Antibiotic Resistance: Key Facts

The term “antibiotic” initially referred to a innate amalgam that kills bacteria, such as definite types of mold or chemicals produced by living organisms. Antibiotics fight these infections either by killing the bacteria or making it hard for the bacteria to develop and increase. Antibiotics do not have any consequence on viruses.

Antibiotic resistance is the aptitude of bacteria to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria transform in a way that reduces the efficiency of drugs, chemicals, or other agents intended to treatment or stop infections. The bacteria endure and continue to multiply, causing further damage. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are free to develop, increase and origin infection within the host even when exposed to antibiotics. It is a foremost barrier in the cure of infectious diseases caused by bacteria.

Viral infections should not be treated with antibiotics. General infections caused by viruses include: Colds, Flu, most coughs and bronchitis, many sinus infections etc.

Key facts

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the principal threats to worldwide health, food security, and progress today.
  • Antibiotic resistance can distress anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
  • A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and gonorrhoea – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.


How antibiotic resistance spread?

Genetically, antibiotic resistance spreads through bacteria populations both “vertically,” when new generations inherit antibiotic resistance genes, and “horizontally,” when bacteria share or exchange sections of genetic material with other bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer can even occur between dissimilar bacterial species. Environmentally, antibiotic resistance spreads as bacteria themselves move from place to place; bacteria can travel via airplane, water and wind. People can pass the resistant bacteria to others; for example, by coughing or contact with unwashed hands.

Why are bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics?

Overuse and misuse of antibiotics can endorse the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Every time a person takes antibiotics, responsive bacteria (bacteria that antibiotics can still attack) are killed, but resistant bacteria are left to produce and increase. This is how frequent use of antibiotics can amplify the number of drug-resistant bacteria.

Antibiotics are not effectual alongside viral infections like the general cold, flu, mainly sore throats, bronchitis, and many sinus and ear infections. Extensive use of antibiotics for these illnesses is an example of how overdo of antibiotics can endorse the spread of antibiotic resistance. Smart use of antibiotics is key to controlling the extend of resistance.


  • Only prescribe antibiotic therapy when likely to be beneficial to the patient
  • Use an agent targeting the likely pathogens
  • Use the antibiotic for the appropriate dose and duration



You should care about antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most vital public health troubles. Antibiotic resistance can cause illnesses that were once simply treatable with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, prolonging suffering for children and adults. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can spread to family members, friends, and co-workers, and may menace your society. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are often more hard to kill and more costly to treat. In some cases, the antibiotic-resistant infections can lead to severe disability or even death.