Human beings needs cloth & it is the second fundamental needs. On the other hand the demand of them is increasing day by day with changing their style or design or color & also combination of them. Paris at first started garments making commercially but at present situation all under developed, developing & developed countries have started garments making with competition. That’s why now a days garments & textile industries are the faster growing & competitive sectors in Bangladesh.
Short History of Ready-Made Clothing:
Before the American Civil War, ready-made (also called ready-to-wear) apparel existed but its variety was limited. Mainly coats and jackets (known as outerwear) and undergarments were purchased using predetermined sizes. Most clothing was made by tailors or by individuals or their family members at home.
The Civil War was a pivotal event in the historical development of men’s ready-made clothing. At the outset of the Civil War, most uniforms were custom-made in workers’ homes under government contract. As the war continued, however, manufacturers started to build factories that could quickly and efficiently meet the growing demands of the military. Mass production of uniforms necessitated the development of standard sizes. Measurements taken of the soldiers revealed that certain sets of measurements tended to recur with predictable regularity. After the war, these military measurements were used to create the first commercial sizing scales for men.
The mass production of women’s clothing developed more slowly. Women’s outfits generally continued to be custom-made well into the 1920s. In that decade, factors such as the development of industrial production techniques, the rise of the advertising industry, the growth of an urban professional class, and the development of national markets accessed through chain stores and mail order catalogues, contributed to the success of the women’s ready-made apparel industry. Ready-made articles of clothing were portrayed as modern and fashionable during a time when the new consumer industries were rapidly redefining the way Americans viewed mass-manufactured goods. Instead of seeing the purchase of mass-produced clothing as entailing a loss of individuality, American women began to accept the pieces of ready-made merchandise as convenient, affordable, and up-to-date fashion items that could be replaced easily as styles changed.
However, the new ready-made clothing often fit poorly. Each manufacturer created its own unique and sometimes arbitrary sizing system based on inaccurate body data or no body data at all. Garments of widely different dimensions were frequently labeled the same size by different manufacturers. This situation resulted in additional costs for alterations and large volumes of returned merchandise. This, in turn, increased costs for the consumer of ready-to-wear clothing.
RMG in Bangladesh:
The tremendous success of readymade garment exports from Bangladesh over the last two decades has surpassed the most optimistic expectations. Today the apparel export sector is a multi-billion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in the country. The overall impact of the readymade garment exports is certainly one of the most significant social and economic developments in contemporary Bangladesh. With over one and a half million women workers employed in semi-skilled and skilled jobs producing clothing for exports, the development of the apparel export industry has had far-reaching implications for the society and economy of Bangladesh. The economy of Bangladesh is largely dependent on agriculture. However, in recent years, the Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector has emerged as the biggest earner of foreign currency. The RMG sector has experienced an exponential growth since the 1980s. The sector contributes significantly to the GDP. It also provides employment to around 2 million Bangladeshis. An overwhelming number of workers in this sector are women. This has affected the social status of many women coming from low income families.
The Bangladesh Garment Industry for Bangladesh, the readymade garment export industry has been the proverbial goose that lays the golden eggs for over fifteen years now. The sector now dominates the modern economy in export earnings, secondary impact and employment generated. The events in 1998 serve to highlight the vulnerability of this industry to both internal and external shocks on the demand and supply side. Given the dominance of the sector in the overall modern economy of Bangladesh, this vulnerability should be a matter of some concern to the policymakers in Bangladesh. Although in gross terms the sector’s contributions to the country’s export earnings is more than 80% percent, in net terms the share would be much less partially because the backward linkages in textile have been slow to develop. The dependence on a single sector, no matter how resilient or sturdy that sector is, is a matter of policy concern. We believe the policymakers in Bangladesh should work to reduce this dependence by moving quickly to develop the other export industries using the lessons learned from the success of apparel exports. Support for the apparel sector should not be reduced. In fact, another way to reduce the vulnerability is to diversify the product and the market mix. It is heartening to observe that the knit products are rapidly gaining share in overall garment exports as these products are sold in quota-free markets and reflect the strength of Bangladeshi producers in the fully competitive global apparel markets. Preliminary data and informal evidence indicate that this sector seems to have weathered the devastating floods relatively well. The industry is one hundred percent export-oriented and therefore insulated from domestic demand shocks; however, it remains vulnerable to domestic supply shocks and the smooth functioning of the banking, transportation and other forward and backward linkage sectors of the economy. The Dhaka-Chittagong road remains the main transportation link connecting the production units, mostly situated in and around Dhaka and the port in Chittagong, where the raw material and the finished products are shipped in and out. Despite increased dependence on air transportation, trucks remain the main vehicles for transporting raw materials and finished products for Bangladesh garment exports. The floods disrupted the normal flow of traffic on this road. Eventually, this road link was completely severed for several days when large sections of the road went under water for a few weeks during the latter phase of the floods. This delinking of the road connection between Dhaka and the port in Chittagong was as serious a threat as one can imagine for the garment exporters. The industry responded by calling upon the Bangladesh navy to help with trawlers and renting a plane from Thai Air that was used to directly fly garment consignments from the Dhaka airport to the Chittagong airport several times a day.
|Major Product Export from Bangladesh: (Value in Million US$ )|
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT ON EXPORT OF RMG AND TOTAL EXPORT OF BANGLADESH
EXPORT OF RMG
TOTAL EXPORT OF BANGLADESH
% OF RMG’S TO
Growth of the industry and Employment
Number of Garment Factories
Employment in Million Workers
Contribution of the RMG Industry
RMG business started in the late 70s as a negligible non-traditional sector with a narrow export base and by the year 1983 it emerged as a promising export earning sector; presently it contributes around 75 percent of the total export earnings. Over the past one and half decade, RMG export earnings have increased by more than 8 times with an exceptional growth rate of 16.5 percent per annum. In FY06, earnings reached about 8 billion USD, which was only less than a billion USD in FY91. Excepting FY02, the industry registered significant positive growth throughout this period.
