerned including the buyers community that has tremendously been acknowledged as the Spokesperson of the company. Beximco Ltd. gives some facilities for their employees,
- Dormitories for the work force and Residential Buildings for the management staff provide housing for the employees and Beximco is the first of our kind in Bangladesh to provide accommodation facilities for their employees.
- A production and accommodation facility includes full time supply of safe drinking water, adequate lighting and ventilation facilities.
- Free meals, Free transportation, 24-hour medical center, on-site sports and recreational facilities encourage our motivated team to serve our customers full heartedly.
- ETI codes according to the Local Law (Bangladesh) are very well practiced in our manufacturing facilities.
- Freedom of Association
- Safe Working Conditions· No Child Labor
- No bonded Labor
- Reasonable Working Hours
- No Discrimination
- Regular Employment· No Harsh Treatment
Profile of BEXIMCO Textile:
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS: 17 Dhanmondi R/A, Road No. 2
Dhaka -1205, Bangladesh
Phone: 880-2-8611891-5, 8618220-7
Web Site: www.bextex.net
OPERATIONAL HEADQUARTER: BeximcoIndustrial Park, SaraboKashimpur, Gazipur , Bangladesh .
FACTORY: Sarabo, Kashimpur, Gazipur
DATE OF INCORPORATION: 30 May, 1984
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION: 1990
BUSINESS LINE: Manufacturing and Marketing of Yarn, Woven, knit and Denim Fabrics.
LISTING STATUS: Public Listed Company.
STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING: Dhaka and Chittagong .
AUTHORIZED CAPITAL IN BDT: 3,000 Million Taka
PAID UP CAPITAL IN BDT: 1,882.50 Million Taka
NUMBER OF SHAREHOLDERS: 37,929
NUMBER OF Woven LOOMS INSTALLED: 293
NUMBER OF Spindles INSTALLED: 119,520
NUMBER OF Denim LOOMS INSTALLED: 56
NUMBER OF Circular knit Machine INSTALLED: 30
PRODUCTION CAPACITY: 28 Million Linear Meters
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: 5,181
Division of BEXIMICO group
BEXIMCO Textile Division
BEXIMCO Textile Division consisting of 7 industries having the capability to offer a complete product range for the export and domestic textile markets. BEXIMCO Textiles Ltd. (BTL) is the most modern composite mill in the region. BTL has an installed capacity of 288 high-speed air-jet looms in its weaving section and a high-tech dyeing and finishing section with a capacity of 100,000 yards of finished fabric per day. BEXIMCO Knitting Ltd. Is a state of the art composite knit fabric production mill, which serves the growing needs of high-quality knit garments exporters in Bangladesh? BEXIMCO Denims Ltd. was set up to capitalize on Bangladesh’s growing volume of high-value-added niche garments. BEXIMCO Fashions Ltd., a 100% export oriented garments factory is located in the Dhaka Export Processing Zone at Savar. Padma Textile Mills Ltd. a cotton and polyester blended yarn-spinning mill, with 122,000 spindles is one of the largest spinning mills of the country. BEXIMCO Synthetics Ltd. is a polyester filament yarn and drawn texturized yarn (DTY) production unit located near the BEXIMCO Industrial Park. BEXIMCO Apparels Ltd. is another 100% export oriented garments factory of the Beximco Textiles Division. It specializes in women’s tops and men’s shirts.
Beximco ApparelsBeximco Apparels Limited (BAL) a member of Beximco Group started its commercial production in March 1985 under the name of Comtrade Apparels Limited as a joint venture project between Comtrade Limited of Lausanne, Switzerland and Beximco Group. Comtrade Apparels Limited name has been changed to Beximco Apparels Limited since January 01, 1997.
Beximco Apparels Limited is a 100% export oriented garment industry, located at Shantibagh (Rajarbagh), Dhaka. It produces over 2.5 million pcs of high quality
men’s dress/casual shirts and ladies blouses for prominent brands and retails in USA, Canada & Europe.
Beximco Apparels Limited is managed by a group of professionals’ aims at producing high quality garments through an effective quality control system right from sourcing of fabric to end product. The company employed 876 employees as of February 01, 2009.
Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BPL), is the leading pharmaceutical manufacturer in the country. BPL manufactures and markets a high quality and cost-effective formulations covering all major therapeutic groups. Products are made under license of Upjohn Incorporated, USA followed. After its initial years of struggle it broke ground with the launching of its own products in 1983. Today, BPL holds a 15% share in the domestic market after competing with such Multinational Giants as Glaxo Welcome, Novartis, Hoecsht, Rhone Poulenc Rorer, Fisons etc.
Beximco Infusions Ltd., another wing of the Chemical Division went into production in July 1993 with an annual production capacity of 6 million bottles of life saving I.V. fluids.
Pharmatek Chemicals Ltd. is the leading bulk producer of paracetamol in Bangladesh. It caters to almost 60% of the local market and supplies its products to both national and multinational companies operating in Bangladesh.
I & I Services Ltd. is the distribution wing of the Chemical Division. It maintains a large distribution network and covers 20,000 customers nationwide.BEXIMCO Jute Division
BEXIMCO Jute Division is the world’s largest jute yarn and twine manufacturer and exporter with 12% of the world jute yarn and twine trade. Annual Exports are currently over 20,000 MT.BEXIMCO was the pioneer in manufacturing specialized jute yarn and twine for Axminister carpet and continues to explore new product and market opportunities worldwide.
BEXIMCO Real Estate
Shinepukur Holdings Real Estate Division began with a mission to segment the real-estate market and develop demographically specific housing projects. Its Manoshi lake view project is a landmark. It offers a prime location and dependable construction quality at a fraction of the costs of other developers’ offerings.
BEXIMCO Engineering Ltd. (BEL) has been providing high quality civil engineering and consulting services to both the government and the private sector for over a decade. It was the largest sub-contractor of the historic JamunaBridge. The firm is also involved in a number of road development and infrastructure projects.
The move of Beximco Fisheries Ltd. towards higher-yielding varieties of marine foods is another example of an innovative approach to doing things better. It nurtures a pilot project in the coastal Cox’s -Bazzar.
BEXIMCO Trading Division
BEXIMCO Trading Division represents some of the world’s best companies. With a brand portfolio that includes Wartsilla SA (generation equipment), Arjo Wiggins (security & treasury papers) of France, and DuPont Inc. (chemicals), Sterling Diagnostic Imaging Inc. (film products) and Valvoline Inc. (petroleum products and industrial lubricants) of the USA. The Trading Division also represents overseas marine food buyers by acting as a sourcing agent on their behalf and providing quality-control and inspection services.
BEXIMCO Media is the owner of The daily Independent and Mukto Kantho, the dailies well-respected by readers all over the country. BEXIMCO Media’s magazines, the fortnightly Ananda Bhuban, Shaili and the weekly Onnyesha are proving a hit with an increasing number of readers. BEXIMCO has also launched a news agency called Associated Press of Bangladesh to provide up-to-date and accurate news-feeds to the Bangladeshi press.
Beximco has a firm position on the Information Superhighway. Beximco Computers Ltd. is still the nation’s largest volume re-seller of IBM PCs and has also teamed up with HCL-HP of India to exclusively market HCL PCs in Bangladesh. Its software client portfolio continues to include an increasing number of blue-chip companies and organizations, including a number of “mission critical” applications in several Government Departments. With the launch of a new version of BexiBank, an integrated multi-user, multi-tasking banking application system, Beximco Computer Ltd.’s software is in use at over 300 branches of 15 major banks nationwide.
Beximco’s first venture into education, Beximco Systems Ltd. is a joint collaboration with NIIT, the largest information technology institute of India. Modeled after NIIT’s highly successful training centers across India, the NIIT Centers in Bangladesh have the highest growth rate of any NIIT facility for enrollment levels in its short courses and degree programs.
