Disease as a Cause of Mortality in Poultry
The low productivity in traditional systems is mainly due to high mortality, which is caused by mismanagement, diseases, lack of nutritional feeding and predators. In traditional systems the mortality has been estimated to be in the range of 80 – 90% within the first year after hatching (Permin and Hansen, 1998). In most family poultry flocks, disease is an important problem. Diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention of diseases are of major importance to any attempts at increasing productivity. In commercial production systems chickens are therefore routinely vaccinated against major diseases such as Newcastle Disease, Mareks Disease, Infectious bronchitis, Avian Influenza and others, depending on the specific situations and recommendations in each country.
|However, it must also be stressed that disease may not be the highest cause of mortality. A study found that in parts if India predation may be a more important cause of mortality than disease. In such situations, it may be more important to first tackle the problem of predation than spend too many resources on disease prevention. Once predation pressures are reduced, then disease prevention will be more important.|
Another cause of reduced productivity is the quality of hatching eggs, which may result in only small numbers of eggs hatching. The same research project in India (research project R7633) found that productivity was increased by introduction of simple techniques such as candling.
Predators may be the dominant cause of mortality in poultry
9.3.1 Important Diseases of Poultry
Poultry diseases can be divided into five groups, namely those caused by bacteria, by viruses, by fungal infections, by parasites, and those resulting from nutritional deficiency. To this list should also be added problems caused by or made worse as result of, poor housing and management and by stress.( The tables below are adapted from Permin and Bisgaard (1999), who summarised those diseases that were most likely to cause problems under free range or village (scavenging) conditions)
15.3.1 Bacterial Diseases
Important bacterial diseases in free range poultry and the
age group where the disease is most often observed
|Escherichia coli||All ages, but mainly chicks|
|Salmonella spp.||All ages, but mainly chicks|
|Salmonella pullorum||Chicks < 3 weeks|
|Salmonella gallinarum||Growers, adults|
|Pasteurella multocida||Growers, adults|
|Haemophilus paragallinarum (Coryza)||Growers, adults|
|Clostridium perfringens||All ages, but mainly growers|
|Mycoplasma gallisepticum||All ages|
|Mycoplasma synoviae||All ages|
Important viral diseases in free range poultry
and the age group where the disease is most often observed
|Marek’s disease *||> 6 weeks|
|Newcastle disease||Mainly growers and adults|
|Fowl Pox||All ages|
|Infectious Laryngotracheitis||Growers, adults|
|Infectious Bursal Disease *|
|< 8 weeks|
|Avian Flu||All ages|
Important fungal diseases in free range poultry
and the age group where the disease is most often observed
|Mycotoxicoses, including:||All ages|
(including Protozoan Diseases)
Important parasitic diseases in free range poultry
and the age group where the disease is most often observed
|Coccidiosis||Chicks, growers, (adults)|
9.4 Economic affect of Disease:
|Bird flu||100%||Total loss|
|New castle||30%- 80%||Cost of Mortality, vaccination, anti-bacterial medicine. Reduction in egg production|
|Gamboro/IBD||10%-50%||Cost of Mortality, vaccination, anti-bacterial medicine|
|Salmonella||5%-10%||Reduction in egg production, continuous mortality|
|Coccidiosis||5%-10%||Hamper growth, Bad F.C.R, cost of Medicine|
|Mycoplasma (cold)||No or low mortality||Hamper growth, reduce egg production, huge cost of medicine|
|Marek’s disease||More than 50%||Loss of mortality, huge reduction in egg production|
|Most other diseases||Less mortality||Hamper egg production and growth. Incur handsome medicine cost.|
9.5 Management-related Problems
Important management related problems in free range poultry include:
Birds that are fed an adequate diet made up from a good commercial feed are unlikely to suffer from nutritional problems unless there are additional factors involved, such as diseases that result in diarrhoea or otherwise interfering with the digestive system.
Village, backyard or scavenging poultry on the other hand are subject to the availability of food in their normal environment, which may or may not be deficient in vitamins, minerals or other important dietary component. Using good quality ready feed can reduce nutritional problems. By purchasing cheap feed farmer provide mal-nutrition to the chicken and loss production.
