Porto or Oporto (Portuguese pronunciation: ˈpoɾtu), city and port, northern Portugal. It is Portugal’s second-largest city, and one of the main urban centers of the Iberian Peninsula. Like Lisbon, Porto has its own frozen-in-time old town known as the Ribeira District, located on the Douro River’s north banks.
As the local saying goes: “Coimbra sings; Braga prays; Lisbon shows off, and Porto works.” The appeal of the area lies greatly in the place’s life, with its thriving center of industry surrounded by smart suburbs and luxurious villas. In 1996, Porto Historic Center has declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Porto city is tiny compared to its metropolitan area, with a population of 237,559 people. the town lies along the Douro River, 2 miles (3 km) from the river’s mouth on the ocean, and 175 miles (280 km) north of Lisbon. World-famous for its port, Porto is Portugal’s second-largest city and is that the commercial and industrial center for the zone north of the Mondego River.
Established by the Celts on the mouth of the Douro River, it had been occupied by the Romans during the fourth century, transforming it into an influential commercial port and renaming it “Portus Cale”. In 456, it absolutely was invaded by Theodoric II, King of the Visigoths, who remained in their power until 716, when it fell under the Moorish Muslim invasion.
In 997 Christian forces recaptured Porto, which for a time became the capital of the counts of Portucalense (northern Portugal) during Moorish decree the southern a part of the dominion. The Moors again held the town briefly, but in 1092 it had been brought finally under Christian domination. Within the 14th century the town became a vital port, and Prince Henry the Navigator was born there in 1394. During the Peninsular War, British forces under statesman (later the Duke of Wellington) there crossed the Douro, routed the French, and captured the town on May 12, 1809.
In 1820, a Liberal Revolution started in Porto demanding a constitutional monarchy in Portugal. After Miguel of Portugal took the throne, Porto rebelled against his absolutist rule and underwent an eighteen-month siege by the King’s army in 1832. Porto was triumphant, and King Miguel abdicated because of the numerous sacrifices made by the people, who fought heroically to protect the Constitutional Charter. Also named “Cidade Invicta” (English: Unvanquished City) after the Miguelist invasion was successfully resisted. The moderate Constitution was re-established after King Miguel’s abdication.
On 19th January 1919, forces favorable to the restoration of the monarchy launched a counter-revolution in Porto known as Monarchy of the North. Porto was the capital of the restored kingdom during this period, as the revolution was limited to the north. Fewer than a month later, the monarchy was deposed and no other monarchist revolution has occurred again in Portugal.
Porto became the capital of Portugal provisionally when Paiva Couceiros proclaimed the “Monarquía do Norte”. The Republican reaction quickly ended the rebellion. During the dictatorship of Salazar until 1974, the infrastructure of Porto was greatly strengthened, and the Arrábida Bridge was already completed in 1963.
The historic center of Porto was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996. The World Heritage Site is defined in two concentric zones; the “Protected area”, and within it the “Classified area”. The Classified area comprises the medieval borough located inside the 14th-century Romanesque wall.
Porto is additionally the birthplace of fortified wine and therefore the gateway to Portugal’s popular wine-producing region, the Douro Valley. Vila Nova de Gaia within the south of the town is a region packed filled with cellars and bars for tasting Porto’s finest ports and wines. To determine the wines being produced, a scenic trip by boat, train, or road to the stunning Douro Valley is straightforward from Porto city.
Porto was chosen the cultural capital of Europe in 2001 and the city built the impressive “Casa da Musica” in Boavisita for the occasion. The present city lies primarily on the north (right) bank of the Douro, extending outward from the old Ribeira district. Intensive farming in the area has been encouraged by a hot, humid climate and relatively fertile soils, including winter and summer cereals, vegetables, and tree crops (cork oak and olive). Timber and its associated industries and the production of Vinho Verde (an effervescent wine) are also important.
Porto encompasses a high population density, and overcrowding is common. Large-scale planning and residential development improved conditions beginning within the latter a part of the 20th century. The Museu Nacional Soares dos Reis at Rua de Dom Manuel II, over to the west behind town hospital, was the primary national museum in Portugal. Its collection includes glass, ceramics, and a formidable array of eighteenth and nineteenth-century paintings, further because of the late-nineteenth-century sculptures of Soares dos Reis (his O Desterro, The Exile, is perhaps the best-known work of its kind in Portugal).
Over the past few years, Porto has experienced substantial increases in tourism, which could be related in part to the Francisco de Sá Carneiro Airport Ryanair hub. Between January and November 2017, the city received 2,8 million overnight visitors and 1,4 million day-trippers, with 73 percent coming from other countries. Tourism revenue has been increasing by over 11%, per a 2018 report. Consistent with a February 2019 report, over 10% of economic activity in Porto is generated by tourism.
Porto has an international airport and is connected by highway and high-speed rail to Lisbon. In 2002 the first line of a regional subway system opened, and in 2005 the second and third lines began operation. Three more lines were added thereafter. The Crestuma hydroelectric project on the Douro River is located about 19 miles (30 km) from the city. Porto is home to the Porto School of Architecture, one in every of the foremost prestigious architecture schools in Europe and therefore the world. Thanks to its long history, the town of Porto carries an immense architectural patrimony. From the Romanesque Cathedral to the Social Housing projects developed through the late 20th century, much might be said surrounding architecture.