Authentication is relevant to multiple fields. In computer science, verifying a person’s identity is often required to allow access to confidential data or systems. In art, antiques and anthropology, a common problem is verifying that a given artifact was produced by a certain person or in a certain place or period of history. Authentication is the process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password. It is commonly done through the use of login passwords or passphrases; knowledge of such is assumed to guarantee that the user is authentic.