Before preparing this assignmenta through survey was conducted among the employee of the organization CAMIO USA Knitwear ltd. . First I have visited various department and talked to the Depaertmental heads & related employee. I tried to mark theier views and opinion which would help me to prepare the manual for them. For example, how will be the procedures for personal protective equipment & how to use it, Electrical Safety, Documents required etc. I collected all of data after go throug all of department. Then I tried to match it with the exting Labour Laws of the country also renomed buyers code of conduct. Thus i prepared the draft of the total Compliance Procedures & Policices for the organization. All these draft were first gven to al departmental head of the company. With all of theier inputs and valuable suggestion it was modified and corrected where necessary. Then it was again verified with the relavent Labour lawsa and standard of renowned buyer. Finally, it was prepared, published & distributed to as many employee as possible. To comnunicate these Compliance policies & procedures in CAMIO USA KNITWEA Ltd . At last , HR personnel conducted various awarness program with the help of Welafare Officer to all employees. LIMITATIONS During preparation of The assignment. I actually could not receive the view of almost all the employees. Production department personnel always give priroty production only. Sometimes they do not care regarding issues of safe working environment. Again to match with exting parctice of some polices by the employee of CAMIO USA Knitwear Ltd, it is a little bit difficult to maintan with this standard. However, ultimately we tried to synchronize those standard with existing practise as much as possible. And we tried to make this standard easier for the employee in thier day in day out practices.
The purpose of this report was to examine the implications on Social Compliance in a RMG Sector in Bangladesh. Research for this report included a review of current Practice & Various audit report regarding Social Compliance issues… The major finding indicates that while there is a need for some caution, awareness should be seen as a way of enriching the standard of social compliance. While it is clear that company needs take necessary action to develop and implement its current practise of social compliance standard to make a safe & good working conditions.
Social Compliance is now a important factor for any export oriented Industry. It not only emphasis on comply with existing labour law of country & buyers code of conduct as well. It also make a working environment safer & comfortable for workforce.
INTRODUCTION OF SOCIAL COMPLIANCE
Social Compliance / Social Accountability is an important parameter in international business today, and buyers from major markets global markets, are increasingly insisting on adherence to social compliance norms. Social Accountability is the measure of an organization’s state of being mindful of the emerging social concerns of internal & external stakeholders (community, employees, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, management, and owners). It is reflected in the organization’s verifiable commitment to certain factors (which may or may not be tied directly to its processes) such as (1) willing compliance with employment, health and hygiene, safety, and environment laws, (2) respect for basic civil & human rights, and (3) betterment of community and surroundings. Social Compliance is the result of conformance to the rules of social accountability by the extended organization including not only the organization’s own policies and practices but also those of its supply and distribution chains. It is a continuing process in which the involved parties keep on looking for better ways to protect the health, safety, and fundamental rights of their employees, and to protect and enhance the community and environment in which they operate. A social compliance program is usually based on adherence to rules of social accountability, established by certified conformance to international standards such as SA8000. Importance of Social Compliance for Leather Products & Footwear – Leather Products like Garments, Accessories, Small Leather Goods, & Footwear are termed life-style consumer products. In recent years, through the efforts of Human Rights Organizations and media, consumers have become increasingly aware of suspected unethical labor practices throughout the world. This knowledge has put pressure on retailers and manufacturers to ensure that they supply ethically manufactured products. Until recently, the assumption that the manufacturers complied with local legal requirements was assumed to be monitored by local authorities. But retailers and manufacturers are beginning to act independently to ensure that fair and ethical labor practices are employed in the manufacture of their products. Doing so helps these companies ensure that their reputation is not tarnished by forces previously assumed to be out of their control. Bangladesh is a sourcing destination for many international brands for leather products and as sourcing by some large American and European Buyers increased, it necessitated the advent of social compliance programs in the leather goods factories. All compliance programs are aimed at ensuring legal compliance to laws of the country/ region and going beyond that for improving workers’ conditions in the export-oriented factories. This is a relatively new business challenge for our industry, although major disturbing issues like child labor, minimum wages and health & safety at the workplace have been tackled quite successfully. Major international players (Footwear Retailers, Dept Stores, Chain Stores etc) who insist on Social Compliance/Audits, are well-known retailers Like Levis, Puma, Adidas, Decathlon, Artsana, Inditex, who have also developed their own policies/ Code of Conduct (CoC). Many retailers request third party organizations to audit their suppliers’ for compliance to the COC. Some clients like Marks and Spencer, Tesco, Debenhams follow Sedex (Supplier Ethical Data Exchange) Methodology, if the facility is already certified for SA 8000, WRAP etc they wave off the Sedex audits. Retailers like Esprit, Migros, Metro follow the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI) audit methodology, and Carrefour, Siplec and some French clients follow ICS certification.
IMPORTANT SOCIAL COMPLIANCE PARAMETERS:
Compliance with all national laws and regulations – Organizations are required to abide by all applicable laws, regulations and standards applicable to its particular industry under the national laws of the countries where the organization is doing business. Should the legal requirements and the standards of the industry conflict, organizations must comply with the laws of the country in which the products are being manufactured. Organizations should, however, strive to meet industry standards whenever possible. If state or local legal requirements apply to the organisation’s manufacturing activities, they must comply with the state and local requirements.
Employment practices – Organisations are to respect its employees and to strive to improve conditions whenever possible but in all instances to be in compliance with the specific requirements relating to employment conditions. Wages & Benefits – Organisations shall provide wages, overtime compensation and benefits at not less than the minimum levels required by applicable laws and regulations or which are consistent with the prevailing local industry levels, whichever is higher. Working Hours – Organisations shall maintain employee work hours in compliance with local standards and applicable laws of the jurisdictions in which they are doing business. Unless the national law is different, the maximum standard working time is 48 hours per week or 60 hours per week including 12 hours of overtime work. Child Labor –Exploitation of child labor or any vulnerable group (illegal immigrants for example) is totally unacceptable. No person shall be employed at an age younger than the legal minimum age for working in any specific country and in no circumstance shall any worker be younger than 14 years of age. In general, all children under the age of 18 must not be employed in hazardous work; not work night shifts; and are entitled to more breaks than adults. Forced Labor – The use of forced or involuntary labor is unacceptable. Organisations shall maintain employment on a voluntary basis. They are not to directly or indirectly use in any manner, forced labor or prison labor. Nondiscrimination / Human Rights – Cultural differences exist and different practices apply in various jurisdictions. However, all terms and conditions of employment should be based on an individual’s ability to do the job, not on the basis of physical characteristics or beliefs. Employees must not be exposed to physical punishment, threats of violence or physical, sexual, psychological or verbal harassment or maltreatment. Freedom of Association – Organisations must recognize their employees’ rights to choose whether or not to associate with or establish any organization including labor organizations. Working Conditions – Organisations must provide adequate working conditions for employees and comply with all applicable worker safety laws and regulations.