Any form of stress may result in a disease outbreak, or diseases in individual birds, as a result of a disease causing organism that is not normally a problem. Any disease will also result in stress, and may therefore increase the potential for other diseases. Stress may result in the immune system not being able to cope with the disease challenge. Common forms of stress in commercial poultry systems include:
|Heat stress (any extremities in temperature, both hot and cold).|
|Overcrowding, perhaps due to poorly designed housing or inadequate facilities. Fighting for space at a feeder or drinker will result in injury, and in reduced growth or productivity. Overcrowding increases the exposure of disease causing organisms and often increases the opportunity for the growth and spread of these organisms.|
|Moving, e.g. from a hatchery to farm or from one building to another.|
|Vaccination. Negative reactions from some vaccines may occur up to 10 days after inoculation.|
|Temporary or longer term, shortages in feed or water.|
|Changes in feeds or feeding methods, or changes to a daily routine.|
|Poor nutrition. Inadequate diets may result in deficiency diseases and general lowering of resistance to infection.|
|Parasites (both external and internal). They weaken the bird and provide additional opportunities for the introduction of other disease causing organisms.|
|Physical disturbances such as excessive noise or other unnecessary activity.|
A condition caused by high temperatures, especially associated with high humidity and low air speed. Symptoms include: Panting, legs and wings outstretched, increased thirst, reduced feed consumption, and reduced egg production.
Birds regulate their body temperature by controlling heat loss through their skin and feather cover, and through evaporation by panting. A mature chicken starts panting when temperatures reach about 29 or 30°C, with chicks being affected at higher temperatures. Panting causes a chicken to exhale large quantities of carbon dioxide and this increases the pH of the blood. This causes physiological changes that result in stress, and chickens may stop eating, lay fewer and smaller eggs (with thinner shells). Young birds may stop growing.
Increased air circulation in poultry housing is important, and the provision of adequate shade from the sun is vital. Provide extra water supplies, and make sure that the water is clean.
Cold may also be a serious problem, particularly for chickens.
Poorly designed poultry houses
Even freely ranging, scavenging poultry require safe secure roosting areas, and nesting areas, as well as suitable shelter from the elements. More intensive production systems require all this, with greater attention given to the precise requirements of the birds.
Cannibalism and feather picking
Cannibalism is a problem that is particularly associated with large poultry flocks where birds kept in close confinement peck at each other. This can produce significant mortality in the flock when injury results. It will also cause a decrease in egg production as the hen-pecked birds become stressed.
Some chickens are more likely to engage in cannibalism than others. The problem has a range of causes, which are summarized by Damerow (1994), and include:
Injuries, when left untreated, are likely to result in infections. Injuries to the birds therefore need to be avoided, and good management practices coupled with well designed housing is an important preventative measure. Overcrowding will commonly lead to aggression between birds – with a high probability of injuries to one or both birds. Similarly, a lack of space at feeders and drinkers will also lead to aggression and injury.
Overcrowding will also lead to stress, and stress can lead poultry to “pick” at one another – eventually resulting in cannibalism (see above).
Free range, scavenging and backyard poultry are much less likely to suffer from problems of overcrowding than intensively reared broilers or layers. However, poultry housing still needs to be constructed to to provide a good environment for the birds – both while roosting at night and when nesting and egg laying. Poorly constructed housing may result in stress and injury.
Poisoning should not be a problem with chickens, but common sense needs to be used in keeping the birds away from pesticides, herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, and also from treated seed intended for planting. Other than accidental poisoning with such chemicals, the most likely cause of poisoning is probably from mycotoxins produced by fungi or moulds growing in feed.
Rodents are attracted to poultry houses by the availability of feed, in feeders or spilled on the ground, as well as by the availability of water and by protection and shelter. Rodents can spread diseases, for example through droppings left in feed troughs. Rodents can be a particular problem where there is a raised floor that provides a dark and protected space offering nesting sites. Quite apart from the risk of disease, a rodent problem represents a financial loss through wasted feed.
Chickens are natural predators and will catch and eat smaller mice, but the more agile species and the larger species (e.g. rats) are not controlled by chickens and where there are problems, rodent control measures will be required.
Consumer Survey: This paper surveyed on about one hundred people and has taken much information from the customers who buy eggs and meat for their family. The given findings are discussed bellow by question gradually.
Producers Survey: Family poultry keeping is very popular in our country. About 90% households have domestic poultry (i.e. chickens, ducks, pigeons, etc.). The number of commercial poultry producers is increasing day by day in Bangladesh. The given findings are discussed bellow by question gradually.