Bangladesh Online Ltd. (BOL), Beximco’s Internet Company, has the fastest access among ISPs in Bangladesh via 116 lines @33.6 kbps. BOL offers a complete range of Internet services including, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year live technical support, Complete on-site installation and user training, Simplified one click instant login, Unlimited e-mail, Unlimited web browsing, Internet news containing hundreds of the most popular newsgroups, Local video conferencing, Game server for high speed, 24 hours interactive gaming on BOL Gaming Zone (BGZ), Massive FTP site full of the hottest free games & software, Interactive chat exclusive for BOL members, and a Full service web site containing links to valuable information, powerful members tools, cool demos & help files. It’s Email to Fax Service saves costs on Faxing as well.
Shinepukur Ceramics in collaboration with NIKKO, a premier Japanese Company, manufactures and markets high quality porcelain and Bone china tableware . It promotes elegance and distinction for both internets.
In Harmony with Nature:
Beximco believes in sustainable development and gives highest priority top reservation of nature and ecological balance. The entire industry site is harmoniously integrated with the surrounding landscape and the native ecosystem of the area has been delicately preserved. Beximco have Biological Treatment and Energy Conservation Program. State-of-the-art technology has been used in the effluent treatment plant in their dye house for biological treatment of waste. Beximco also use comprehensive energy conservation program. This feeds back all recyclable energy into our various systems, especially for our air-conditioning purpose. Their investment in this program has made us energy efficient and environmentally conscious entity.
Here we try to describe about Beximco Bangladesh Limited. We know Beximco group one of the biggest & largest groups of companies in our country. To read our assignment anyone can know about Beximco Group. Smu Fashion Design student we should to know about Beximco, because Beximco group has the largest textile & garment industry. When we try to know about this company it helps to built-up our fashion career.
Beximco Bangladesh Ltd. one of the largest group of companies in our country. Beximco Group is supposed to be Bangladesh’s largest private sector industrial enterprise. It has targeted the industries the country needs most for progress and improved living standards. Beximco is also focused on those industries, which make the most of Bangladesh’s competitive advantages in the international market.
Yellow is one of the largest clothing stores in Bangladesh of Beximco Bangladesh Ltd. The store is very popular among the present and young generation for unique collection of designs, specially Punjabis and shirts for men and maintains the modern fashion trend. The quality of its product is extremely good as it has been successful to keep old customers always coming. The name YELLOW, itself has now become a distinct clothing brand in Bangladesh and the credit goes to its exclusive collection and comfortable products.
Executive Say: ABOUT themselves
Yellow is a design driven brand that celebrates creative and original thinking to highlight a lighthearted and optimistic view of life through a superior quality product. Our style captures a modern interpretation of fashion and our relaxed attitude expresses a comfortable and confident quality. The adventurous spirit of the line is built from Beximco Group’s heritage in innovation and living a life full of passion that is open to discovery.
We are inspired by our customers; Unconventional yet high-quality. Progressive yet tastefully casual—Yellow embraces harmony through conflict. You are a confident, intelligent and successful individual who believes in making his own destiny. Your clothing reflects your personality.
You dress creatively, and are not afraid to wear a crisp dress shirt with a pair of jeans to the office. You reflect a confident quality through your cool, comfortable and relaxed attitude.
Yellow compliments your lifestyle by offering products for every occasion. From office mornings to an evening with friends, Yellow answers your need for individuality, quality and style by providing superior, fashion forward products. You are a stylish, intelligent and confident soul who enjoys her success.
You juggle between your home, work and social circle, and your wardrobe compliments your modern lifestyle. You are on top of the fashion trends, but carefully choose those outfits that enhance your individuality, confirm with your high standards of quality and reflect your young and lighthearted approach to life.
Yellow knows what you want. We dress you up in semi-casual attire for your business meetings, and provide the matching accessories to go with that, and then cross-compliment those to go with the head-turning and sexy outfit that you will be wearing out with your friends tonight. Yellow products are inspired by you; young, confident and successful. Yellow kid is a child of a successful couple who is inspired by the success and style of his parents. He has a sense of style and a desire to stand out among his peers. You want to reflect your personality and style through him. You want him to be cool, smart and trendy. This is where Yellow steps in, by providing clothing and accessories for the kids, which are an annex of the parents’ personality.