In terms of GDP, RMG’s contribution is highly remarkable; it reaches 13 percent of GDP which was only about 3 percent in FY91. This is a clear indication of the industry’s contribution to the overall economy. It also plays a pivotal role to promote the development of other key sectors of the economy like banking, insurance, shipping, hotel, tourism, road transportation, railway container services, etc.
A 1999 study found the industry supporting approximately USD 2.0 billion worth of economic activities (Bhattacharya and Rahman), when the value of exports stood at a little over USD 4.0 billion.
One of the key advantages of the RMG industry is its cheap labor force, which provides a competitive edge over its competitors. The sector has created jobs for about two million people of which 70 percent are women who mostly come from rural areas. The sector opened up employment opportunities for many more individuals through direct and indirect economic activities, which eventually helps the country’s social development, woman empowerment and poverty alleviation.
Exporting Condition of Garments Industry
The Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industry occupies a unique position in the Bangladesh economy. It is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh, which experienced phenomenal growth during the last 20 years. By taking advantage of an insulated market under the provision of Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) of GATT, it attained a high profile in terms of foreign exchange earnings, exports, industrialization and contribution to GDP within a short span of time. The industry plays a key role in employment generation and in the provision of income to the poor. Nearly two million workers are directly and more than ten million inhabitants are indirectly associated with the industry. Over the past twenty years, the number of manufacturing units has grown from 180 to over 3600. The sector has also played a significant role in the socio- economic development of the country. The Agreement on Textile and Clothing (ATC) introduced in 1994, aimed at bringing textiles and clothing within the domain of WTO rules by abolishing all quotas by the end of 2004. It provides an adjustment period of 10 years, so that countries affected by the MFA could take the necessary steps to adjust to the new trading environment. Liberalization of trade following the Uruguay Round agreement presents opportunities as well as challenges for a developing country like Bangladesh in RMG sector. In the Post-Uruguay Round period, traditional instruments of trade policy such as tariffs, quotas, and subsidies will become less feasible and less relevant. In a liberalized trade regime, competition among textiles and clothing exporting countries is likely to become intense. The objective of this paper is to identify the prospects of RMG industry after the MFA phase out by analyzing the current scenario along with different policy measures and the available options in order to be more competitive in the new regime. The export made by Garments Industries of Bangladesh is improving year after year except some of the year. Strike, layout, shutdown of company, political problem, economic problem, inflation etc. are the prime cause of decreasing export in this important sector. But above it, Readymade Garments Industries is the leading sector in export sector.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- I. To analyze how layout effects on productivity in respect to a garments factory.
- II. To develop the best method of work and motion ergonomics.
- To find out the possible solutions of maximum utilization of floor space.
- To help the business organizations by identifying their problems, analyzing the information’s and providing the possible solution.
- V. To find out and minimize the wasting time during a product making.
- To balance the line for best utilization of man, material and machine.
- To improve per day production.
- To maximize the production.
- Above all, to identify the barriers of production and its remedies.
|SNLS||Single Needle Lock Stitch|
|DNLS||Double Needle Lock Stitch|
|BMV||Basic Minute Value|
|SMV||Standard Minute Values|
Machines used in Juma Fashions Ltd. for production
|F/L ( Flat bed)|
|Fit of the arm|
Origin & Model No. of the machines:
|SL||NAME OF MACHINE||Model no||Brand||Origin||QTY|
|2||FLAT BED M/C||6714D||Juki||Japan||04|
|3||OVER LOCK M/C||MO6700DClass- BE6-441t||Juki||China||93|
|6||HOLE M/C||LBH-781Sub Class-k||Juki||Japan||08|
|7||FADE LOCK CELENDER BED M/C||WX8808F||Juki||Japan||54|
|9||BUTTON STICH M/C||1TR808||Yamata||Japan||04|
|10||CUTTING M/C||KM AUC||Mac||Japan||05|
Features of Sewing Machines used in Industrial Zuma Fashions Ltd.:
Plain/ Lock Stitch Machine (SunSir-SS-A355)
- Single Needle Lockstitch
- Up To 5500 Stitches Per Minute
- Fully Automatic Lubrication
- 1/2 Inch Foot Lift By Knee
- Maximum 5mm Stitch Length at longest stitch length setting.
- Minimum 6 Stitches Per Inch at longest stitch length setting.