10.1 Feed price (Raw materials)
10.2 Chick’s price
11. RECOMMENDATION AND SUGGESTIONS
Poultry industry is rising but not a satisfactory way. There are many problems exist in the industry. We have to solve all of the problems to raise the sector which contributes a lot to our GDP. In this study, it is tried to find out the problems face farmers and give the possible suggestion of the problems.
In poultry industry of Bangladesh faces the great problem of avian flu now. If we fail to get relive from the avail flu then that may destroy the whole industry. We have to save the poultry farms from avian flu as well as protect the industry from further affect of avian flu. It is a dangerous threat for the poultry industry of the whole world. The proper authority should take proper action to protect it and the consumer will be well informed about the disease. Already Bangladesh government refused all type of import from the foreign country.
The unethical alliance of dealers, distributors and hatchery owners make the poultry farmer affected by the profit. The alliance makes the high initial cost of production. And about 15% to 20 % reduced price is provided for the farmer. The affect can be shown bellow. There are few hatcheries in our country. They are only effort able to produce quality day older chicken and quality food. But they charge a lot for the day older chickens. Very often it is needed to order in advance before one year from the time to deliver the day old chicken with full payment. Other then some additional conditions are added to the selling offer of day older chicken. Feed would be purchased from the hatchery owner. The hatchery owners take 20 to 25 tk for a day older broiler chicken and 30 to 35 tk for a layer chicken. This is really a huge amount. For that reason the marginal poultry farmers often fail to get profit accordingly. In the same way the distributors and regional intermediaries such wholesalers and retailers make unauthorized alliance to increase price by creating presser to the small poultry farmers and making artificial crisis. About 50% of selling price is taken by both hatchery owner and intermediaries. The marginal farmers get comparatively less profit by recovering the production costs of broiler chicken or eggs. So this unauthorized alliance affect badly in the poultry products market. The local administration can break the alliance to save the root level farmers. And price of the day older chickens should be determined by the public rules.
Exhibit: Syndicate of Hatchery Owners and Intermediaries
Despite having tremendous potentials, country’s poultry industry has hardly flourished yet as a lucrative sector due to lack of institutional loan facility under easy conditions. Due to collateral provision for getting institutional loans the growth of the sector is thwarted. Though there is a provision to provide bank loan at 10 per cent interest through four nationalized commercialized banks to 14 thrust industries including poultry, the farm owners are not enjoying the facility. The amount of loan is insufficient and interest rate in high. At the same time, conditions of getting loan are not good enough. The farmers who have small farm can easily broaden the farm by receiving loan. The existing farm owner should be given loan in easy condition. Because, these farmers have skills and experiences for continuing new poultry farms.
Industry owners are deprived of getting fair price of eggs as a vested quarter is manipulating the prices. Price of inputs of poultry industry has increased but poultry prices have not raised compared to expenditure. The grass root level farmers get less profit for this reason. The farmer should provide the opportunity to recover the cost.
Bird flu rumor creates a big problem in the price setting. Such rumor should be control by the government and the media should play a significant role to clear the misconception about the threat.
Production cost of egg is higher as 80 per cent of the poultry feed have to be imported from abroad but the egg price have been fluctuating between Tk 13 and Tk 16 over the last five years leading to cost-benefit mismatch. The majority of farms were established in 1995 and the average age of commercial farms was found to be more than six years. Establishment cost of broiler farms was lower compared to layer farms. And the early months of 2007 the price has been decrease for the danger of bird flu. For the cause of price fluctuation the farmers cannot estimate the profit and costs before. So there may some chance of loss. Government can reduce the price fluctuation crisis by fixing the price of feedings and medicines required for poultry.
The farmers have a tendency to purchase chicks when the market price of big broiler price is very high. As almost all the farmer think alike they create an excessive demand for the DOC and increase the price. This nature of business should be changed. The farmer should see the business as a all the year round business. Without targeting for profit in single batch, they should consider a collect profit of all the batch of the year. With this strategy farmer will help the company to predict the demand and stabilize the price and demand.
Both broiler and layer are very much disease sensitive. The farmer needs to protect the chickens from any types of germ. If one of the chickens of the farm falls in disease the other chicken may be affected. We need modern disease diagnosis laboratory. We saw in the time of Avian Flu diagnosis, we needed to go abroad to find out the germ. It took a lot of time. Government can take initiative to build up several modern diagnosis laboratories. There are 12 private laboratories in our country but not well capable to diagnosis the actual problem. In prevention of bird flu government, private sector & NGOs are taking very fruitful steps. It is very much sound to get avian flu out from Bangladesh
C P provides technical support for it customers with D.V.M. It organizes various seminars on the recent important topics to alert the farmer. It also trains its dealers with technical knowledge so that they can help their customer as they have the direct contact the farmer. It provides news letters to alert it customers ahead of seasonal problems.