Beximco Apparels Limited (BAL) a member of Beximco Group started its commercial production in March 1985 under the name of Comtrade Apparels Limited as a joint venture project between Comtrade Limited of Lausanne, Switzerland and Beximco Group. Comtrade Apparels Limited name has been changed to Beximco Apparels Limited since January 01, 1997. Beximco Apparels Limited is a 100% export oriented garment industry, located at Shantibagh (Rajarbagh), Dhaka. It produces over 2.5 million pcs of high quality men’s dress/casual shirts and ladies blouses for prominent brands and retails in USA, Canada & Europe.
House-15(CEN), Road-103,Gulshan Avenue,Gulshan-02,Dhaka-1212
Phone: +88 02 8855754
Level-01, Block-A, Shop-56,57,67,68 Panthapath, Dhaka-1215.
Phone: +88 02 91114401 Ext:101057
House No# 17, Road No # 02, Dhaka-1205
Phone: +88 02 8616220 Ex-1017
70, Outer Circular Road, Shahid Sangbadik Selina Parvin Road, Dhaka-1217.
Phone: +88 02 9357812.
Sector-07, House No# 03, Sonargaon Janapath, Uttara, Dhaka-1230.
Phone: +88 02 666 628619
House-17/A, Rankin Street, Wari, Dhaka-1203.
Phone: +88 02 9513064.
House-02 , Ring Road , Mohammadpur, Dhaka (Opposite Japan Garden City).
Phone: +88 01717 250000
24/A, Rahim Palace, Kumarpara.
Phone: +88 0192 4334757
3-C, Commercial Lane No.8, Zamzama Phase 5, DHA, Karachi, Pakistan.
Phone: +92 213 5302034-35
Xinhua Mall: 2 nd Floor, Xinhua Mall, M.M. Alam Road, Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan.
Phone: +92 423 5753890-91
Fortress Pace, Shop No.6, Lower Ground Floor, Cantt, Lahore, Pakistan.
Phone: +92 423 6623019-20
Activities, Products & Product Classification
The Yellow Man
You are a confident, intelligent and successful individual who believes in making his own destiny. Your clothing reflects your personality. You dress creatively, and are not afraid to wear a crisp dress shirt with a pair of jeans to the office. You reflect a confident quality through your cool, comfortable and relaxed attitude.
Yellow compliments your lifestyle by offering products for every occasion. From office mornings to an evening with friends, Yellow answers your need for individuality, quality and style by providing superior, fashion forward products.
The Yellow Woman
You are a stylish, intelligent and confident soul who enjoys her success. You juggle between your home, work and social circle, and your wardrobe compliments your modern lifestyle. You are on top of the fashion trends, but carefully choose those outfits that enhance your individuality, confirm with your high standards of quality and reflect your young and lighthearted approach to life.
Yellow knows what you want. We dress you up in semi-casual attire for your business meetings, and provide the matching accessories to go with that, and then cross-compliment those to go with the head-turning and sexy outfit that you will be wearing out with your friends tonight. Yellow products are inspired by you; young, confident and successful.
The Yellow Kid
Yellow kid is a child of a successful couple who is inspired by the success and style of his parents. He has a sense of style and a desire to stand out among his peers. You want to reflect your personality and style through him. You want him to be cool, smart and trendy. This is where Yellow steps in, by providing clothing and accessories for the kids, which are an annex of the parents’ personality.
Process Flow Chart of Yellow Manufacturing Sequence of Yellow Production Process
The ready made garment manufacturing processing depends on some steps and techniques. The clothing creation running actions and methods included in the developing outfits for the huge of creation in company time frame for company reasons is known as outfits developing technologies. Garments plants are identified according to their item kinds are as follows: Garments Factory is classified with some dept.