Over lock Machine (Kansai)
- General-purpose machine widely supports lightweight to heavyweight materials
-Operator-friendly machine provides outstanding versatility
- -Fully automatic lubrication prevents oil stains on fabric
-Presser foot pressure has been reduced and the cloth feeding force has been increased
-Smoothly feed soft and delicate materials while preventing the material from fluttering and the presser foot from jumping
-Easily handle any type of material on the machine, leading to a higher degree of efficiency
-Machine forms stitches with consistency even at high speed, thereby increasing productivity
-Used practically in every clothing plant
-Upper looper of the extra-high lift type is provided as standard
-Greatly widens responsiveness to material types, such as lightweight to heavyweight materials
-Looper cover can be easily cleaned to remove lint
-Improved threading mechanism for enhanced maintainability and operation
-Open and closing of cloth plate by one-touch mechanism
-Open and close looper cover by one-touch mechanism
-Looper thread cam position guide mechanism is a one-touch type flap mechanism
-Optional shirring set includes new Juki foot, needle plate, feed dogs, foot pedal, and shirring attachment used in most sewing factories Maximum stitches per minute: 6500
- -Stitch length: 3.6 mm
-Needle gauge: 3.2, 4.8 mm
-Overedging width: 4.0, 4.8, 6.4 mm
-Differential feed ratio: 1:1.9 (Max. 1:2.9) for Stretching 1:0.8 (Max. 1:0.6)
-Maximum lift of the presser foot: 6.5 mm
-Upper knife: Carbide flat knife
-Needle bar stroke: 25.5 mm
-Needle: DC x 27
-Motor: 2P 400Watts
- It comes complete with sewing machine table (size 48″ x 20″) and motor ( clutch motor has 1/2 horse power, phase I, 110 to 220 volt switch), everything (drawer, belt, tools and instruction manual), packed in factory sealed boxes and never been used before.).Assembly required.
Flat lock Machine (Kansai-WX-8808F)
1 One machine can produce both tight and soft stitches. Newly introduced needle thread take-up mechanism. The texture of stitches can be changed by switching the direction of the installed cam (up or down)
2 Excellent oil blocking effectiveness protects your important sewn products from oil stains.
Equipped with an oil blocking mechanism in each related area, such as the oil seal and the needle bar enclosed in the machine, the W1500N Series protects sewn products from oil stains, thus reducing stain removal operations. Therefore, productivity is increased, and quality sewn products are achieved.
3 The presser foot keeps pace effectively with the machine speed and increases quality of the sewn products.
Newly introduced tilt adjustments. Tilt adjustments can be made on the operator’s side of the presser foot. Therefore, these machines can go through the cross seam sections smoothly. Thanks to this feature, an increase in quality is achieved.
Button Hole Machine ( Juki- LBH-781)
Sub class K
- 1 Needle industrial lockstitch sewing machine
- Automatic button hole with easy buttonhole size adjustment which further enhances ease of operation.
- A newly introduced mechanism in the needle thread trimmer prevents interference with the positioning of buttonholes
- The shape of the face plate is designed to provide sufficient clearance around the needle entry position
- The work clamp can be lifted as high as 12mm enabling the machine to make high-quality buttonholes in heavy-weight materials
- This machine is capable of sewing heavy-weight materials such as bulky knits
- The pressure required to depress the start pedal and lifter pedal has been reduced which helps to dramatically reduce operator fatigue
- The knife mechanism and stop-motion mechanism produce less noise when they actuate, thus contributing to a more comfortable working environment
- Thanks to the simple design of the stop-motion mechanism and unique knife mechanism, the machine operates with low noise
Button Attaching Machine( Juki- MB- 1373)
Single Thread button sewing machine Genuine Japanese Machine.
Bar taking machine
- Electronic Bar tacking Machine
- 2700 Stitches Per Minute
- With its 30mm (length) by 40mm (width) sewing area, the machine can sew many different shapes of bartacks
- The machine is provided as standard with as many as 50 different types of sewing patterns including semilunar bartacking, round bartacking, radial tacking as well as conventional bartacks
- The arm section of the machine head is fitted with a hand pulley. This allows the operator to visually check the needle entry points
- Complete with table stand and motor
- Electronic bartacking machine with a sewing area of 20mm x 40mm which gives you the space to complete your projects
- This machine is designed for general bartacking on jeans and work wear
- Standard increased jump speed and a memory capacity of 10,000 stitches
- Sewing speed: max. 2,700 s.p.m.
- Stitch length: max. 10mm
- Sewing area: 30mm (l) x 40mm (w)
- Work clamp lift: Max. 17mm
- Number of stitches:10,000 /pattern
STRAIGHT MACHINE( KNIFE CUTTING KM-Mack-KS-AUV)
- Ø Oil tank makes oil run automatically to all moving parts.
- Ø Quicker sharpening speed makes cutting operation smoothly.
- Ø Oil tank makes oil run automatically to all moving parts.
- Ø Quicker sharpening speed makes cutting operation smoothly.
- Ø Thin and flat standard and four knife strokes offer smooth and accurate cutting.
- Ø Lowest center of gravity which reduces top-heaviness and increases the ease of handling.
- Ø Powerful yet quiet motor ensures better cooling and greater operator comfort.
- Ø Dual-speed motor adds more to its adaptability to cut any material.
Cloth Cutting Machine with Automatic Abrasive Belts Sharpener is the most popular cutting machine in the Garment Industry. It’s suitable for cutting all kinds of fabrics from thin materials to thick materials.
- Brand: KM
- Approx. Weight (LBS.): 31 lbs. (14.1kg)
- Motor: 110v, 1ph
- Belts also available: Fine, Medium, Coarse, Rough, Water Proof.
- Cutting Blades also available: High Speed Steel, Carbon Steel, Teflon Coated, Wave Edge, Wave Groove, Rounded Tip, Angled Tip.
Fabric inspection machine- ALMAC
Inspection table is laminated with adequate number of tubes provided underneath and overhead the glass with variable lighting arrangement.
Push button controls are given on the drive box on the right hand side.
Cloth can run in FORWARD as well as in REVERSE direction instantaneously.
Fabric runs face in/face out.