Social Compliance an overview:
Whether it is large or small manufacturer, a traditional retailer or a supplier/sub-contractor – social accountability is the order of the day. Increasingly, the public and more importantly your consumer has become sensitive to how ‘business houses’ demonstrate accountability for social compliance along their supply chain. Different Social Compliance Audits Mainly, there are three types of SA audits. They are: Certifying audits such as SA 8000, which are universal. One can get an SA 8000 certification similar to that of ISO 9001:2000, buyers audit & audit of different apparel associations. Buyers & apparel associations have there own codes of conduct. They may not exempt a factory from their own COC audits just because the factory has got SA 8000. Buyers who want to ensure social compliance in a company. Almost all buyers located in US & Europe are looking for social compliance because this again their local statutory and regulatory requirement. Walmart, K mart, Disney, JC Penny are some famous & big groups that want to ensure social compliance before placing any order. Companies from other part of glob like Zara Internatiuonal, IKEA have also started to ask for compliance
Related Regulation For Social Compliance Audit:
International Legislation: ¦ ILO Convention ¦ the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ¦ the UN’s Conventions on children’s rights and the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, ¦ the UN Global Compact and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and other relevant internationally recognized agreements, National Legislation: Labour Law 2006 Rules of Factories 1979 Industrial Relation 1969 Fire Safety Act 2006 & Amended 2011 Environmental Conservation Act 1995 Environmental Conservation Rules 1997 Custom Law BangladeshNationalBuilding Code 2006
A factory Social Audit
What is Social Audit? The Social Audit (CSA) should be performed to ensure that company comply with Country’s rules & regulations in which social rights are respected. Area to check during a Social Audit? Child labor, Forced labor. Health & Safety. Freedom of association and right to bargain. Discrimination. Disciplinary practices. Working hours and Environment. Compensation. Management Systems. Following an social audit, a Corrective Action Plan, explaining the required improvements and corresponding timetable to the factory. Why should take place a social audit? Dealing with a vendor who is not complying with international basic laws is not the right choice. Starting a proactive sustainable procurement approach could be valuable for a company.. The Simple Factory Audit should be performed before the buyer places an order with a new vendor and only takes one day. The Simple Factory Audit is done at your manufacturer’s premises, anywhere in Bangladesh. What do auditor check during a Simple Factory Audit? A. FACTORY PROFILE: name, contact details, licenses check etc. . EMPLOYEES and WORKFORCE: management, QC, workers etc. C. FACILITY CHECK: office, equipment, production lines etc. D. CLIENTS and EXPERIENCE: trade history, samples check etc. E. DOCUMENTS VERIFICATION: licenses, certificates etc. F. Also includes: production line status, vendor organization, production capability and capacity, a quick check on the existing quality system. SA 8000 Audit Introduction : SA8000 is a global social accountability standard for decent working conditions, developed and overseen by Social Accountability International (SAI). Rising public concern about inhumane working conditions in developing countries led to the creation in 1997 of the Council on Economic Priorities Accreditation Agency. Its purpose was to draw up a universal code of practice for labor conditions in manufacturing industry, so that consumers in developed countries could be confident that the goods they were buying – in particular clothes, toys, cosmetics and electronic goods – had been produced in accordance with recognized set of standards. At that time, many businesses had already begun to recognize the commercial advantages of adopting an ethical dimension in their employment practices, and were operating their own codes of conduct. However, there was no consensus on what exactly constituted a socially responsible policy. As a result, the myriad codes were inconsistent and poorly audited. In summer 2000, CEPAA became known as Social Accountability International (SAI), a new entity whose remit was to develop voluntary standards governing social responsibility, and to certify companies that agreed to meet them. The first such standard is SA8000, which governs employees’ working conditions. The SA8000 standard for socially responsible employment practices first appeared in 1998 after nearly a year of drafting by the advisory board. It was modeled on the well-established ISO9000 quality standard. However, it is different from ISO 9001:2008 An advisory board comprising 25 experts from a wide range of backgrounds, including businesses, trade unions and non-governmental organizations, drafted the terms of SA8000. Now that the code has been finalized, SAI is overseeing the certification of companies that have expressed a desire to become SA8000-compliant. Social Accountability 8000 (SA8000) has been developed by Social Accountability International (SAI), known until recently as the Council on Economic Priorities Accreditation Agency. SAI is a non-profit affiliate of the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP). SA8000 is promoted as a voluntary, universal standard for companies interested in auditing and certifying labour practices in their facilities and those of their suppliers and vendors. It is designed for independent third party certification. The SA8000 provides two separate ways for companies looking forward to demonstrate their commitment to social responsibility. The first way is taking membership. This is designed for businesses that are doing retailing. The organization has to give commitment to do business only with socially responsible suppliers. SA8000 members are offered a self-assessment package and other tools to help them implement a policy on social responsibility. They are expected to notify their suppliers of their intention to implement SA8000 standards, and to set a timeframe for phasing out dealings with companies that fail to meet those requirements. Member companies are also required to produce an annual report describing their SA8000 objectives, and outlining progress that has been made towards those goals. These reports are verified by SAI(Social Accountability International). The second way is certification. It is intended for manufacturers and suppliers themselves. The process is a stringent one, which begins with the company contacting an accredited auditor. Having demonstrated compliance with existing regulations and assessed how current practice compares with the provisions of SA8000, the company is given the status of ‘SA8000 applicant’. The business then implements an SA8000 programme, which is scrutinized by a ‘pre-assessment audit’. Any improvements that are recommended should be implemented before the formal audit takes place. After the formal assessment, the company is again given the opportunity to rectify any shortcomings, before being assessed again. If at the end of this process the auditors are satisfied that the company is fully compliant, they will recommend an SA8000 certificate, valid for three years. Benefits of SA8000 Initial evidence indicates that SA8000 certified facilities enjoy a competitive advantage and workers experience concrete benefits as the SA8000 management system and any needed corrective actions are put in place. Benefits for Workers, Trade Unions and NGOs:
- Enhanced opportunities to organize trade unions and bargain collectively.
- A tool to educate workers about core labor rights.
- An opportunity to work directly with business on labor rights issues.
- A way to generate public awareness of companies committed to assuring humane working conditions.
Benefits for Business:
- Drives company values into action.
- Enhances company and brand reputation.
- Improves employee recruitment, retention and productivity.
- Supports better supply chain management and performance.
Benefits for Consumers and Investors:
- Clear and credible assurance for ethical purchasing decisions.
- Identification of ethically made products and companies committed to ethical sourcing.
- Broad coverage of product categories and production geography.
SA8000:2008 Standard The SA8000 standard is the central document of our work at SAI. It is an auditable certification standard based on international workplace norms of International Labour Organisation (ILO) conventions, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. This standard is the benchmark against which companies and factories measure their performance. Those seeking to comply with SA8000 have adopted policies and procedures that protect the basic human rights of workers. SA8000 Elements
- Child Labor: No workers under the age of 15; minimum lowered to 14 for countries operating under the ILO Convention 138 developing-country exception; remediation of any child found to be working
- Forced Labor: No forced labor, including prison or debt bondage labor; no lodging of deposits or identity papers by employers or outside recruiters
- Health and Safety: Provide a safe and healthy work environment; take steps to prevent injuries; regular health and safety worker training; system to detect threats to health and safety; access to bathrooms and potable water
- Freedom of Association and Right to Collective Bargaining: Respect the right to form and join trade unions and bargain collectively; where law prohibits these freedoms, facilitate parallel means of association and bargaining
- Discrimination: No discrimination based on race, caste, origin, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, union or political affiliation, or age; no sexual harassment
- Discipline: No corporal punishment, mental or physical coercion or verbal abuse
- Working Hours: Comply with the applicable law but, in any event, no more than 48 hours per week with at least one day off for every seven day period; voluntary overtime paid at a premium rate and not to exceed 12 hours per week on a regular basis; overtime may be mandatory if part of a collective bargaining agreement
- Compensation: Wages paid for a standard work week must meet the legal and industry standards and be sufficient to meet the basic need of workers and their families; no disciplinary deductions
- Management Systems: Facilities seeking to gain and maintain certification must go beyond simple compliance to integrate the standard into their management systems and practices.
Key Focus Areas:
- Child Labor
- Health & Safety
- Working Hours
- Disciplinary Practices
- Remuneration / Compensation
- Freedom of Association and Right of Collective Bargaining
- Forced Labor
- Management Systems
SA 8000 standard SA 8000 standard include contents as follows: 1. Purpose and scope of SA 8000 This standard specifies requirements for social accountability to enable a company to: 2. Requirements of child labor The company shall not engage in or support the use of child labor as defined above. 3. Requirements of Forced labor The company shall not engage in or support the use of forced labor, nor shall personnel be required to lodge ‘deposits’ or identity papers upon commencing employment with the company. 4. Requirements of health and safety 1. The company, bearing in mind the prevailing knowledge of the industry and of any specific hazards, shall provide a safe and healthy working environment and shall take adequate steps to prevent accidents and injury to health arising out of, associated with or occurring in the course of […] 5. Discrimination rules in SA 8000 The company shall not engage in or support discrimination in hiring, remuneration, access to training, promotion, termination or retirement based on race, caste, national origin, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, union membership, political affiliation, or age. 6. Freedom of association & right to collective bargaining Freedom of association & right to collective bargaining 1. The company shall respect the right of all personnel to form and join trade unions of their choice and to bargain collectively. 7. Disciplinary practices in SA 8000 The company shall not engage in or support the use of corporal punishment, mental or physical coercion, and verbal abuse. 8. Rules of working hours The company shall comply with applicable laws and industry standards on working hours. The normal workweek shall be as defined by law but shall not on a regular basis exceed 48 hours. Personnel shall be provided with at least one day off in every seven-day period. All overtime […] 9. Remuneration rules The company shall ensure that wages paid for a standard working week shall always meet at least legal or industry minimum standards and shall be sufficient to meet basic needs of personnel and to provide some discretionary income. 10. SA 8000 policies Top management shall define the company’s policy for social accountability and labor conditions to ensure that it: 11. Management Review of SA 8000 Top management shall periodically review the adequacy, suitability, and continuing effectiveness of the company’s policy, procedures and performance results vis-a-vis the requirements of this standard and other requirements to which the company subscribes. System amendments and improvements shall be implemented where appropriate. 12. Management Representative of SA 8000 The company shall appoint a senior management representative who, irrespective of other responsibilities, shall ensure that the requirements of this standard are met. 13. Planning and Implementation of SA 8000 The company shall ensure that the requirements of this standard are understood and implemented at all levels of the organization; methods shall include, but are not limited to: 14. Control of Suppliers/Subcontractors and Sub-Suppliers The company shall establish and maintain appropriate procedures to evaluate and select suppliers/subcontractors (and, where appropriate, sub-suppliers) based on their ability to meet the requirements of this standard. 15. Addressing Concerns and Taking Corrective Action The company shall investigate, address, and respond to the concerns of employees and other interested parties with regard to conformance/non-conformance with the company’s policy and/or the requirements of this standard; the company shall refrain from disciplining, dismissing or otherwise discriminating against any employee for providing information concerning observance of the standard. 16. Outside Communication in SA 8000 The company shall establish and maintain procedures to communicate regularly to all interested parties data and other information regarding performance against the requirements of this document, including, but not limited to, the results of management reviews and monitoring activities. 17. Access for Verification in SA 8000 Where required by contract, the company shall provide reasonable information and access to interested parties seeking to verify conformance to the requirements of this standard; where further required by contract, similar information and access shall also be afforded by the company’s suppliers and subcontractors through the incorporation of such a requirement in the company’s purchasing […] 18. Records management in SA 8000 The company shall maintain appropriate records to demonstrate conformance to the requirements of this standard.
Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI)
Introduction : Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI) was founded in 2003 for the purpose of developing the tools and procedures for the European Business Social Compliance Programs. Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI) is the common European platform of retailers, industry and importing companies for monitoring and improving social standards in supplier countries for all consumer goods. The BSCI is based on the labour standards of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and other important international regulations like the UN Charter for Human Rights, as well as on national regulations. The Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI) was officially launched on 30 November 2004. It represents a coordinated effort by the European retail industry to implement a harmonized code of conduct and improve working conditions in supplier countries on a voluntary basis. The driving force behind the BSCI is the Brussels -based Foreign Trade Association (FTA), which is the association for European commerce lobbying particularly on foreign trade issues. What are the benefits of the BSCI? The benefits of the BSCI as a broad and comprehensive monitoring system for social standards in the supply chain are numerous: Synergy effects, reduction of multiple auditing thereby reducing costs are one characteristic. Factories/companies which are being audited can improve their competitiveness through improved social standards as better working conditions and an improved management system leads to better product quality, higher productivity, fewer work accidents, less sick leave producing more highly motivated workers and lower staff turnover. The result of this is an improvement ethically, but also economically for both involved employers as well as employees. The economic advantages in this respect – in parallel taking into account the objectives to reduce excessive overtime and raise salaries where necessary, have been shown in research studies in this field. Therefore, benefits of the individual company also have a positive effect on the broad public. Does the BSCI provide a certification? The BSCI is not a certification system and therefore does not issue a certificate. The BSCI provides a specific process with uniform management instruments for Members, suppliers, auditors and qualifiers. This approach ensures uniform audit procedures and evaluation and therefore comparability of the results.If I do not get a certificate what do I receive as proof of the audit? The cover page of the audit report outlining the results and the validity of the audit can be displayed in the factory premises and be used as proof of the audit. Which products are covered by the BSCI? Audits within the BSCI can be conducted in any production facility worldwide. The type of articles covered by the BSCI varies widely. There are quite a number of department stores as members, who sell all sorts of soft goods, clothing, home textiles, small appliances, toys, and accessories. There are also members that focus on one particular product group, for example clothing stores, shoe retailers, baby products, or sports goods. For the implementation of the BSCI in the food industry, the BSCI has developed a special module for the primary production (farms) BSCI Social Requirements
- Management Practice.
- Working Time
- Child labour/Young Labour
- Forced Labour/Discrepancy Measures/Prison Labour.
- Freedom of Association and Collective Bargain.
- No Discrimination.
- Working Conditions.
- Health and Social Facilities.
- Occupational Safety and Health.
BSCI Best Practices for Industry The BSCI currently recognizes SA8000 as its best practice. Some points of crucial important are as follows
- Policy Establishment.
- Proper Planning and Implementation.
- Management Review.
- Control of Subcontractors/Suppliers/Sub-suppliers.