11.7 Policy and Regulatory Issues
There is no abstract policy on poultry industry. But for the farmers and intermediaries should follow a single regulatory policy to give uncertainty away from the market. Tax policy should be liberal like ready made garment industry. Then we can expect a nice industry which will export poultry product in the foreign country.
The farms run by the scientific way produce high quality and quantity of broilers and eggs. But many of the farms rarely follow the actual rule of farming. Want of developed day old chickens damage to produce the quality broilers and layers. So the chickens of low productivity require high cost as well as low profit. We should take action for the cause of increasing productivity. First-rate day old chicken is obvious for ensuring the high productivity at first. Another think is the lack of database on production. In Bangladesh there is no statistics for poultry production. For that reason it is quite difficult to estimate the demand of poultry product (eggs or meat) in Bangladesh. The hatchery owners also fall in predicament to produce feeds and day older chickens. Immediately we need to occupy a full database system to collect each type of information related to poultry industry.
The backward and forward linkage of poultry industry is not very much supporting of the poultry industry. The infrastructure of poultry consists of roads and transportation system, electricity, communication system, sufficient training facilities, adequate diagnosis facilities, availability of poultry production equipment (feedings, water tanks, vaccination, medicine, lighting materials etc.) and we can say loan facility is another very much important things of poultry infrastructure. These are not available in our country side. The towns and cities are able to get about all the facilities but in the village there are few facilities of those. To increase the poultry production from the village we have to ensure proper roads and vehicles to transport eggs and broilers in the place where the proper demand exists. Electricity supply is very much essential for poultry production. The communication becomes improved for greater telecommuting system but the exact information should be supplied. And training is the most vital things for poultry production. There are many efforts are seen in our country but more scientific method of training is essential. At the same way diagnosis facilities and loan are essential.
Many intermediaries are involved in the poultry marketing channel. For this reason the price of eggs and meat become higher. We should take initiative to eliminate the unnecessary middlemen from the poultry marketing channel. It can help to low the price as well as ensure the equilibrium situation of demand and supply. The existing channel members are hatchery owner, day old chicken’s distributors, feeding’s suppliers, actual farmers, wholesalers, distributors, and retailers. We have to try to reduce the number of channel members as far as possible to create a balanced market.
To build up a prosperous poultry industry in Bangladesh we need to develop bio-security and disease prevention system. The vigorous poultry industry should be secure from disease and capacity to adopt with the Bangladeshi environment. Some developed class of chicken should be grown in state of unproductive class. The feedings are producing in very horrific way. It would be very harmful to public health if animal waste was widely used as raw material for poultry feed without being treated by the proper technology. But the allegations continue to be made by various sources have been going on for several years. Tannery waste, along with dried fish dust and bone, is used to feed young broiler and layer chickens. The problem stems primarily from the fact that poultry feed producers are not always using the scientific methods and not going by the health and hygiene standards. In the given picture we see the women are preparing poultry feeds by using tannery waste. Poultry is a fast growing sector which contributes significantly to the economy. So the proper authority should take action against the unhygienic way of feed production.
The imported medicine, vaccination, and other technological knowledge are very essential for poultry. The machine of dressed chicken used to cut into the chicken in different peaces. Another things is important also exporting the poultry product specially meat in the foreign countries. Government will take initiative to make a sound exporting policy for the betterment of poultry product exporting. There is a great matter that we need not import any poultry feedings from abroad. Now we may export feedings in our out side countries. Bangladesh imports 3.5 to 4.0 million pieces of one-day-old broiler-breeder chickens from France, UK, Malaysia, Denmark and the Netherlands spending huge foreign currency. Soon we should get self-sufficiency to produce one-day old broiler-breeder chickens.
C P Bangladesh Co, LTD has started its business with a very limited resource but with lots of experience. By 2008 it has establish 4 feed mills and 3 hatchery targeting poultry industry. It has the vision to be the leader of agro-business of Bangladesh. If the bird flu may have not attacked it would invest a lot more in the industry. But C P still believes that there is a great opportunity in the poultry in Bangladesh as there is demand for poultry product and Bangladesh’s economy is growing confidently.