1. Woven Garment Factory.
2. Knit Garments Factory
3. Sweater Garments Factory
Yellow Production Process:
Stepwise garments manufacturing sequence on industrial basis is given below:
Design / Sketch
Operation of Yellow Manufacturing is given below in details:
|It is given by buyers to manufacturers containing sketches including measurements of particular styles||Manual/Computerized|
|Basic block is an individual component of garments without any style of design (without Allowance, Style, Design)||Manual/Computerized|
|When a pattern is made for a particular style with net dimension regarding the basic block along with allowance then it is called working pattern.||Manual/Computerized|
|To make a sample, this will be approved by buyer. After making a sample, it is sent to buyer for approval to rectify the faults|
|After rectify the faults, sample is again sent to buyers. If it is ok then , then it is called approved sample|
è Fabric Costing
è Making Charged
|Making allowance with net dimension for bulk production|
|If the buyer requires different sizes, so should be grade as S, M, L, XL, XXL|
|Marker is a thin paper which contains all the components for different sizes for a particular style of garments|
|To spread the fabrics on table properly for cutting|
|To cut fabric according to marker dimension|
Sorting & Bundling
|Sort out the fabric according to size and for each size make in individual bundles|
To assemble a full garments
Ironing & Finishing
|After sewing we will get a complete garment which is treated with steam ironing & also several finishing processes are done for example extra loose thread cutting|
|Should be approved as initial sample|
|Treated by Polyethylene bag|
|After packing, it should be placed In cartooning for export|
Ready for export
Sewing Thread & Labels Manufacturing
Beximco is one of the rare companies that also has inhouse manufacturing facilities for Label making, sewing thread making which gives it an edge for faster turn around and changes as per the customer requirement. The sewing thread ranges in diff counts and blends and this can be used for casual or formal clothing items.
Beximco has its inhouse flat bed printing facility backed by screen exposing and screen making facilities. All designs and screens can be produced inhouse The printing unit can do quality placement prints in foil, flock, plastisol , rubber printing , embossed effects.
To further enhance the value addition with quality supervision of the fashion garments, the embroidery unit is encompassed within the infrastructure. Embroideries in many colours and stitch counts can be produced in special computerized machines with needles.
We have a large capacity washing plant, which was setup with German collaboration and special distressing and finishing capabilities. We can do garment dyeing, all types of whiskering, three-dimensional effects using different resins, enzymes, bio-polishing, sandblasting, etc. We mostly produce very high fashion garments. Our technical washing experts have over the years been trained by Germans, Italians, Turkish, Chinese and Tunisian experts and have had a broad International exposure. Moreover, we have a close association with Italian washing experts, who work with us every season to develop new ranges of products.
To complete the whole supply process from the yarn to the final garment, the packaging is an integral part at the end of the chain. Beximco has its own paper and carton making facility in order to provide the required sizes , qualities and other details that can be easily incorporated into the final shipments of the orders.
Introduction of color: The particular visual sensation caused by the light emitted by, transmitted through, or reflected from the object.Color is a sensation which occurs when light enters in eyes. Light waves enter the eye an focused on the retina by the lance of the eye.
The perception of color is a sensory experience. The color of an object is seen by the eye when white light is shone upon the object’s surface. The surface reflects some colors and absorbs others. It is the reflected light (or wavelength) that is picked up by the eye. For example, a cherry is reflecting red light and absorbing other colors.
Within the eye, the retina contains receptors called rods and cones. The cones react to color wavelengths whilst the rods react to brightness. There are three types of cone: red, green and blue. Each color has a different wavelength – blues, greens and violets have shorter wavelengths, while reds, oranges and yellows have longer wavelengths. When color wavelengths fall on the retina, the brain interprets the signals as color.
Color or colour is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, green and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors.
The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, chromatography, colorimetric, or simply color science. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light)
|The colors of the visible light spectrum|
|color||wavelength interval||frequency interval|
|red||~ 700–635 nm||~ 430–480 THz|
|orange||~ 635–590 nm||~ 480–510 THz|
|yellow||~ 590–560 nm||~ 510–540 THz|
|green||~ 560–490 nm||~ 540–610 THz|
|blue||~ 490–450 nm||~ 610–670 THz|
Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its wavelength (or frequency) and its intensity. When the wavelength is within the visible spectrum (the range of wavelengths humans can perceive, approximately from 390 nm to 750 nm), it is known as “visible light”.
Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths; a source’s spectrum is a distribution giving its intensity at each wavelength. Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations.
