Acute Coronary Syndrome: Causes, Signs and Treatment

Acute coronary syndrome happens when the heart is not getting sufficient blood. It is an urgent situation. It includes uneven angina and heart attack. Unstable angina happens when blood flow to the heart is rapidly slowed by tapering coronary arteries. Or small blood clots form in the coronary arteries and slow blood flow. Heart attack means a coronary artery has been blocked and the heart has been spoiled. Without blood flow and oxygen, part of the heart starts to die.

Acute coronary syndrome is used to describe three types of coronary artery disease:

  • Unstable angina
  • Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (NSTEMI)
  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (STEMI)


Acute coronary syndrome usually results from the buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) in and on the walls of coronary arteries, the blood vessels delivering oxygen and nutrients to heart muscles.

Coronary artery disease, also called heart disease, is caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. When a plaque deposit ruptures or splits, a blood clot forms. This clot obstructs the flow of blood to heart muscles.

Even when there is no cell death, an inadequate supply of oxygen still results in heart muscles that don’t work correctly or efficiently. This dysfunction may be temporary or permanent. When acute coronary syndrome doesn’t result in cell death, it is called unstable angina.


Signs and Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome, which usually begin abruptly, include the following:

  • Chest pain (angina) or discomfort, often described as aching, pressure, tightness or burning
  • Pain radiating from the chest to the shoulders, arms, upper abdomen, back, neck or jaw
  • Feeling restless or apprehensive
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Indigestion
  • Lightheadedness, dizziness or fainting
  • Unusual or unexplained fatigue
  • Shortness of breath.

Diagnosis and Treatment

This is a medical urgent situation. Instant treatment is ordered for acute coronary syndrome. The short-term goals include relieving pain and improving blood flow to help restore heart function as quickly as possible.

Medications include:

  • Nitroglycerin
  • Antiplatelet drugs
  • Beta blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Statins

Long-term treatment goals are to progress overall heart task, direct risk factors and lower the risk of a heart attack. A combination of drugs and surgical procedures may be used to meet these goals.


Conclusion: A heart-healthy lifestyle can facilitate avert heart disease, which can lead to acute coronary syndrome. If you previously have heart disease, a heart-healthy routine along with medicine can help prevent a heart attack.

You should maintain Healthy diet and;

  • Eat a heart-healthy diet that has lots of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Lower your stress level. Stress can damage your heart.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight