Introduction: River pollution has become a matter of great concern all over the globe in recent times. Rivers are of great use to us. But it is a matter of regret that our rivers are on the verge of extinction. The greedy land grabbers build up buildings along the bank of rivers which create hindrances in the normal flow of water.
However, we have a fixed amount of water on earth. It just changes its states and goes through a cyclic order, known as the Water Cycle. The water cycle is a natural process that is continuous in nature. It is the pattern in which the water from oceans, seas, lakes, etc gets evaporated and turns to vapor. After which it goes through the process of condensation, and finally precipitation when it falls back to earth as rain or snow.
Causes of Pollution: River or Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, aquifers, and groundwater) usually caused due to human activities. Water pollution is any change, minor or major in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water that eventually leads to a detrimental consequence of any living organism. Drinking water, called Potable Water, is considered safe enough for human and animal consumption.
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in the fields are washed away by rain and flood water to the water of river. Mills and factories use many poisonous chemicals. They throw their used and unsold products into the river water and pollute it. All steamers, launches and engine boats pollute water by throwing oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers. The sewerage lines let into the river also pollute water by carrying wastes into the river water especially in the urban areas.
At present, nuclear tests and dumping of nuclear wastes are causing serious river water pollution. We must realize the value of river and this is our duty to keep it fit for our living.
Effects of Pollution of Water –
The effects of Water Pollution are:
- Diseases: In humans, drinking or consuming polluted water in any way has many disastrous effects on our health. It causes typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and various other diseases.
- Eradication of Ecosystem: Ecosystem is extremely dynamic and responds to even small changes in the environment. Increasing water pollution can cause an entire ecosystem to collapse if left unchecked.
- Eutrophication: Chemicals accumulation and infusion in a water body, encourages the growth of algae. The algae form a layer on top of the pond or lake. Bacteria feed on this algae and this event decreases the amount of oxygen in the water body, severely affecting the aquatic life there
- Effects of the food chain: Turmoil in food chain happens when the aquatic animals (fish, prawns, seahorse, etc) consume the toxins and pollutants in the water, and then the humans consume them.
Prevention: So, we must prevent water pollution at any cost. Industrial wastes must not be disposed of in rivers or lakes. We need to be more careful about disposing of household wastes too. Farmers must be aware of the dangers of using pesticides as they may pollute our rivers, canals, and lakes. It is really very difficult to prevent water pollution, but our awareness is very important. We can purify water by boiling it or by using some medicine. All concerned must be conscious to keep water free from pollution. Govt. should take comprehensive programs to check water pollution. Above all, for a healthier and happier life, massive awareness must be created against water pollution.
Conclusion: Life is ultimately about choices and so is water pollution. We cannot live with sewage-strewn beaches, contaminated rivers, and fish that are poisonous to drink and eat. To avoid these scenarios, we can work together to keep the environment clean so the water bodies, plants, animals, and people who depend on it remain healthy. We can take individual or teamed action to help reduce water pollution. As an example, by using environmentally friendly detergents, not pouring oil down the drains, reducing the usage of pesticides, and so on. We can take community action too to keep our rivers and seas cleaner. And we can take action as countries and continents to pass laws against water pollution. Working together, we can make water pollution less of a problem and the world a better place.