What Is Corporate Policy, Strategy
Business success or failure is largely dependent on how the various functional areas in management are combined to produce and deliver value to different stakeholders. This integration of functions is taking place in a continuously changing and complex environment. The Corporate Strategy & Policy Area (CSP) deals with issues related to the formulation and implementation of management and change strategies as organizations strive to remain successful and grow in an increasingly complex, competitive and globalised world. It is therefore interdisciplinary by nature and requires an understanding of all functional areas..
Members of the Area offer a number of core and elective courses for the PGP, PGSM and FPM programmes of the institute. They are also actively involved in guiding various student projects. The Area offers specialization in the area of Corporate Strategy for the doctoral level FPM programme of the Institute. Other Area activities include case writing by faculty members, sponsored research and consulting. Themes of current business and research interests form the basis for a number of Executive Education Programmes that the Area members offer directly or in collaboration with faculty members from other Areas. Area members are on the Boards of several companies and also serve on national Committees dealing with strategic and policy issues.
To assist the Union and its membership, in close collaboration with the Sectors of the Union, with the anticipation and analysis of the challenges facing the telecommunication and ICT environment and their strategic implications.
To assess emerging trends in the industry and in ICT evolution, providing advice on broad corporate strategy and identifying key strategic objectives.
To facilitate the internal coordination of the activities of the Sectors of the Union relevant to the achievement of ITU’s Strategic Goals and to support the implementation by the Sectors of work programmes in line with those Goals.
To coordinate the development and facilitate the implementation of an ITU Corporate Strategic Planning and evaluation framework. In particular working closely with the Sectors in establishing key performance indicators related to the achievement of ITU’s Strategic Goals within its mandate, assessing progress towards these Goals and preparing an annual Strategic Plan Progress report on the implementation of the Strategic Plan.
Vision, Mission & Objectives.
To be a world class corporate systems for the management of the university’s databases and the corporate culture.
To institute and maintain a world-class corporate system and culture through efficient management of information on public relations, publications and internationalisation.
- To be the focal point for the university’s databases – its storage, retrieval and dissemination.
- To produce university publications of international standards.
- To promote and enhance the university’s image nationally as well as internationally through rigorous and well-planned event management.
To facilitate the internationalisation of the university, through smart academic and research partnerships and collaborative activities with international organisations and industries.
Management Styles & Approaches.
There are many different styles of management which you can use to direct and inspire your staff members. The traditional authoritarian style of management is being replaced by innovative new styles. We shall discuss the advantages of these new styles, such as their ability to boost productivity and maximize profits..
The Controling styles
The Controlling Style, often referred to as the Authoritarian Style of Management, is utilized to enforce rules, instill fear, meet deadlines and demand results from employees.
The supporting styles
A manager using this style of leadership will be an understanding leader. He will listen to employee concerns and help them deal with their problems, whenever possible.
The leadership styles
During the restructuring of organizations, middle management is either being eliminated or replaced. Many companies are implementing a team oriented style of management, which places more authority and responsibility in the hands of the employees. Managers are transforming into leaders, enabling them to properly guide these emerging teams.
Modifications can be made to the leadership style to accommodate one of the four stages in an employee’s development. A leader will choose one of the following approaches, based upon the comprehension and ability level of the employees.
1. Experienced employees who require only a delegation style of leadership
These employees have the ability and experience to perform their job requirements adequately, with little or no supervision.
2. Employees who have the ability to complete the task but still need leadership support
In contrast to delegation, these employees have demonstrated the ability to complete required tasks, but lack the confidence to perform sufficiently, 100% of the time. It is important for leaders to support the initiatives of these employees until they gain the confidence to work adequately with little supervision.
3. Employees who are still learning, need to be coached by a leader
These employees are in the learning stages of their job. Even though they have been taught how to perform their tasks, they still need support to carry out and complete required tasks.
4. New employees who need to be directed by a leader
New employees will require training, direction and full leadership. The leader must thoroughly explain each task, along with the process needed to complete each required task. To ensure your employees have a full understanding of their tasks, you should take them through the entire learning process several times.
What is the ‘primary aim’ of your company?
Your employees may be more motivated if they understand the primary aim of your business. Ask questions to establish how clear they are about your company’s principles, priorities and mission.
What obstacles stop employees performing to best effect?
Questionnaires on employee motivation should include questions about what employees are tolerating in their work and home lives. The company can eliminate practices that zap motivation.
What really motivates your staff?
It is often assumed that all people are motivated by the same things. Actually we are motivated by a whole range of factors. Include questions to elicit what really motivates employees, including learning about their values. Are they motivated by financial rewards, status, praise and acknowledgment, competition, job security, public recognition, fear, perfectionism, results…
Do employees feel empowered?
Do your employees feel they have job descriptions that give them some autonomy and allow them to find their own solutions or are they given a list of tasks to perform and simply told what to do?
Are there any recent changes in the company that might have affected motivation?
If your company has made redundancies, imposed a recruitment freeze or lost a number of key people this will have an effect on motivation. Collect information from employees about their fears, thoughts and concerns relating to these events. Even if they are unfounded, treat them with respect and honesty.
What are the patterns of motivation in your company?
Who is most motivated and why? What lessons can you learn from patches of high and low motivation in your company?
Are employee goals and company goals aligned?
First, the company needs to establish how it wants individuals to spend their time based on what is most valuable. Secondly this needs to be compared with how individuals actually spend their time. You may find employees are highly motivated but about the “wrong” priorities.
How do employees feel about the company?
Do they feel safe, loyal, valued and taken care of? Or do they feel taken advantage of, dispensable and invisible? Ask them what would improve their loyalty and commitment.
How involved are employees in company development?
Do they feel listened to and heard? Are they consulted? And, if they are consulted, are their opinions taken seriously? Are there regular opportunities for them to give feedback?
Is the company’s internal image consistent with its external one?
Your company may present itself to the world as the ‘caring airline’, ‘the forward thinking technology company’ or the ‘family hotel chain’. Your employees would have been influenced, and their expectations set, to this image when they joined your company. If you do not mirror this image within your company in the way you treat employees you may notice motivation problems. Find out what the disparity is between the employees image of the company from the outside and from the inside.
SOP In Different Departments.
An important aspect of a quality system is to work according to unambiguous Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). In fact the whole process from sampling to the filing of the analytical result should be described by a continuous series of SOPs. A SOP for a laboratory can be defined as follows:
“A Standard Operating Procedure is a document which describes the regularly recurring operations relevant to the quality of the investigation. The purpose of a SOP is to carry out the operations correctly and always in the same manner. A SOP should be available at the place where the work is done”.
Initiating a SOP
As implied above, the initiative and further procedure for the preparation, implementation and management of the documents is a procedure in itself which should be described. These SOPs should at least mention:
a. who can or should make which type of SOP;
b. to whom proposals for a SOP should be submitted, and who adjudges the draft;
c. the procedure of approval;
d. who decides on the date of implementation, and who should be informed;
e. how revisions can be made or how a SOP can be withdrawn.
Preparation of SOPs
The make-up of the documents should meet a minimum number of requirements:
1. Each page should have a heading and/or footing mentioning:
a. date of approval and/or version number;
b. a unique title (abbreviated if desired);
c. the number of the SOP (preferably with category);
d. page number and total number of pages of the SOP.
e. the heading (or only the logo) of originals should preferably be printed in another colour than black.
Administration, Distribution, Implementation
A model for a simple preparation and distribution scheme is given in Figure 2-1. This is a relation matrix which can not only be used for the laboratory but for any department or a whole institute. In this matrix (which can be given the status of a SOP) can be indicated all persons or departments that are involved with the subject as well as the kind of their involvement. This can be indicated in the scheme with an involvement code. Some of the most usual involvements are (the number can be used as the code):
1. Taking initiative for drafting
2. Drafting the document
6. Copy for information
7. Checking implementation
Unless recorded automatically, raw data and readings of measurements are most conveniently written down on worksheets that can be prepared for each analytical method or procedure, including calibration of equipment.
Relativization as encouragement
In the Preface it was stated that documentation should not be overdone and that for the implementation of all new Quality Management rules the philosophy of a step-by-step approach should be adopted. It is emphasized that protocols and SOPs, as well as the administration involved, should be kept as simple as possible, particularly in the beginning.
Human Resource Management Manual.
In this manual,
1. “appointment”, as in the Regulations, means –
the conferment of an office of emolument in the public service, whether or not subject to subsequent confirmation, upon a person not in the public service;
the grant of permanent and pensionable terms of service in a public office to a person recruited and serving on contract terms of service or in an unestablished capacity in a pensionable or non-pensionable public office;
the engagement in a public office of a person on contract terms of service for a further period of service on the conclusion of his previous period of engagement on contract terms in the same or other public office;
the permanent transfer to an office in the public service of a member of the civil service of another country who is serving on emporary transfer in an office in the public service;
the transfer of an officer serving in one public office to another office in the public service carrying the same salary or salary scale;
the appointment of a public officer to act in any public office other than the office to which he is substantively appointed.
2. “approved service”, as in the Pensions Act, means service with any international organisation or corporate body approved by the President. A list of Approved Services as at January 2011 is at Appendix 1A
3. “classified document” means a document graded as secret, confidential, restricted or personal.
4. “disciplined force”, as in the Constitution, means –
a naval, military or air force;
the Police Force;
a fire service established by any law in force in Mauritius; or
the Mauritius Prisons Service. 3
5. “Disciplined Forces Service Commission” means the Commission established under section 90 of the Constitution.
6. “General Services” means any cadre/grade referred to in Appendix 1B.
7. “Judicial and Legal Service Commission” means the Commission established under section 85 of the Constitution.
8. “night work” means work which is performed for a period of not less than seven consecutive hours and which includes the interval from midnight to 5 a.m.
9. “officer” means a public officer.
10. “officer operating on a roster basis” means an officer who does not work on a 24-hour basis but is expected to work, not in relays, but according to a plan showing the commencing times and finishing times of turns of duty which may include night duty or not.
General Management Training Manual Or Workers Training Manual.
Nature of the Industry
Automobile dealers are the link between the manufacturer of the automobile and the U.S. consumer. With their large inventories of cars, dealers provide consumers with a wide array of vehicles to meet their needs at different price points.
In an effort to achieve greater financial and operational efficiency and flexibility, greater emphasis is being placed on aftermarket services, such as financing and vehicle maintenance and repair, at both new and used car dealers. These services typically provide large profit margins for dealers, and remain less susceptible to economic downturns. They are also part of an effort to enhance customer loyalty and overall customer service.
Hours. Employees with automobile dealers work longer hours than do those in most other industries. Eighty-three percent of automobile dealer employees worked full time in 2008, and 35 percent worked more than 40 hours a week. To satisfy customer service needs, many dealers provide evening and weekend service. The 5-day, 40-hour week is the exception, rather than the rule, in this industry.
Automobile dealers provided about 1.2 million wage and salary jobs in 2008. The vast majority of employment was in new car dealerships.
For many years, the trend for new car dealers has been toward consolidation. Franchised dealers have decreased in number, while their sales volume has increased. Larger dealers can offer more services, typically at lower costs to themselves and the customer.