Red, yellow and blue are the primary colors. Primary colors are the most basic colors. You can’t make them by mixing any other colors. Orange, green and purple are the secondary colors. A secondary color is made by mixing two primary colors. For instance, if you mix red and yellow, you get orange.
The Color Wheel:
A color wheel shows how colors are related. On a color wheel, each secondary color is between the primary colors that are used to make it. Orange is between red and yellow because orange is made by mixing red with yellow. What goes between secondary colors and primary colors? Intermediate, or tertiary, colors are made by mixing a primary color with a secondary color that is next to it. Red-orange, yellow-orange and yellow-green are some intermediate colors.
Red, Yellow, Blue. These are the three basic colors that cannot be created by any combination of other colors. All other colors are the result of mixing these three.
Green, Orange, Purple. These are the colors formed by mixing the primary colors.
Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green and yellow-green. These are the colors formed by mixing a primary and a secondary color. In other words, it fills in the rest of our
Any three colors which are side by side on a 12 part color wheel, such as yellow-green, yellow, and yellow-orange. Usually one of the three colors is the dominate color.
In regards to the color wheel, complementary colors are any two colors directly opposite each other, such as red and green. Complementary colors create maximum contrast and maximum stability. Be careful when working with fully saturated complementary colors for digital interfaces: they can be straining on the eye.
Here’s another one of that I will let you in on and also where I grabbed the graphics from. This is a great site that will help you put some harmony in your app.
Additive colors are what the web, television, and mobile devices are made of. In Photoshop we create all of our app screenshots, backgrounds, and graphics in RGB format. RGB stands for Red, Green, and Blue, and these three are the additive primary colors. When various combinations of these three are mixed together, all the remaining colors are created. In Photoshop, you can manage the RGB color by double clicking the color palette. The two most common ways to adjust color in Photoshop is to either type in numeric RGB values directly in text fields or to just drag the color picker over the color palette.
On a scale from 0 to 255, every numeric increment changes the color in a subtle way. Just to get the hang of it, there is nothing subtle about the differences below!
To the contrary, if all RGB values are set to zero, the color generated is black. This shows the corresponding hex value #000000.
Getting a little more into it, you should be able to predict what color will be generated when Red is set to a value of 255 and Green and Blue are set to 0.
Nonetheless, I couldn’t resist another screen shot. With a value of 255 in Red spot, and 0 in the Green and Blue, we get a fully saturated Red color. Green and Blue change accordingly with the same values rearranged.
As an example of what happens when we start messing with multiple different values, with a value of 255 in Red and Green, we create a fully saturated yellow color with the hex value of #ffff00.
So, by solely changing the values of Red, Green, or Blue, we can create the exact color needed for the design at hand. Knowing how colors interact with each other is really going to help your applications and web sites show a little more harmony and cohesion.
So now comes the fun part. With the general theory out the way, how do you know which color is best for your app? Colors can have different effects on people and can even hold different cultural meanings beyond what may be naturally intuitive. Red has been known to increases blood circulation and stimulates our body and mind. For these reasons, it is thus often associated with sex and love. Orange has been known to increase overall energy. Blue can be used to treat pain and is known as a stimulant and can often attribute to sleeplessness. Keep that in mind the next time you are staring at that little blue light on your television!
Knowing how people react to colors by nature can be an important tid-bit of information to keep in your back pocket. Color association and color psychology go hand-and-hand, and both are worth further independent research for the serious designer.
Generally, when two or more colors are mixed with each other, a distinct intermediate color is formed which the combination of colors is mixed in their formation. In this regard, a careful study of color combination processes and proportions was developed in the late 17th century, which is commonly known as color theory today. This theory deals with standardizing different color-mixing techniques within the domains of visual aesthetics and harmony, color frequencies, identities and color constitution.
In the visual arts, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impacts of specific color combination. There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberta (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of “color theory” began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy around Isaac Newton’s theory of color (Optics, 1704) and the nature of so-called primary. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetric and vision science.
For practical purposes, colors are grouped in various classifications which may be better understood by reference to a diagram. The three Primary colors are red, yellow and blue in their strongest tones. No mixture of other colors will produce any one of these three.
