When a quantum system is at its lowest possible energy, it is said to be in its ground state. This state is now almost acquired for a human-scale object, it is still the largest. Physicists have cooled a 10 kilogram (22-pound) optomechanical pendulum formed by a mirror in the LIGO gravitational wave observatory to such a degree that it was close to its motion quantum ground conditions. As published in science, the pendulum is 10 trillion times larger than the previous record holder for the heaviest object prepared near its physical ground conditions. This breakthrough is certainly a way to dramatically improve LIGO’s sensitivity and detect gravitational waves in more detail.
But it may have another important application; This may allow for ways to study the larger quantum phenomenon. It could provide a way to test gravity ever before. Project director Vivishek Sudhir, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at MIT, said in a statement, “No one has ever observed how gravity works in a larger quantum state.” “We have demonstrated how to prepare kilogram-scale objects in the quantum state. Finally, it has opened the door to an experimental study of how gravity can affect larger quantum objects, which has so far only been dreamed of.”
The pendulum is not a single clear object but it combines the motions of four 40 kilogram (88 lb) mirrors employed by LIGO. When these are considered together, physicists as a single system can reduce the whole system by about one octillion (1026 atoms) weighing about 10 kilograms (22 pounds). Sudhir added, “LIGO is designed to measure the combined speed of four 40 kg mirrors. “It has been proven that you can mathematically map the combined speeds of these people and think of them as the speed of a single 10-kg object.” The predicted temperature at ground level of this nuclear collection is only 11 nanocelvins. It is only 11 billionths of a degree greater than absolute zero. The pendulum was lowered to a temperature of 77 nanocelvins. The object was so stationary that it could not move more than one thousandth of the size of a proton.