On Earth, water is the dominant substance upon the bottom surface. The forces of nature didn’t supply it’s an extensive basin, rather land as we all know it crystallized within the ocean as the upheaval of internal magma layered repeatedly through geologic processes that culminate in volcanism that also exists today. There are many factors involved in maintaining the extent of the ocean and as long as it stays constant for a minimum of the past 8000 years around, could be a sheer miracle that should make us thankful that despite some horrendously destructive acts of nature.
In other words, all of the water found on Earth is thought as Hydrosphere. Estimated to be about 361740000 square kilometers, the hydrosphere covers 70.8% of the world. It encompasses all water bodies, icebergs, also as vapor within the atmosphere. It also includes underground water, which is within the aquifers and wells.
Hydrosphere consists of all bodies of water, icebergs, and water vapor within the earth’s atmosphere. Oceans contain 97 percent of water within the hydrosphere, while rivers, lakes and other water bodies ashore and underground water contains a tiny low percentage of total water within the hydrosphere.
The total mass of Earth’s hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of Earth’s total mass. At any given time, about 20 × 1012 tonnes of this is in the form of water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere (for practical purposes, 1 cubic meter of water weighs one tonne). Approximately 71% of Earth’s surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometers (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average salinity of Earth’s oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater (3.5%).
The hydrosphere is of great importance as it plays an integral role in the survival of all life forms. Here are some of the significant functions of the hydrosphere on Earth:
- A Component of Living Cells – Each cell in an exceedingly living organism consists of a minimum of 75% water. This promotes the traditional functioning of the cell. Most of the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms involve materials that are dissolved in water. No cell would survive or be able to carry its normal functions without water.
- Habitat for Many Life Forms – The hydrosphere provides a crucial place for a good range of plants and animals to measure. Many nutrients like nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium ions, in addition as gases like CO2 and oxygen, are dissolved in water. These compounds play an integral role within the existence of life in water.
- Climate Regulation – One of the water’s exceptional features is its high heat. Namely, water takes not only a protracted time to heat up but also a protracted time to cool down. It plays a big role in regulating temperatures on earth; ensuring temperatures remain within a variety that’s suitable for the existence of life. Ocean currents also play a critical role in heat dispersion.
- Existence of Atmosphere – Hydrosphere features a significant contribution to the existence of the atmosphere in its present form. When the planet was formed it comprised only an awfully thin atmosphere. This atmosphere was jam-choked with helium and hydrogen just like Mercury’s current atmosphere. The gases helium and hydrogen were later ejected from the atmosphere. And also the gases and vapor produced because the Earth cooled became its current atmosphere. The volcanoes also released other gases and water vapor, which entered the atmosphere. This process is estimated to have occurred about 400 million years ago.
- Human Needs – The hydrosphere benefits humans in numerous ways. Besides drinking, water is used for domestic purposes like cooking and cleaning as well as for industrial purposes. Water can also be used for transportation, agriculture, and to generate electricity through hydropower.
The activities of recent humans have drastic effects on the hydrosphere. As an example, water diversion, human development, and pollution all affect the hydrosphere and natural processes within. Humans are withdrawing water from aquifers and diverting rivers at an unprecedented rate. Additionally, only 1/3 of rivers are free-flowing because of the extensive use of dams, levees, and hydropower, and habitat degradation.