- Control of Home workers.
- Child Labour.
- Outside Communications.
Commitment of BSCI audited companies At present, BSCI audited companies have to commit themselves to auditing and integrating 2/3 of their soft goods suppliers or 2/3 of their buying volume in defined risk countries into the compliance program. SA8000 Auditors must carry out this auditing and integrating within a timeframe of 3 ½ years after joining the BSCI. The Supervisory Council checks the fulfillment Immediate requirements: Social : Work/labor rights Conditions of work Safety at work (ILO 184) Safe work environment No forced labor (ILO 29&105) Child labor prohibited (ILO 182) Condition of employment Minimum age (ILO 138) Equal remuneration (ILO 100) Workers empowerment Freedom of association (ILO 87) Collective Bargaining (ILO 98) No discrimination at work (ILO 111) Short-term requirements: Environment : Chemicals Equipment and training on chemical use Storage/disposal/waste Management of chemicals Waste Pollution management Disposal of waste Water Disposal of grey waters and run off Social : Social/human rights Housing and sanitary facilities in place Gender issues Cultural/religion rights (ILO 169) Indigenous rights Minority rights Work/labor rights Conditions of work Safety at work (ILO 184) Training on safety issues Safety equipments and emergency kits Safe handling chemicals Healthy work conditions Access to safe drinking water Access to sanitary facilities at work Access to medical assistance/ insurance Training requirements on site No use of physical violence Condition of employment Contract labour policies and practices Transparency of employment practices Leave days clearly specifi ed Timely payment of wages Minimum wage requirements Work/labor rights Condition of employment Living wages to cover basic human services/savings Maximum number of working hours set
BUSINESS SOCIAL COMPLIANCE INITIATIVE (BSCI) AUDITS
The Background of BSCI Initiated by the Foreign Trade Association, based in Brussels, a group of European retail companies and associations have developed the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI). The BSCI is based on ILO labor standards and aims at continuously improving the social performance of suppliers. The ultimate objective is an aim for factories to become certificated to standards such as SA8000 or equivalent and thus sustainable enhancing working conditions in factories worldwide. Local and European stakeholder networks are part of this project. The Requirements of BSCI Code of Conduct Legal compliance Working hours Compensation Prohibition of child labor Prohibition of forced labor and disciplinary measures Freedom of Association and the right to collective bargaining Prohibition of all forms of discrimination Workplace Health and Safety Management Systems Environment and Safety Issues BSCI Evaluation Scheme Structure Part A – Recording Master Data: Business and master data of supplier company. Part B – BSCI Audit: Recording and evaluation of compliance with minimum social and environmental requirements. The implementations of corrective actions arising from Part B are compulsory. Part C – Recording and Assessment of Best Practice for Industry: Part C audit is compulsory; implementation of corrective actions arising from Part C is voluntary. Following an initial audit where serious issues have been found, corrective actions may be required before arranging for a re-audit to close these out. SGS is an accredited audit company for the BSCI program and has experience of conducting thousands of audits against this program with a dedicated Product Manager ensuring consistency across all countries. Our global network of auditors enables a quick and cost-effective response in most major manufacturing areas; while dedicated key account managers can support large programs where BSCI members are seeking to monitor supply chains against BSCI requirements Management Represantive To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that Mr. …….. is the Admin Manager of …………Ltd. His responsible duty is to be informed and discuss of all kinds of Administrative & Compliance issue with top management of company and take step for proper solution. The management also announce that, he have been appointed as Management Representative for BSCI Audit program in all the existing facilities of ………………. Ltd. As a Management Representative He has also committed to establish, maintained and implemented all requirements & Code of Conduct of BSCI. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that the management of ……….Ltd. is fully aware of BSCI & Local/ National applicable laws & Regulations. Management also committed to establish maintained and implemented all of the BSCI policy & Local/ National applicable Laws & Regulations in the facility. Authority
C-TPAT VALIDATION PROCESS GUIDELINES
Introduction The Customs Service has developed a validation process to ensure that C-TPAT participants have implemented the security measures outlined in their Security Profile and in any supplemental information provided to Customs. The validation process will be conducted jointly by U.S. Customs personnel and a representative of the industry participant. The validation will focus on the material in the participant’s C-TPAT security profile and any related materials provided by the participant and will be conducted under the guiding partnership principles of C-TPAT. Objective The purpose of the validation is to ensure that the supply chain security measures contained in the C-TPAT participant’s security profile have been implemented and are being followed. In the context of the company’s operations and the C-TPAT security recommendations, the validation team will evaluate the status and effectiveness of key security measures in the participant’s profile and make recommendations where appropriate. Validation Principles The guiding principle of the C-TPAT program is partnership. The C-TPAT program is voluntary and designed to share information that will protect the supply chain from being compromised by terrorists and terrorist organizations. The validation process will enable Customs and the C-TPAT participant to jointly review the participant’s C-TPAT security profile to ensure that security actions in the profile are being effectively executed. Throughout the process there will also be the opportunity to discuss security issues and to share “best practices” with the ultimate goal of securing the international supply chain. C-TPAT validations are not audits. In addition, they will be focused, concise, and will last not longer than ten work days. Based on the participant’s C-TPAT security profile and the recommendations of the validation team, Headquarters will also oversee the specific security elements to be validated. Conducting a Validation A. Validation Selection Process To ensure their accuracy, the security profiles of C-TPAT participants will be validated. The order in which a C-TPAT participant’s profile will be selected for validation will be based on risk management principles. Validations may be initiated based on import volume, security related anomalies, strategic threat posed by geographic regions, or other risk related information. Alternatively, a validation may be performed as a matter of routine program oversight. Customs Headquarters will schedule a company’s first validation within approximately three years of the company becoming a C-TPAT certified participant. Customs field offices will not initiate validations and unannounced validations will not be conducted. C-TPAT participants will be given thirty days advance written notice along with a request for any supporting documentation that is needed. B. Partnership Validation Teams A Partnership Validation Team (PVT), consisting of Customs Office of Field Operations personnel and a representative of the C-TPAT participant, will conduct the on-site C-TPAT validation. Customs representatives on a PVT will be officers knowledgeable in supply chain security matters. Customs PVT members will receive supply chain security training to assist them in working with industry representatives to promote effective corporate supply chain security programs. Customs Headquarters will determine the Customs representatives for each PVT. All Customs PVT representatives will be personnel from the Office of Field Operations. The Customs Partnership Validation Team Leader (assigned by Customs Headquarters) will be responsible for the team’s reviewing the company’s security profile, other security information provided by the company, and data and information retrievable from other sources to determine the focus of the validation. This will help ensure that the validation is effective and limited in duration. C. Validation Venue A validation is an on-site review of the participant’s C-TPAT supply chain security profile. The actual site of the validation may vary depending on the aspect(s) of the participant’s profile that the “C-TPAT Validation Team” will review. Under normal circumstances the validation will begin with a briefing of company officials at the domestic corporate office or facility of the C-TPAT participant. If additional data or information is required to validate a portion of a C-TPATparticipant’s supply chain domestically or overseas, the PVT leader will request approval of travel through the Director, C-TPAT, at Customs Headquarters. D. Validation Procedures Upon receiving direction from Headquarters, Customs PVT leader will provide the company with a written notification of the scheduled validation. The notice will be issued at least thirty days prior to the start of the validation and will include a request for supporting documentation or materials, if any. The PVT leader will also contact the C-TPAT participant to establish a single point of contact at the corporate level. Each validation will be customized for the participant involved and focused on the company’s C-TPAT security profile. Prior to the on-site validation, the Customs representatives on the PVT will review the participant’s C-TPAT security profile, any supplemental information received from the company, and any Customs Headquarters instructions, to determine the extent and focus of the validation. In preparation for the on-site validation, the validation team may also consider pertinent C-TPAT security recommendations. A complete set of recommendations is included as Attachment A below. These security recommendations are a reference tool for considering the sufficiency of specific aspects of a participant’s C-TPAT security profile. It is understood that the recommendations are not mandatory and are not all-inclusive with respect to effective security practices. As noted earlier, to begin the validation, the PVT will meet with company officials to discuss the process. Upon completion of the validation, the PVT will again convene with company officers to discuss validation findings. Although not a part of the PVT, the company’s Customs account manager will normally attend the company briefings that initiate and complete the validation process. E. Validation Report Validation findings will be documented, included in the team’s final report, and forwarded to the Director of C-TPAT for final editing and sharing with the C-TPAT participant. Ideally the report will affirm or increase the level of benefits provided to the participant. However, depending on the findings, some or all of the participant’s C-TPAT benefits may be deferred until corrective action is taken to address identified vulnerabilities. With respect to actions resulting from a validation, Customs authority will rest with the Executive Director, Border Security and Facilitation.