It is provided to stop the machine at the right location of the defect.
Soft start and instantaneous stoppage of fabric.
Automatic stop arrangement to stop the machine at the end of the fabric piece.
Bow bar has been provided in the batching device to open out the creases in the fabric.
Perfectly aligned straight edges in tunes of +/- 1 to 2mm with automatic edge guiding system. It has an electronically operated motorized screw type arrangement, thus doing away with requirements such as compressed air etc.
Perfect tension during the flow of the fabric is provided using guide roll assembly, thus no hassles of nip rolls.
Meter Counter is installed in front on platform top for easy reading.
Thread sucking machines
Scientifically designed to remove all loose thread and dust particles from finished
garments and textile products, through a specially designed suction operation simultaneously creating an oscillation, similar to dusting of garments.
Suitable for all kinds of light and heavy garments, home furnishing items and even heavy bath rugs.
Easily removable lint filter provided for collection of all lint, loose thread and dust particles.
Fully Automatic (or manual) version available.
Can handle more than 2000 pieces in an average 8 hour shift.
Factors of higher production:
- Increase Investment Effectiveness — Upgrade to produce next generation with minimal layout and material logistics while increasing production capacity from ramp to full production.
- Increase Equipment Utilization — while reducing processing delays from queuing. Maximize productivity.
- Increase Factory Output — all plants will release work at an average rate that is strictly less than the average capacity.” Therefore, the bottleneck area becomes the capacity limit and as that bottleneck moves around the factory with the re-entrant flow, the capacity is limited by the continuance of the natural bottleneck.
- Increase Worker Productivity and Safety — Workers safety is considered and also considered the minimum required area to do the works.
- Decrease Time to Volume Production
- Decrease Equipment Installation and Start-up Time and Cost
- Decrease Inventory
- Decrease Material handling Time
- Safety and Ergonomics
Problems Regarding With RMG
The garment industry of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years.
- National labor laws do not apply in the EPZs, leaving BEPZA in full control over work conditions, wages and benefits.
- Garment factories in Bangladesh provide employment to 40 percent of industrial workers. But without the proper laws the worker are demanding their various wants and as a result conflict is began with the industry.
- Low working salary is another vital fact which makes the labor conflict. Worker made strike, layout to capture their demand. Some time bonus and the overtime salary are the important cause of crisis. Insufficient government policy about this sector is a great problem in Garments Company.
There are some other problems which are associated with this sector.
- That are- lack of marketing tactic.
- Absence of easily on-hand middle management.
- A small number of manufacturing methods.
- Lack of training organizations for industrial workers, supervisors and managers.
- Autocratic approach of nearly all the investors.
- Fewer process units for textiles and garments.
- Sluggish backward or forward blending procedure.
- Incompetent ports, entry/exit complicated and loading/unloading takes much time.
- Time- consuming custom clearance etc.
Several authors have analyzed aspects of the garment industry in Bangladesh. Of the various aspects of the industry, the problems and the working conditions of female workers have received the greatest attention. There are several studies including the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) study by Salma
Chowdhury and ProtimaMazumdar (1991) and the Bangladesh UnnayanParisad (1990) study on this topic. Both of these studies use accepted survey and research methodology to analyze a wealth of data on the social and economic background, problems and prospects of female workers in the RMG sector. Professor Muzaffar Ahmad looks at the industrial organization of the sector and discusses robustness and long-term viability of apparel manufacturing in Bangladesh. Wiigton (2000) provides a good overview of this industry, especially the developments in the early years. One of the few studies on the Bangladesh apparel industry to be published in a reputed journal in the U.S. is that of Yung Whee Rhee (2003) who presents what he calls a “catalyst model” of development. The Bangladesh Planning Commission under the Trade and Industrial Policy (TIP) project also commissioned several studies on the industry. Hossain and Brar (2004) consider some labor-related issues in the garment industry. Quddus (2006) presents a profile of the apparel sector in Bangladesh and discusses some other aspects of the industry. Quddus (2006) presents results from a survey of apparel entrepreneurs and evaluates the performance of entrepreneurs and their contribution to the success of this industry. Islam and Quddus (2006) present an overall analysis of the industry to evaluate its potential as a catalyst for the development of the rest of the Bangladesh economy.
Safety need for the worker is mandatory to maintain in all the organization. But without the facility of this necessary product a lot of accident is occur incurred every year in most of the company. Some important cause of the accident are given below-
●Routes are blocked by storage materials
●Machine layout is often staggered
●Lack of signage for escape route
●No provision for emergency lighting
●Doors, opening along escape routes, are not fire resistant.
●Doors are not self-closing and often do not open along the direction of escape.
●Adequate doors as well as adequate staircases are not provided to aid quick exit
●Fire exit or emergency staircase lacks proper maintenance
● Lack of proper exit route to reach the place of safety
● Parked vehicles, goods and rubbish on the outside of the building obstruct exits to the
● Fire in a Bangladesh factory is likely to spread quickly because the principle of
Compartmentalization is practiced
● Lack of awareness among the workers and the owners
External and Internal Barriers of Higher Production
1. Economical problems:Economical problem is a major issue for growing a garments industry. If any garments owners have no good fund, he doesn’t build up his industry. As for example, at any time garments business may fall due to various reasons. Such as
|(a) Shipment date may fail|
|(b) Suddenly need lot of money to buy some important parts that parts need for your better production.|
|(c) To build up a new project this is helpful for the business.|
At this purpose an owner need money to save his business. So every owner need to know money saving formula which is very helpful for themselves to recover that type of problem.