The nearest objects in nature approximating these three colors are the red of the geranium flower, the yellow of the lemon skin and the blue of a sunny southern sky. In pigments, these are known as vermilion, chrome yellow and cobalt blue, although other names are sometimes used for chemical combinations for custom picture frames that are close to these.
If any two of these pigments are combined, they produce what are known as the secondary colors. These are orange, purple, and green and are produced respectively by the combination of red and yellow, red and blue, yellow and blue.
In addition to the primaries and secondary, there are colors known as tertiaries, which are formed by the combination of primaries and secondary. It is impossible to indicate the tertiaries in a diagram; therefore the list is given below.
1. Pigment theory:
Primary color- Red, Yellow, Blue
Secondary color- Orange, Violet, Green
Yellow + Red = Orange
Yellow + Blue = Green
Red + Blue = Violet
Primary Color – Red, Green, Blue
Secondary color- Yellow, Oyan, Purple
Green + Red = Yellow
Green + Blue = Oyan
Red + Blue = Purple
There are three items which are used to specify color.
Hue: Hue is a true color, without tint or shade. This is generally what we mean when we say “color”.
For example: Pink
Chromaticity the “colorfulness” of a hue. Chroma, the Greek word for color, is really a measurement of color purity.
Value the brighter the color the higher the value. A paint chip, showing a color from lighter to darker, is a perfect example of changing value.
Saturation the intensity of a color. A color with high saturation is devoid of gray. A color low in saturation is closer to gray.
Monochromatic A color scheme using one color or several values (shades or tints) of one color. This color combination can be very soothing and calming.
Analogous Any three colors side-by-side on the color wheel (example: orange, red-orange and red). Analogous colors are often found in nature and can be very pleasing to the eye. U Triadic Three colors that are equidistant from each other on the color wheel (example: red, yellow and blue).
Neutral Colors that are not found on the color wheel such as gray, beige and brown.
Warm Colors do not include any blue
Cool Colors do not include any red
Tints adding white to a pure hue
Shades adding black to a pure hue
Tones adding gray to a pure hue sually, one color is more dominate than the others.
Color theory has its application in many areas of study and manufacturing sciences. These areas include visual studies, fine arts, architectural design, fashion design, interior or exterior decoration, object identity definition, painting, sculpture design and object modeling. Further, those who use the procedures and theoretical methods of color theory are typically artists, decorators, designers and scientists; these professions require fundamental color harmony and context principles to give certain objects their true aesthetic identity.
Below is a color reference chart that demonstrates how our signature colors perform with our secondary color palette. Suggested usage is to incorporate ONLY one signature color (maroon being the preferred signature color) at all times along with ONLY two secondary colors. The proportion of signature colors to secondary colors should be 50/25/25: 50% signature color + 25% each of secondary colors. Black, white, and various shades of gray are exempt from this rule and can be used as needed.
They use very neutral color for the formal clothes
For casual clothes yellow use primary colours as well as secondary colours .
Yellow uses different types of colours for women’s wear. From primary to tertiary they have all kinds of colours in their range
For children ‘Yellow’ uses very bright colours. They also use very light and sweet colours for children within 2 years.
Yellows should try to improve their colour sense and use more range of colours.
Usage of accent colour is less in the clothes
Most of the casual wears have the same colours.
The colours of the children wear are not suitable according to their age.
Another major drawback of yellow is that they are mainly focused on casual wear .There is actually o percent of party wear in Yellow for example if compared with other boutique shops they do not have any collection of bridal or wedding clothes.
There casual wears like jeans, tops t shirts are of extremely good quality but when it comes to salwar kamiz they are not maintaining quality products.
Traditional clothes of women are very few and don’t match yellows quality at all.
‘Yellow’ should be more wide in choosing colours.
Colors’ of the children wear should be more bright.
But yellow should focus more on the culture of Bangladesh when it comes to styling.
If they can introduce a contemporary look which has both the western and eastern taste then no one can come near Yellow’s collection.
Overall ‘Yellow’ can be described as the most promising boutique houses. They have a huge variety of products. Their price range is very reasonable. They also try to come up with something new and innovative all the time. Yellow has created a new dimension for the youngsters.
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