PREFACE The following outlines the C-TPAT Security Recommendations that may be used by the C-TPAT Validation Team in the planning phase of an on-site validation. The recommendations are not mandatory for C-TPAT participation, but they may be helpful in the pre-validation review of key aspects of a participant’s C-TPAT security profile. Therefore, prior to conducting an on-site validation, the validation team may review and discuss appropriate security recommendations contained in these attachments in the context of the participant’s C-TPAT security profile. This will assist the team in limiting the scope of the validation and in customizing the validation to the C-TPAT participant involved.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures throughout your supply chain. Where an importer does not control a facility, conveyance or process subject to these recommendations, the importer agrees to make every reasonable effort to secure compliance by the responsible party. The following are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Procedural Security: Procedures should be in place to protect against unmanifested material being introduced into the supply chain. Security controls should include the supervised introduction/removal of cargo, the proper marking, weighing, counting and documenting of cargo/cargo equipment verified against manifest documents, the detecting/reporting of shortages/overages, and procedures for verifying seals on containers, trailers, and railcars. The movement of incoming/outgoing goods should be monitored. Random, unannounced security assessments of areas in your company’s control within the supply chain should be conducted. Procedures for notifying Customs and other law enforcement agencies in cases where anomalies or illegal activities are detected, or suspected, by the company should also be in place. Physical Security: All buildings and rail yards should be constructed of materials, which resist unlawful entry and protect against outside intrusion. Physical security should include perimeter fences, locking devices on external and internal doors, windows, gates and fences, adequate lighting inside and outside the facility, and the segregation and marking of international, domestic, high-value, and dangerous goods cargo within the warehouse by a safe, caged or otherwise fenced-in area. Access Controls: Unauthorized access to facilities and conveyances should be prohibited. Controls should include positive identification all employees, visitors, and vendors. Procedures should also include challenging unauthorized/unidentified persons. Personnel Security: Companies should conduct employment screening and interviewing of prospective employees to include periodic background checks and application verifications. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should be provided to employees including the recognition of internal conspiracies, maintaining cargo integrity, and determining and addressing unauthorized access. These programs should offer incentives for active employee participation in security controls. Manifest Procedures: Companies should ensure that manifests are complete, legible, accurate, and submitted in a timely manner to Customs. Conveyance Security: Conveyance integrity should be maintained to protect against the introduction of unauthorized personnel and material. Security should include the physical search of all readily accessible areas, the securing of internal/external compartments and panels, and procedures for reporting cases in which unauthorized personnel, unmanifested materials, or signs of tampering, are discovered.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Procedural Security: Companies should notify Customs and other law enforcement agencies whenever anomalies or illegal activities related to security issues are detected or suspected. Documentation Processing: Brokers should make their best efforts to ensure that all information provided by the importer/exporter, freight forwarder, etc., and used in the clearing of merchandise/cargo, is legible and protected against the exchange, loss or introduction of erroneous information. Documentation controls should include, where applicable, procedures for:
- Maintaining the accuracy of information received, including the shipper and consignee name and address, first and second notify parties, description, weight, quantity, and unit of measure (i.e. boxes, cartons, etc.) of the cargo being cleared.
- Recording, reporting, and/or investigating shortages and overages of merchandise/cargo.
- Safeguarding computer access and information.
Personnel Security: Consistent with federal, state, and local regulations and statutes, companies should establish an internal process to screen prospective employees, and verify employment applications. Such an internal process could include background checks and other tests depending on the particular employee function involved. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should include notification being provided to Customs and other law enforcement agencies whenever anomalies or illegal activities related to security are detected or suspected. These programs should provide:
- Recognition for active employee participation in security controls.
- Training in documentation fraud and computer security controls.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case by case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. The company should have a written security procedure plan in place that addresses the following: Physical Security: All buildings should be constructed of materials, which resist unlawful entry and protect against outside intrusion. Physical security should include:
- Adequate locking devices for external and internal doors, windows, gates, and fences.
- Segregation and marking of international, domestic, high-value, and dangerous goods cargo within the warehouse by a safe, caged, or otherwise fenced-in area.
- Adequate lighting provided inside and outside the facility to include parking areas.
- Separate parking area for private vehicles separate from the shipping, loading dock, and cargo areas.
- Having internal/external communications systems in place to contact internal security personnel or local law enforcement police.
Access Controls: Unauthorized access to the shipping, loading dock and cargo areas should be prohibited. Controls should include:
- The positive identification of all employees, visitors and vendors.
- Procedures for challenging unauthorized/unidentified persons.
Procedural Security: Measures for the handling of incoming and outgoing goods should include the protection against the introduction, exchange, or loss of any legal or illegal material. Security controls should include:
- Having a designated security officer to supervise the introduction/removal of cargo.
- Properly marked, weighed, counted, and documented products.
- Procedures for verifying seals on containers, trailers, and railcars.
- Procedures for detecting and reporting shortages and overages.
- Procedures for tracking the timely movement of incoming and outgoing goods.
- Proper storage of empty and full containers to prevent unauthorized access.
- Procedures to notify Customs and other law enforcement agencies in cases where anomalies or illegal activities are detected or suspected by the company.
Personnel Security: Companies should conduct employment screening and interviewing of prospective employees to include periodic background checks and application verifications. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should be provided to employees including recognizing internal conspiracies, maintaining product integrity, and determining and addressing unauthorized access. These programs should encourage active employee participation in security controls.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Warehouses as defined in this guideline are facilities that are used to store and stage both Customs bonded and non-bonded cargo. The company should have a written security procedure plan in place addressing the following: Physical Security: All buildings should be constructed of materials, which resist unlawful entry and protect against outside intrusion. Physical security should include:
- Adequate locking devices for external and internal doors, windows, gates and fences.