Banking problem is another big problem in our country. If the bank doesn’t give the loan in minor interest, an owner not able to establish the industrial project. There are various kinds economical problem. Such as:
|i. Community problems|
|ii. Political problems|
|iii. Transportation problems|
|iv. Drudge problems|
(i) Community problems:
Man is a social being. One cannot live with the help of others. To work everybody as a team is important concern to increase the garment production. Lack of this type of attitudes creates a lot of problems. Such as:
|The workers cannot be helpful with each other.|
|The workers always look after others fault.|
|They cannot work properly.|
|Lead time may increase.|
|The workers make quarrel with others.|
|Factory environment and production may fall.|
Factory management should be very careful about the problems. The problems can be minimized only by improving the better relationships between the workers.
(ii) Political problems:
Political problem is very important for garment business. It creates very bad effects in garments production. The author has discussed only three major obstacles related to the political problems. Such as:
|Hartal : Each buyer gives an order and a target date to the vendor. Due to Hartal the production process, inter factory transportation and shipment process may hamper. Sometimes garments (End products) are exported by air to meet the buyers date. In this case the owner has to spend extra cost.|
|To remove this problem Hartal should be stopped.|
|Strike: Strike is one type of Hartal created by the workers. Workers are illiterate and so they are paid low wages by the owners. Sometimes workers are influenced by their leader and stop working to notify their owners about wages. In some cases the strike comes out a large volume that the workers act destructive works against the factory management and take place along the high way to create strike. As a result the productions go down.|
|To reduce this problem, the management should keep sound relationship with worker leaders and should meet their demands time to time.|
|Internal politics : Internal politics mean the politics is created in garment factory among the workers and upper level stuffs. The workers perform their own duty under the supervision of their upper level stuffs. In some cases, the stuffs make bad behaviors to the workers. At that moment, the workers mentality falls down and production also decreases.|
|The management should convey cooperative attitude to the workers so that they can work liberally and get chance to make correct their own faults.|
(iii) Transportation problem:Transportation is a vital factor in apparel production. Transportation is of two types:
|Internal transportation: The garment related accessories are transferred from one floor to another floor during production. Some important points should be considered to formulate internal transportation very efficiently.Such as:|
|Smooth transportation system gives better production to the company.|
|External transportation: Transportation outside the factory premise is external transportation. Transportation system in our country is not very fine. Problems related to external transportation are as follows:|
(iv) Drudge Problem:
The garment industry is far the country’s most important manufacturer earning around huge money annually and accounting about two thirds of all exports. About 80 percent of the garment workers are women. Despite the phenomenal success of the RMG sector the working condition and wages of workers in the industry are cause for serious concern.
The problems in the industry pre-date the riots which took place just over a few times ago and which were attended by deaths, injuries, and destruction of property. Over the years, hazardous working conditions have resulted in the deaths of many workers through factory fires and collapse. The spectrum factory building collapse of April 2005 killed 64-70 people, injured over 70 (mentioning) and left hundred jobless. In February 2006 a fire destroyed the f our-story KTS Textile industries in Bangladesh’s port city of Chittagong again killing scores of mostly young and female workers. Workers, who are mostly young women, also face an acutely difficult working environment:
|Wages are low|
|Hours are long|
|Forced labor is practiced|
|Child labor exists|
|Sexual harassment exists|
|Freedom is curtailed|
|Whether it be locked doors or right of association|
|There are a multitude of other practices which go against international labor standards and codes of conduct.|
It is one of the important sections for the garments industry. Here the raw materials and accessories are first received and then supplied to the production floor according to the requirements. So the location and layout of this section are very essential.
Cutting is the first step and very critical step for garments production. The wastage during cutting is an important issue. Different cutting faults can be occurred which should be minimized. Cutting faults are:
- Faulty Pattern pieces
- Faulty marker paper
- Faulty machine
- Faulty table
- Ends of ply losses
- Selvedge losses
- Loss of fabric ends
- Purchase loss
The cutting manager or responsible person should be very careful to detect the faults in source and remove it
Marker efficiency should be controlled.
Cutting should be done very carefully according to the fabric length & width.
Production section :
In production section line balancing is very important for escalating garments production. The number of machines in a sewing layout depends on the product parts and order size. 20 machines or 26 machines in a layout is considered by the responsible person. This is also depends on
(a) Garments type
(b) Shipment date
(c) Fabric type
(d) Available Machine
If line balancing is not done properly, production may be hampered.
Finishing section :
Finishing section is the end side of any garment industry . Finishing section consists of
• Inspection and quality section
The workers of this section should work very careful to keep the quality of the garments product.
CHAPTER:03- EXPERIMENTAL WORK
This project presents a lot of problems and remedies occurred in garments production. Garments production has become a prospective and rising sector in Bangladesh by twenty first century. Day by day the investors have exposed their interests in this sector. A lot of money is going to be earned from the sectors. So this sector is one of the important sectors in our country. We are trying to give an idea about the possible problems and remedies related to the garments production.
Tools &Equipments to be used for doing this work:
• Stop watch
• Graph paper
• Data Log Sheet
• Time study sheet
• Cutting scissor
• Inspection table
• Measuring table
• Alter trolley
• Reject trolley
• Input Table
• Productivity improvement sheet
Procedure/Method for doing this job:
The methodology of this thesis is the observation, understanding, recording, improvement, implement of the existing operation condition and find out the problems then give a suggestion. To increase the production of a company first of all it is required to collect the. data about the production capacity, the total floor space, total machineries, total worker/operators and minimum clearance between one workstation to another to perform the bets works so that maximum output can be achieved. Then it is important to practically visualize the existing condition of the production floor. After that applying some improvement techniques find a way to maximum utilization of the floor space working method and workers motion ergonomics.