Occupations in the Industry
Installation, maintenance, and repair-related occupations. Workers in automotive maintenance and repair are another integral part of automobile dealers, constituting 25 percent of industry employment. Automotive service technicians and mechanics service, diagnose, adjust, and repair automobiles such as cars, vans, pickups, and SUVs. These workers are the largest repair occupation at 18 percent of industry employment. Closely related to service technicians, automotive body and related repairers repair and finish vehicle bodies, straighten bent body parts, remove dents, and replace crumpled parts that are beyond repair.
|Table 1. Employment of wage and salary workers in automobile dealers, 2008 and projected change, 2008-2018. (Employment in thousands)|
|Occupation||Employment, 2008||Percent Change,|
|Management, business, and financial occupations||88.8||7.5||-8.1|
|General and operations managers||21.8||1.8||-15.6|
|Sales and related occupations||437.9||36.9||-3.5|
|First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers||45.4||3.8||-5.3|
|Cashiers, except gaming||21.2||1.8||-6.2|
|Counter and rental clerks||30.5||2.6||-10.3|
|Office and administrative support occupations||182.7||15.4||-9.4|
|First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers||12.6||1.1||-5.4|
|Switchboard operators, including answering service||12.7||1.1||-24.3|
|Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks||29.0||2.4||-5.3|
|Customer service representatives||15.9||1.3||4.2|
|Receptionists and information clerks||15.4||1.3||-5.3|
|Secretaries and administrative assistants||15.8||1.3||-12.6|
|Office clerks, general||35.2||3.0||-5.3|
|Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations||300.8||25.4||-6.1|
|First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers||30.8||2.6||-6.2|
|Automotive body and related repairers||30.8||2.6||-11.9|
|Automotive service technicians and mechanics||210.3||17.7||-5.3|
|Helpers–Installation, maintenance, and repair workers||14.9||1.3||-6.2|
|Transportation and material moving occupations||153.7||13.0||-5.1|
|Truck drivers, light or delivery services||16.5||1.4||-5.3|
|Taxi drivers and chauffeurs||11.4||1.0||12.6|
|Parking lot attendants||10.1||0.9||-14.8|
|Cleaners of vehicles and equipment||77.8||6.6||-5.3|
Training and Advancement
Sales and related occupations. Sales workers require strong communication and customer service skills to deal with the public. Most new retail salespersons receive extensive on-the-job training, beginning with mentoring from sales managers and experienced sales workers. In large dealers, beginners receive several days of classroom training to learn about vehicle features, methods for approaching prospective customers, negotiation techniques, and ways to close sales. Some manufacturers furnish training manuals and other informational materials to sales workers. Managers continually guide and train sales workers, both on the job and at periodic sales meetings. Successful retail sales persons can become office supervisors, sales managers, or operations managers.
Frustration, Anxiety, & Conflict handling procedure.
Conflict management is a systematic process to find a satisfying outcome between conflicted parties. With conflict management, a team, group and organization function more effectively and achieve goals. individuals develop “win-win” outcomes.
The workplace can create a situation between co-workers, or between an employer and an employee as a result of poor communication.
The process of conflict management involves understanding the nature of the conflict, who is involved and initiating resolution. In the case of conflict between an employer and employee, the employer initiates conflict management by arranging a time to meet with the employee and a human resources consultant or facilitator..
The conflict management style was conflict avoidance leaving the conflicted party to feel slighted. Since the mid-1970s, experts believe that a conflict-free, cooperative organization tends to become stagnant and unresponsive to market change..
System Development Procedure.
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is an agile project delivery framework, primarily used as a software development method. DSDM was originally based upon the Rapid Application Development method. In 2007 DSDM became a generic approach to project management and solution delivery. DSDM is an iterative and incremental approach that embraces principles of Agile development, including continuous user/customer involvement.
There are eight principles underpinning DSDM Atern. These principles direct the team in the attitude they must take and the mindset they must adopt in order to deliver consistently.
1. Focus on the business need
The main criteria for acceptance of a “deliverable” is delivering a system that addresses the current business needs. Delivering a perfect system which addresses all possible business needs is less important than focusing on critical functionalities.
Understand the true business priorities
Establish a sound Business Case
Seek continuous business sponsorship and commitment
Guarantee the Minimum Usable Subset of features.