- Adequate lighting provided inside and outside the facility to include parking areas.
- Segregation and marking of international, domestic, high-value, and dangerous goods cargo within the warehouse by a safe, caged, or otherwise fenced-in area.
- Separate parking area for private vehicles separate from the shipping, loading dock, and cargo areas.
- Having internal/external communications systems in place to contact internal security personnel or local law enforcement police.
Access Controls: Unauthorized access to facilities should be prohibited. Controls should include:
- The positive identification of all employees, visitors, and vendors.
- Procedures for challenging unauthorized/unidentified persons.
Procedural Security: Procedures should be in place to protect against unmanifested material being introduced into the warehouse. Security controls should include:
- Having a designated security officer to supervise the introduction/removal of cargo.
- Properly marked, weighed, counted, and documented cargo/cargo equipment verified against manifest documents.
- Procedures for verifying seal on containers, trailers, and railcars.
- Procedures for detecting and reporting shortages and overages.
- Procedures to notify Customs and other law enforcement agencies in cases where anomalies or illegal activities are detected or suspected by the company.
- Proper storage of empty and full containers to prevent unauthorized access.
Personnel Security: Companies should conduct employment screening and interviewing of prospective employees to include periodic background checks and application verifications. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should be provided to employees including recognizing internal conspiracies, maintaining cargo integrity, and determining and addressing unauthorized access. These programs should encourage active employee participation in security controls.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Conveyance Security: Aircraft integrity should be maintained to protect against the introduction of unauthorized personnel and material. Conveyance security procedures should include the physical search of all readily accessible areas, securing all internal/external compartments and panels, and reporting cases in which unmanifested materials, or signs of tampering, are discovered. Access Controls: Unauthorized access to the aircraft should be prohibited. Controls should include the positive identification of all employees, visitors and vendors as well as procedures for challenging unauthorized/unidentified persons. Procedural Security: Procedures should be in place to protect against unmanifested material being introduced aboard the aircraft. Security controls should include complete, accurate and advanced lists of international passengers, crews, and cargo, as well as a positive baggage match identification system providing for the constant security of all baggage. All cargo/cargo equipment should be properly marked, weighed, counted, and documented under the supervision of a designated security officer. There should be procedures for recording, reporting, and/or investigating shortages and overages, and procedures to notify Customs and other law enforcement agencies in cases where anomalies or illegal activities are detected or suspected by the carrier. Manifest Procedures: Companies should ensure that manifests are complete, legible, accurate, and submitted in a timely manner to Customs. Personnel Security: Employment screening, application verifications, the interviewing of prospective employees and periodic background checks should be conducted. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should be provided to employees including recognizing internal conspiracies, maintaining cargo integrity, and determining and addressing unauthorized access. These programs should encourage active employee participation in security controls. Physical Security: Carrier’s buildings, warehouses, and on & off ramp facilities should be constructed of materials which resist unlawful entry and protect against outside intrusion. Physical security should include adequate locking devices for external and internal doors, windows, gates and fences. Perimeter fencing should also be provided, as well as adequate lighting inside and outside the facility; including parking areas. There should also be segregation and marking of international, domestic, high-value, and dangerous goods cargo within the warehouse by means of a safe, cage, or otherwise fenced-in area.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Conveyance Security: Vessel integrity should be maintained to protect against the introduction of unauthorized personnel and material. Conveyance security should include the physical search of all readily accessible areas, the securing all internal/external compartments and panels as appropriate, and procedures for reporting cases in which unmanifested materials, or signs of tampering, are discovered. Access Controls: Unauthorized access to the vessel should be prohibited. Controls should include the positive identification of all employees, visitors, and vendors. Procedures for challenging unauthorized/unidentified persons should be in place. Procedural Security: Procedures should be in place to protect against unmanifested material being introduced aboard the vessel. Security procedures should provide for complete, accurate and advanced lists of crews and passengers. Cargo should be loaded and discharged in a secure manner under supervision of a designated security representative and shortages/overages should be reported appropriately. There should also be procedures for notifying Customs and other law enforcement agencies in cases where anomalies or illegal activities are detected, or suspected, by the company. Manifest Procedures: Manifests should be complete, legible, accurate and submitted in a timely manner pursuant to Customs regulations. Personnel Security: Employment screening, application verifications, the interviewing of prospective employees and periodic background checks should be conducted. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should be provided to employees including recognizing internal conspiracies, maintaining cargo integrity, and determining and addressing unauthorized access. These programs should encourage active employee participation in security controls. Physical Security: Carrier’s buildings should be constructed of materials, which resist unlawful entry and protect against outside intrusion. Physical security should include adequate perimeter fencing, lighting inside and outside the facility, and locking devices on external and internal doors, windows, gates, and fences.
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Conveyance Security: Integrity should be maintained to protect against the introduction of unauthorized personnel and material. Conveyance security procedures should include the physical search of all readily accessible areas, securing all internal/external compartments and panels, and procedures for reporting cases in which unmanifested materials, or signs of tampering, are discovered. Physical Security: All carrier buildings and rail yards should be constructed of materials, which resist unlawful entry and protect against outside intrusion. Physical security should include adequate locking devices on external and internal doors, windows, gates and fences. Perimeter fencing should be addressed, as well as adequate lighting inside and outside the facility, to include the parking areas. There should be segregation and marking of international, domestic, high-value, and dangerous goods cargo within the warehouse by a safe, caged or otherwise fenced-in area. Access Controls: Unauthorized access to facilities and conveyances should be prohibited. Controls should include the positive identification of all employees, visitors, and vendors as well as procedures for challenging unauthorized/unidentified persons. Procedural Security: Procedures should be in place to protect against unmanifested material being introduced aboard the conveyance. Security controls should include the proper marking, weighing, counting, and documenting of cargo/cargo equipment under the supervision of a designated security representative. Procedures should be in place for verifying seals on containers, trailers, and railcars, and a system for detecting and reporting shortages and overages. The timely movement of incoming and outgoing goods should be tracked and there should be procedures for notifying Customs and other law enforcement agencies in cases where anomalies or illegal activities are detected or suspected by the company. Manifest Procedures: Companies should ensure that manifests are complete, legible, accurate, and submitted in a timely manner to Customs. Personnel Security: Companies should conduct employment screening and interviewing of prospective employees to include periodic background checks and application verifications. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should be provided to employees including recognizing internal conspiracies, maintaining cargo integrity, and determining and addressing unauthorized access. These programs should encourage active employee participation in security controls.
