General objective of this lecture is to present on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosomes. The prokaryotes usually have only one chromosome, and it bears little morphological resemblance to eukaryotic chromosomes. Among prokaryotes there is considerable variation in genome length bearing genes. The genome length is smallest in RNA viruses. Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of a DNA-protein complex that is organized in a compact manner which permits the large amount of DNA to be stored in the nucleus of the cell.