Concept of Job Specification
A job specification defines the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are required to perform a job in an organization. It is a document or statement which spells out the minimum levels of qualification, skills, physical and other abilities, experience, judgment and attributes required to perform them efficiently and effectively. It helps in the recruitment and selection process, evaluating the performance of employees and in their appraisal and promotion.
The importance and purpose of job specification are a thoroughly understand the specific details of a job. It is prepared along with job description statement to explain the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform the task effectively. It specifies the physical, psychological, personal, social, and behavioral characteristics of each job-holder.
Purpose of Job Specification
- Described on the basis of the job description, job specification helps candidates analyze whether are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not.
- It helps recruiting the team of an organization to understand what level of qualifications, qualities and set of characteristics should be present in a candidate to make him or her eligible for the job opening.
- Job Specification gives detailed information about any job including job responsibilities, desired technical and physical skills, conversational ability and much more.
- It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.
Job Specification is a statement of the essential components of a job class including a summary of the work to be performed, primary duties and responsibilities, and the minimum qualifications and requirements necessary to perform the essential functions of the job. This statement is an important tool in the selection process because it specifies the individual abilities, skills, and knowledge of performing tasks. It keeps the selector’s attention on the list of qualifications necessary for an incumbent to perform the job. Finally, it allows him/her to determine whether candidates are qualified.
Therefore, a job specification is the listing of minimum levels of qualification, skills, and abilities that an incumbent must possess in order to perform the required task properly. An individual possessing the minimum qualities specified in a job specification statement can perform the job more effectively than individual lacking them.