AIR FREIGHT CONSOLIDATORS/OCEAN TRANSPORTATION INTERMEDIARIES, AND NVOCCS
Develop and implement a sound plan to enhance security procedures. These are general recommendations that should be followed on a case-by-case basis depending on the company’s size and structure and may not be applicable to all. Procedural Security: Companies should notify Customs and other law enforcement agencies whenever anomalies or illegal activities related to security issues are detected or suspected. Documentation Processing: Consolidators should make their best efforts to ensure that all information provided by the importer/exporter, freight forwarder, etc., and used in the clearing of merchandise/cargo, is legible and protected against the exchange, loss or introduction of erroneous information. Documentation controls should include, where applicable, procedures for: Maintaining the accuracy of information received, including the shipper and consignee name and address, first and second notify parties, description, weight, quantity, and unit of measure (i.e. boxes, cartons, etc.) of the cargo being cleared. Recording, reporting, and/or investigating shortages and overages of merchandise/cargo. Tracking the movement of incoming and outgoing cargo. Safeguarding computer access and information Companies should participate in the Automated Manifested System (AMS) and all data submissions should be complete, legible, accurate and submitted in a timely manner pursuant to Customs regulations. Personnel Security: Consistent with federal, state, and local regulations and statutes, companies should establish an internal process to screen prospective employees, and verify applications. Such an internal process could include background checks and other tests depending on the particular employee function involved. Education and Training Awareness: A security awareness program should include notification being provided to Customs and other law enforcement agencies whenever anomalies or illegal activities related to security are detected or suspected. These programs should provide:
- Recognition for active employee participation in security controls.
- Training in documentation fraud and computer security controls.
Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C – TPAT)
Document Checklist for Upcoming Audit
No Description Concern Department 01 List of security guard force Admin 02 Service contract with external security company Admin 03 Job description of a Security Guard Admin 04 List of employees are allowed access to shipping document Commercial 05 List of employees responsible for issuing and tracking seals Commercial 06 Authorized trucker list Commercial 07 Shipment Dox. (Export & Import) One copy of full sets of document Commercial 08 Procedure for transit of finished goods to forwarder Commercial/Compliance 09 Written Contact with the Transporter Commercial/Compliance 10 Written security standards & procedure for contractors Commercial/Compliance 11 Registration/license of commencement Compliance 12 Security procedure policy (FSP) Compliance 13 Register on security awareness programme/briefing to Employees Compliance 14 List of subcontractors Compliance 15 Record of on-site inspection of the subcontractors Compliance 16 Policy in controlling the security of cargo handling and storage areas Compliance 17 List of restricted areas Compliance 18 Written inspection procedure of empty ocean containers Compliance 19 Procedure for reporting of in transit violation to the Management Compliance 20 Written Communication regarding the C-TPAT requirements to contractors Compliance 21 Background Check of Subcontractor Compliance 22 Security Guard force training records (as per FSP) Compliance 23 Written policy/procedure for Affixing, Replacing, Recording, and Tracking the Seals. Compliance 24 Internal Audit Report Compliance 25 Crisis management plan Compliance 26 List of personnel has the access to loading/packing areas Finishing 27 Packing Procedure of Finished Goods Finishing/Compliance 28 Records of employees background checking HR 29 Training Material and Record of Employees orientation HR 34 Factory ID return & missing record HR 35 Employees job application form HR 36 Hand Book stating companies rules & regulations HR/Compliance 37 Written personnel security guidelines for hiring HR/Compliance 38 Employees Termination Procedure & listing it on HRD & Security Guard Room HR/Security 39 Register of individual accounts and passwords created for employees can access the computer system IT 40 Information access control procedure
WORLDWIDE RESPONSIBLE ACCREDITED PRODUCTION (WRAP)
The Background of WRAP Worldwide Responsible Accredited Production (WRAP) is an independent, non-profit corporation dedicated to the promotion and certification of lawful, humane, and ethical manufacturing throughout the world. The WRAP Principles have received the public endorsement of the American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) Board of Directors in 1998. More recently, the Principles have been endorsed by groups representing apparel manufacturers from 18 countries. The principles cover basic standards that address labor practices, factory conditions, and environmental and customs compliance. WRAP Principles Consist of Twelve Elements
- Compliance with Laws and Workplace Regulations
- Prohibition of Forced Labor
- Prohibition of Child Labor
- Prohibition of Harassment or Abuse
- Compensation and Benefits
- Hours of Work
- Freedom of Association and
- Collective Bargaining
- Health and Safety
- Prohibition of Discrimination
- Customs Compliance
WRAP Certification Process Step 1: Application: Manufacturer first contacts WRAP for an audit request and sends back the completed application form and fee to initiate the certification process. Step 2 : Self-Assessment: The facility must adopt procedures described in the WRAP Handbook and provide evidence they have been implemented for at least 45 days (not less than 90 days for new applicants). Step 3 : Monitoring: The facility then chooses and contacts a WRAP certified auditing firm to get audited. The report and recommendations are sent to both the facility and WRAP. Step 4 : Evaluation: WRAP Staff may notify the facility that it needs to correct certain procedures and have the monitor make an additional inspection and report or may recommend to the Certification Board that the factory be certified. Step 5 : Certification: The Certification Board studies the recommendation of the staff, including the monitor’s report, and votes to award or withhold certification. Certification may be granted for six months or one to two years, depending on the final audit results and the length of time that the facility has held certification successfully.
Introduction : SGS has WRAP approved auditors in most major sourcing countries and is able to provide consistent monitoring and reporting to support certification recommendations. With over 10 years’ experience of undertaking WRAP audits SGS is able to guide companies through the process while ensuring that professional audit standards are maintained. SGS Basic Code of Conduct program Consist of Nine Elements
- Child and Young Labor
- Forced Labor
- Health and Safety
- Freedom of Association
- Disciplinary Practices
- Working Hours
SGS Basic Quality System Audit Program Consist of Eight Elements
- Purchase Control
- Incoming Material Control
- Process Control
- Calibration of Measurement Equipment
- Inspection of Finished Product
- Random Product Inspection
- Continuous Improvement
- Quality Assurance Records
SGS Basic Security Audit Program Consist of Eight Elements
- Physical Security
- Warehouse/Conveyance Security
- Access Control
- Electronic and Security Staff Investments
- Procedural Security
- Personnel Security
- Education and Awareness Training
- Service Provider Security
Integrated Approach Code of Conduct Audit Solutions are often combined with other programs such as Quality, Environment or Security, as well as audits against Counterfeit Products, to provide a cost and time-effective mechanism thus ensuring conformance to local law and regulatory, and other industry requirements such as ISO 9001, ISO 14001, or SA 8000 requirements. SGS can offer a “one stop” and complete vendor evaluation program to include “capability and capacity” audits and Corporate Social Responsibility monitoring requirements, including Human Rights and the Environment. This offers increased efficiency and business opportunities to meet the multiple criteria demanded by diverse buyers and a source of competitive advantage where larger buyers seek to rationalize their supply chains.
ETI (Ethical trade Initiative)
Introduction : ETI is a UK-based alliance of companies, trade unions and NGOs dedicated to improving the lives of workers and their families in global supply chains. It focuses on companies producing, supplying and selling goods for consumer markets. The organisation identifies and promotes responsible corporate practices that observe national and international labour laws. Recognised by almost all UK retailers, ETI has established an international reputation for combining a practical focus with a critical but balanced view of labour rights issues. ETI members must adhere to a code of labour practices based on key conventions of the International Labour Organisation and accompanied by a set of general principles.
