Groupthink is a term coined by social psychologist Irving Janis in 1972, which tendency of the members of a group to yield to the desire for consensus or unanimity at the cost of considering alternative courses of action. It is the practice of approaching problems or issues as matters that are best dealt with by consensus of a group rather than by individuals acting independently; conformity. It requires individuals to avoid raising controversial issues or alternative solutions, and there is loss of individual creativity, uniqueness and independent thinking. It is said to be the reason why intelligent and knowledgeable people make disastrous decisions.