Sequence of Operation For Each Product:
Order Receiving from Merchandising Section
Delivery or Shipment
Barriers of each section and its remedies:
|Barrier s||Results||Probable solutions|
|Worker’s Absenteeism||The attendance of workers should be ensured.|
|Power problem||Power supply must ensure for running machine to make sample.|
|Place of sample section||The place of sample room should be changed as early as possible.|
• Worker’s absenteeism:
|Obs. No.||No.of layers||Allocated workers||Time required||Worker present||Time required||Extra time|
|01||30||10||15 min 40 sec||09||17 min 14 sec||1 min 34 sec|
|02||30||10||14 min 55 sec||08||18 min 22 sec||3 min 27 sec|
|03||30||10||15 min 12 sec||09||16 min 38 sec||1 min 26 sec|
|04||30||10||15 min 33 sec||07||19 min 42 sec||4 min 9 sec|
|05||30||10||14 min 43 sec||08||16 min 50 sec||2 min 7 sec|
Delay fabric receiving:
|Day||Cutting capacity||Fabric reqd. for sewing section||Fabric receiving||Result|
|01||60,000 body||For 50,000 body||For 48,000 body||Inadequate|
|02||60,000 body||For 55,000 body||For 50,000 body||Inadequate|
|03||60,000 body||For 45,000 body||For 44,000 body||Inadequate|
|04||60,000 body||For 52,000 body||For 50,000 body||Inadequate|
|05||60,000 body||For 48,000 body||For 50,000 body||Adequate|
Other common barriers of cutting section
More shape of pattern –less efficiency
Big parts in marker- less efficiency
Marker of stripe fabric–less efficiency
Different width of fabric–less efficiency
Suggestion for cutting floor to ZUMA group
To remove cutting dust of fabric suction machine may use above the cutting table
Cutting wastes may carry by basket
Proper relaxation must ensure for lycra fabric
Adequate cutting machine should have the factory
If possible to make fabric after making marker then the efficiency of marker will be increase
Different types of sewing defects:
- Tension break
- Open sewing
- Uneven sewing
- Down stitch
Reason of needle breakage:
- Needle displace from eye hole
- Insincere of worker
- Improper setting of feed dog
- Improper setting of lopper
- Improper setting of pressure foot
Sewing section problems
|1. Power problem – 65% last month.||1. To ensure Power supply properly.|
|2. Fabric does not deliver from cutting section timely – 30% last month.||2. Duties and responsibilities should be increased in cutting section. If problem in technical side should be removed.|
|3. Work study does not implementation properly.|
*Workers/Supervisors are not habituated.
*Workers/Supervisors are not allowed due to have ego problem.3. Officer, supervisors and worker should be worked together.4. Workers are not conscious about their target.4. Officer, supervisors and worker should motivate them.5. Sometime sewing m/c has not proper gas power, for that cutting knife does not work.5. Factory has to concern the government about gad problem.6. Working overtime is also effect on productivity.6. Overtime schedule and payment should give in proper time.7. Slightly gap the relation between Workers/Supervisors/Line Chief and work study officer.7. Officer, supervisors and worker should be worked together.8. Improper line balancing method study, and time study.8. Proper way of line balancing should be applied9. Less flexibility of work for workers.9. Increase the basic flexibility to work for workers.10.Style change due to urgent shipment10. Working target and plan should be completed 2 days ago for shipment.11.Man Power shortage at Neck binding11. Man Power should be arrange for neck building.12.New Layout running12. To train-up workers to work properly.13.Item close13. Item should be invented.14.20% of oil and quality problem14. Oil should check properly15. Both sleeve measurement uneven due to cutting mistake.15. After cutting it must be checked.16. Workers mental and Physical problem.16. Motivational training must be arranged per week.
Prodn/hrActual workersactual Prodn/hrProdn loss
Finishing and Packaging
|1. Assorted Packing missing.||1. To train-up workers, in proper way to pack garments and should be increased responsibilities about their duties.|
|2. Solid Packing missing.||2. To train-up workers, in proper way to pack garments and should be increased responsibilities about their duties.|
|3. Country wise packing missing.|
3. To follow the packing list very sincerely to pack garments.4. Wrong site missing in one carton.4. Separating of different size of garments properly and then packing the garments size wise.5. Less or more pcs of garments packing instead of required pcs of garments in a bluster poly and similarly in a carton.5.Packing properly by short out the number of garments can be pack in a poly and carton.6. Any accessories missing.6.Qualitycheckingmaintainproperly7. Barcode missing.7. After completing the packing Barcode checking properly.8. Color wise missing.8. Assorted packing done properly.9.Improper ironing, Folding, Packing etc.9. Ironing, Folding and packing should be done properly.10. Metal present in the garments.10. Garment should be checked in metal detector m/c sincerely.11. Tape does not use properly.11. Tape uses on the cartoon properly.
Social &Environmental Information in ZUMA Group:
Scope of employment opportunity:
As ZUMA Group is continuously expanding with new innovation and advanced modernization in a diversified manner it creates ample opportunity for employment in our country. Here in ZUMA Group people have the opportunity of intensively learning about worldwide textile and Garments technology.
ZUMA Group offers a very promising internship program to post graduate and under graduate students across Bangladesh. Every year ZUMA Group gives opportunity internees to join with them and they provide as much help as a internees needs during the internee periods. All the renowned educational institution in Bangladesh highly prefer their students to attend internship program in DBL Group because of its modern art of state, high profile of manpower, recognition of superb management.
Environmental pollution control:
ZUMA Group is still an example to the industries in the country of a conscientious and civil and socially responsible manufacturer. Their commitment to improve the environment to provide their workers with a health and friendly workspace and their neighbors with a pollution free clean area continues to be strong as ever. All their chemically contaminated water is treated, neutralized, cleared and given to neighboring farmers. They provide Ecotex label to their customer which is a proof of free from carcinogenic dyes and are accepted as a very environment friendly production unit.
Noise, dust pollution control and air emission:
Proper administrative and engineering control is deployed in rectifying, reducing and controlling noise and dust pollution. Air emission is another major concern in the factory area. Periodic monitoring is conducted to rectify contamination on the air and the air quality of the area.
Health, Safety and hygiene awareness:
ZUMA FASHIONS LTD. believes that all employees are to work in a safe, healthy and hygienic work atmosphere. In each and every unit, First Aid and Hygiene team along with appropriate training to care for its people. In all our industrial units ZUMA FASHIONS LTD. have both male and female physicians with necessary aid and medical facilities.
In order to increase the awareness level of the employees the management also takes great initiative to take part in ergonomics area such as child care, Family Planning, Pure drinking water, Arsenic, Diarrhea, Sanitation, HIV, Dengue and general health and hygiene. This has been practiced in order to aware them and their families.
Policy Regime of Government
Government of Bangladesh has played an active role in designing policy support to the RMG sector that includes back-to-back L/C, bonded warehouse, cash incentives, export credit guarantee scheme, tax holiday and related facilities. At present government operates a cash compensation scheme through which domestic suppliers to export- oriented RMG units receive a cash payment equivalent to 5 percent of the net FOB value of exported garments. At the same time, income tax rate for textile manufacturers were reduced to 15 percent from its earlier level for the period up to June 30, 2008. The reduced tax rates and other facilities are likely to have a positive impact on the RMG sector.
The existence of sound infrastructural facilities is a prerequisite for economic development. In Bangladesh, continuing growth of the RMG sector is dependent on the development of a strong backward linkage in order to reduce the lead time. However, other factors constraining competitiveness of Bangladesh’s RMG exports included the absence of adequate physical infrastructure and utilities.
The productive efficiency of labor is more important determinant for gaining comparative advantage than the physical abundance of labor. In Bangladesh, the garment workers are mostly women with little education and training. The employment of an uneven number of unskilled labors by the garment factories results in low productivity and comparatively more expensive apparels. Bangladesh labor productivity is known to be lower when it compared with of Sri Lanka, South Korea and Hong Kong. Bangladesh must look for ways to improve the productivity of its labor force if it wants to compete regionally if not globally. Because of cheap labor if our country makes the labor productivity in the apex position, then we think the future of this sector is highly optimistic.
Supportive Government Policy
In contrast to the public sector-led import-substituting industrialization strategy pursued during the first few years after independence, the industrialization philosophy of the government changed rather dramatically from the late 1970s when the emphasis was on export-oriented growth to be spearheaded by the private sector. Towards this end, various policy reforms were implemented in the 1980s and 1990s. Some of these reformed policies contributed considerably to the growth of the RMG industry in Bangladesh.
During the 1980s, a number of incentives were introduced to encourage export activities. Some of them were new like the Bonded Warehouse Facility (BWF), while others like the Export Performance License (XPL) Scheme 37 were already in operation and were improved upon. Also, rebates were given on import duties and indirect taxes, there were tax reductions on export income, and export financing was arranged. Under the XPL scheme, exporters of non-traditional products received import licenses for specific products over and above their normal percentage allotment based on the f.o.b. value of their exports. Under the Duty Drawback System, exporters of manufactured goods were entitled to get refund of duties and taxes paid on imported inputs used in export production, and also all excise duties paid on exported finished goods. For certain fast-moving items such as RMG, a notional system of duty payments was adopted in 1982-83. Under this system, exporters were exempted from paying duties and taxes on imports used in export production at the time of importation, but were required to keep records of raw and 21packaging materials imported. The duties and taxes payable on the imports were kept in a suspense account. Liabilities to pay the amounts in suspense were removed on proof of exports.
The discussion in this section clearly points to the positive contribution made by policy reforms to the growth of the RMG industry in Bangladesh. In particular, two policies– the SBW facility and the back-to-back L/C system- led to significant reduction in cost of producing garments and enhanced competitiveness of Bangladesh’s garments exports. It also allowed garment manufacturers to earn more profit which, when necessary, could be used to overcome difficulties arising from weak governance. Furthermore, poor governance, reflected in the leakage of duty-free imported fabrics in the domestic market, paradoxically enough also helped the garment manufacturers to earn extra ‘profit’ and thereby enabled them to absorb the ‘high cost of doing businesses – a fall out of bad governance.
Limitations of the Report
Since our study is based on both primary and secondary data, there is a possibility of getting fake information. If the surveyed personnel provide us with any fabricated information about their opinion of their organization, then the report findings may be erroneous. Above all, this study is weak in some points.
The notable ones are as under:
•The survey was conducted in a very short time so we were not able to collect more
•The questionnaire contains some questions that, if answered properly, might
damage the company’s image. In this type of questions, the respondents might
provide socially acceptable answers. This risk was unavoidable.