2. Deliver on time
Timebox the work
Focus on business priorities
Always hit deadlines
User involvement is the main key in running an efficient and effective project, where both users and developers share a workplace (either physical or via tools), so that the decisions can be made collaboratively and quickly.
Involve the right stakeholders, at the right time, throughout the project
Ensure that the members of the team are empowered to take decisions on behalf of those they represent without waiting for higher-level approval.
Actively involve the business representatives
Build a one-team culture
4.Never compromise quality
Set the level of quality at the outset
Ensure that quality does not become a variable
Design, document and test appropriately
Build in quality by constant review
Test early and continuously. See Test-driven development for comparison.
5. Build incrementally from firm foundations
Strive for early delivery of business benefit where possible
Continually confirm the correct solution is being built
Formally re-assess priorities and ongoing project viability with each delivered increment
6. Develop iteratively
A focus on frequent delivery of products, with assumption that to deliver something “good enough” earlier is always better than to deliver everything “perfectly” in the end. By delivering product frequently from an early stage of the project, the product can be tested and reviewed where the test record and review document can be taken into account at the next iteration or phase.
Do enough design up front to create strong foundations
Take an iterative approach to building all products
Build customer feedback into each iteration to converge on an effective business solution
Accept that most detail emerges later rather than sooner
Embrace change – the right solution will not evolve without it
Be creative, experiment, learn, evolve
7. Communicate continuously and clearly
Communication and cooperation among all project stakeholders is required to be efficient and effective.
Run daily team stand-up sessions
Use facilitated workshops
Use rich communication techniques such as modelling and prototyping
Present iterations of the evolving solution early and often
Keep documentation lean and timely
Manage stakeholder expectations throughout the project
Encourage informal, face to face communication at all levels
8. Demonstrate control
Use an appropriate level of formality for tracking and reporting
Make plans and progress visible to all
Measure progress through focus on delivery of products rather than completed activities
Evaluate continuing project viability based on the business objectives
Four stages of the DSDM V4.2 Project life-cycle
Model of the DSDM V4.2 software development process.
- User Approval and Guidelines: End users approve the tested system for implementation and guidelines with respect to the implementation and use of the system are created.
- Train Users: Train future end user in the use of the system.
- Implement: Implement the tested system at the location of the end users.
- Review Business: Review the impact of the implemented system on the business, a central issue will be whether the system meets the goals set at the beginning of the project. Depending on this the project goes to the next phase, the post-project or loops back to one
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) Procedure..
Publication of the guide comes at a time when multilateral organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations and other groups are devoting considerable time and energy to corporate social responsibility and related subjects. The guide builds on each of the following initiatives:
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development developed Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Canada is a signatory to these voluntary principles and standards for responsible business conduct.
The federal government articulated sustainable development responsibilities and committed to meeting them in its operations and through the programs and services it offers. In collaboration with Stratos Inc., the federal government has launched an on-line corporate Sustainability Reporting Toolkit to support and encourage companies to report on their environmental and social performance.
The Office of Consumer Affairs at Industry Canada published two guides for businesses wishing to implement responsible customer practices: Voluntary Codes: A Guide for Their Development and Use and Consumer Complaints Management: A Guide for Canadian Business.
With federal government support, the Conference Board of Canada issued a national corporate social responsibility report in 2004. The Conference Board and Imagine Canada developed the Corporate Responsibility Assessment Tool with support from the federal government.
Environment Canada has brought together an informal group of experts from the industry, banking, investment, academic, non-profit and public sectors to examine, develop, support and communicate the link between environmental performace and financial value and to make the link more relevant to business and financial sector audiences.
It is hoped that Canadian firms interested in implementing a corporate social responsibility approach will use this guide as a starting point. The guide reviews key issues to consider, offers options for addressing them, and refers to many specific tools that will likely be of assistance.
The initiatives or companies mentioned in this guide are not endorsed by any of the above-mentioned individuals, nor the organizations to which they belong, nor the federal government.