Alanine is a recently discovered hormone, and its receptor and the functions or mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. It is an amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. It is a small non-essential amino acid in humans. It is an α-amino acid. It has the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. It is one of the most widely used for protein construction and is involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and vitamin pyridoxine.
Alanine is an important source of energy for muscles and the central nervous system, strengthens the immune system, helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids, and displays a cholesterol-reducing effect in animals.
Alanine is a glucogenic amino acid that constitutes a high percentage of the amino acids in most proteins. The L-isomer is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code. It also binds to Lrp, a global regulator, and affects its activity. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a non-polar amino acid. It is a pyruvate family amino acid, a proteinogenic amino acid, an L-alpha-amino acid, and an alanine.
L-Alanine accounts for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins. Leucine is the only amino acid that is more common. L-Alanine is the precursor for D-alanine, which is a major component of the cell wall. D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics. It is not found in proteins but occurs naturally in two peptides, carnosine and anserine, found in mammalian muscle.
Alanine is an amino acid that is used to make proteins. It is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for birds and mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from pyruvic acid (formed in the breakdown of carbohydrates) and do not require dietary sources. It is used to break down tryptophan and vitamin B6. It is a source of energy for muscles and the central nervous system. It strengthens the immune system.
Alanine is a particularly important nitrogen donor via alanine aminotransferase in peripheral tissues, such as the liver and skeletal muscle and in the brain. It is a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism increases immunity and provides energy for muscle tissue, the brain, and the central nervous system. It is not essential to the diet, as it can be made by the body from other substances. It was discovered in protein in 1875.