•Another limitation of this study is the person’s private information were not
disclosing some, data and information for obvious reasons, which could be very
•Lack of experience in this field.
The Ready-Made Garments (RMG) industry occupies a unique position in the Bangladesh economy. It is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh, which experienced phenomenal growth during the last 25 years. By taking advantage of an insulated market under the provision of Multi Fiber Agreement (MFA) of GATT, it attained a high profile in terms of foreign exchange earnings, exports, industrialization and contribution to GDP within a short span of time. The industry plays a key role in employment generation and in the provision of income to the poor. To remain competitive in the post-MFA phase, Bangladesh needs to remove all the structural impediments in the transportation facilities, telecommunication network, and power supply, management of seaport, utility services and in the law and order situation. The government and the RMG sector would have to jointly work together to maintain competitiveness in the global RMG market. Given the remarkable entrepreneurial initiatives and the dedication of its workforce, Bangladesh can look forward to advancing its share of the global RMG market.
There are so many differences between theoretical works and actual practices. Theoretically sometimes many assumptions are taken and many things take as constant But in actual practices it is difference. There nothing is constant and no assumption is taken. In this study there are some limitations. Operator rating data was not available so in this paper it is taking as standard (100%). Stopwatch using may have some error. So the result of organized efficiency which is obtained in this paper theoretically it is not 100% true for practical efficiency level. Again all the data using this paper is for a particular type of product only. When the product types will change then the result may change.
Firstly working method is developed. After developing the working method workers motion is analyzed. Considering the workers motion ergonomics line layout is designed. It is seen that the existing layout has some disadvantages which can be easily removed by redesigning the line layout. New design of line layout is ergonomic, user friendly, cost effectively. So it can be said that for all garments factory either it is knit garments or woven garments center table system layout is feasible. After that line bottleneck is found that try to make efficient it. But in actual practice all bottleneck process cannot be made efficient even it is not feasible because there is a chance to decline the organization efficiency. For this organization efficiency cannot be made up to 100% but it can be improved as far as possible.
As the focus of the value stream includes the complete value adding (and non-value adding) process, from conception of requirement back through to raw material source and back again to the consumer’s receipt of product, there is a clear need to extend this internal waste removal to the complete supply chain. However, there are difficulties in doing this. These include lack of visibility along the value stream and lack of the tools appropriate to creating this visibility. This paper aims to help researchers and practitioners remedy such deficiencies from a Japanese perspective. As a result some translation of the general terminology will be required to adapt it to a particular part of the value stream and to particular industries in non-Japanese settings. Consequently, a contingency approach is required to some extent.
RECOMMENDATION FOR THE COMPANY
The production planning should be made on the basis of realistic data Take necessary actions to meet the planning schedule.
• Make everything available before starting the production.
• Fabric faults should be avoided as far as possible.
• Utilization of fabric on the marker should be improved.
• Cutting system should be improved. More emphasis on quality inspection after cutting should be given.
• Balance the line as far as possible.
• The allowance rate should be decreased.
• All the supervisors should be aware of their responsibility. They should accelerate the production by motivating the workers.
• An effective training program should be started as early as possible.
• An Sensitive scheme for the worker should be introduced.
• Always consider the quality first.
• No working on holiday should be inspired.
• Maintain a completely disciplined environment all over the organization.
1. James B. Dilworth, “Product on and Operation Management,” Fifth Edition, 1993.
2. Hamid Noori, and Russell Radford, “Production And Operation Management,” International Edition, 1995.
3. Schroeder Roger (3., “Operations Management -Decision Making in the Operation Function,” 4 edition, 305-315, ISBN 0-07-112842-5
4. Hand Books for Training Program on Garments Production Management, Conducted by WE Dept. of BUET.
5. Richard B. Chase, and Nicholas J. Aquiline, “Production & Operations Management” 6 edition. 6 edition, 454-466, ISBN 0-256-128
6. Hicks, P.E., and Cowan, T.E., “CRAFT-M for Layout Arrangement,” Industrial Engineering, 8, 30-35, 1976.
7. Rosenblatt, M. J., “The Dynamics of Plant Layout,” Management Science, 32, 76-
8. Montreuil, B. and Venkatadri, U., “Strategic Interpolative Design of Dynamic Manufacturing.”
9. Bal Krishnan, I., and Cheng, C.H., “Dynamic Layout Algorithms: A State of the Art Survey,” Omega, 26, 4, 507-521, 1998.
10. Multiple Period Layout Planning for Manufacturing Systems,” European Journal of Operational Research, 63, 287-303, 1992.
11. Palekar, U.S., Batta, R., Bosch, R.M., and Elhence, S., “Modeling Uncertainties in Plant Layout Problems,” European Journal of Operational Research, 63, 347-359, 1992.
12. Drolet, J. R., “Scheduling Virtual Cellular Manufacturing Systems,” Ph.D. Thesis, School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1989.
13. Kochhar, J.S. and S.S. Heragu, “Facility Layout Design in a Changing Environment,” International Journal of Production Research, 37, 2429-2446, 1999.
- Behavior of Customer in case of Purchasing Refrigerator
- Customer satisfaction in Public Sector and Private Sector Banks
- C-TPAT Valuation Process Guidelines
- Evaluating Performance of GrameenPhone as the Leading Cellular Company in Bangladesh
- Interaction and Interpersonal Relationship of Pharmaceutical Representatives
- Common Customer Complaints