Code of Conduct audits
In addition to operating within the highest standards of business ethics in accordance with applicable local laws, many businesses choose to go a step further. They expect their vendors to maintain these same high standards
Technical Audit and Factory Evaluation
To ensure your vendors and suppliers are able to undertake a specific order as per your requirements, we carry out technical audits at their business premise. This process establishes a manufacturer’s ability to design and produce according to your legal or normative requirements. Audits are conducted to any checklist specified. Alternatively, our experienced auditors can compile a checklist to match your requirements.
Code of Conduct
Compliance with Laws Suppliers and their designated manufacturing facilities (“Suppliers”) must fully comply with all applicable national and/or local laws and regulations, including but not limited to those related to labor, immigration, health and safety, and the environment. Voluntary Labor All labor must be voluntary. Child, forced, bonded, prison, or indentured labor will not be tolerated. Workers must be allowed to maintain control over their identity documents. Suppliers must provide workers with rest days and must ensure the working hours are consistent with local regulations and not excessive. Hiring and Employment Practices Suppliers must implement hiring practices that accurately verify workers’ legal right to work in the country and age prior to employment. All terms and conditions of employment including, but not limited to, hiring, pay, promotion, termination, and retirement must be based on an individual’s ability and willingness to do the job. Compensation Suppliers must compensate all workers with wages, overtime premiums, and benefits that meet or exceed local legal standards, local industry standards, or collective agreements, whichever are higher. Suppliers are encouraged to provide wages and benefits that are sufficient to meet workers’ basic needs and provide some discretionary income for workers and their families. Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining Suppliers must respect the right of workers to choose whether to lawfully and peacefully form or join trade unions of their choosing and to bargain collectively. Health and Safety Suppliers must provide workers with a safe and healthy work environment and, where applicable, safe and healthy residential facilities. Suppliers must take proactive measures to prevent workplace hazards Environment Suppliers must ensure every manufacturing facility complies with national and local environmental laws, including all laws related to air emissions, water discharges, toxic substances and hazardous waste disposal. Suppliers must validate that all input materials and components were obtained from permissible harvests consistent with international treaties and protocols in addition to local laws and regulations. Gifts and Entertainment Suppliers must not offer gifts or entertainment to Comapys associates. Conflicts of Interest Suppliers must not enter into transactions with Walmart associates that create a conflict of interest. Anti-Corruption Suppliers must not tolerate, permit, or engage in bribery, corruption, or unethical practices whether in dealings with public officials or individuals in the private sector. Financial Integrity Suppliers must keep accurate records of all matters related to their business w in accordance with standard accounting practices . Disciplinary Practices Vendors shall not use corporal punishment or any other form of physical or psychological coercion or intimidation against workers. Wages and Benefits Vendors shall provide wages and benefits that comply with all applicable laws and regulations or match the prevailing local manufacturing or industry rates, whichever is higher. Overtime pay shall be calculated at the legally required rate, regardless of whether workers are compensated hourly or by piece rate. Working Hours Vendors shall not require workers to work, including overtime, more than 60 hours per week or more than any maximum number of hours per week established by applicable laws and regulations, whichever is less. Vendors shall guarantee that workers receive at least one day off during each seven-day period. Contractors and Suppliers Vendors shall ensure that their contractors and suppliers adhere to this Code of Conduct. Monitoring of Compliance Vendors authorize Acme Intl and its principals to conduct scheduled and unscheduled inspections of Vendors’ facilities for the purpose of ensuring compliance with this Code of Conduct. During these inspections, Acme Intl and its principals shall have the right to review all employee-related books and records maintained by Vendors and to interview workers. Familiarization and Display of This Code of Conduct Vendors shall familiarize workers with this Code of Conduct and display this Code of Conduct, translated in the local language, at each of their facilities in a place readily visible and accessible to worker.
Social Codes of Conduct in the RMG Industry
What are Social Codes of Conduct? Voluntary Codes of Conduct
- Social codes of conduct are rules and guidelines imposed by buyers upon themselves and along their supply chains, both in response to consumer
pressure and as part of comprehensive marketing strategies aimed at improving their image.
- Social and environmental standards as outlined in the Bangladesh Labor Law and Environmental Act set out minimum standards to which manufacturers in Bangladesh must adhere. In contrast, compliance with general codes of conducts, which usually contain standards slightly higher than those defined by the Bangladesh laws, is voluntary.
- The social compliance status of the Bangladesh RMG industry refers to the extent to which the industry meets the requirements of the labor law and/or any other buyer-specific code of conductor voluntary certification scheme.
- The current social compliance status of the industry is not satisfactory; there is an urgent need to improve the situation.
The voluntary codes of conduct most widely used by the RMG sector include those of:
- Social Accountability International (SAI) – SA8000
- Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI)
- Fair Labor Association (FLA)
- Fair Wear Foundation (FWF)
- Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI)
- Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production
Only WRAP and SAI have certifications for factories, whereas FLA certifies brands, not factories. The other above-mentioned codes of conduct do not have any certification options. Generally, adherence by a particular manufacturer to a given standard or code of conduct is verified through periodic audits/ inspections. These inspections are carried out by buyers and/or thirdparty auditors nominated by the buyers. Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 (BLL 2006) Implementation of the BLL 2006 ismonitored primarily by Ministry of Labor and Employment (MoLE) factory inspectors and BGMEA and BKMEA social compliance monitors. Besides inspecting and monitoring the status of the factories, BGMEA and BKMEA monitors provide advisory support to factory personnel so that they are able to implement the required, correct measures as stated in BLL 2006. General codes of conduct (CoCs) are usually voluntary and developed using a multistakeholder approach. SA8000, ETI, WRAP, BSCI, FWF and FLA are some of the prevailing general CoCs.
Areas of Code of conduct:
- ILO Core Labor Standard:
- Child Labor
- Forced Labor
- Freedom of Association
- Employment Conditions :
- Harassment and Abuse
- Working Hours
- Leave and Holidays
- Occupational Heath &safety :
- Workplace Conditions
- OHS Management System & Training
- Others aspects ;
- Women’s right
- Employment Relations
Corrective Action When violations are found, Company and the Vendor will determine a corrective action plan to eliminate the problem in a timely manner. If it is identified that the Vendor is knowingly and/or repeatedly in violation of this Code of Conduct, Company and its principals shall take necessary action which may include cancellation of orders and/or termination of business with the Vendor in question. The Standard 1. Compliance with Laws Suppliers and their designated manufacturing facilities (“Suppliers”) must fully comply with all applicable national and/or local laws and regulations, including but not limited to those related to labor, immigration, health and safety, and the environment. Standard requires, at a minimum, that its suppliers are in compliance with all laws and regulations in the communities and countries where the suppliers and their designated factories operate. This standard is also applicable to all sub-contractors producing merchandise for sale by Walmart. In addition to laws and regulations pertaining to labor, immigration, health and safety, and the environment, compliance with laws and regulations extends to other matters such as intellectual property rights, labeling, documentation and certifications. 2. Voluntary Labor All labor must be voluntary. Child, underage, forced, bonded, prison, or indentured labor will not be tolerated. Workers must be allowed to maintain control over their identity documents. Suppliers must provide workers with rest days and must ensure that the working hours are consistent with the regulation and not excessive. Employment must be on a voluntary basis and thus workers must be able to terminate the employment relationship at any time with reasonable notice. Workers must be able to freely leave the locale (municipality, country, etc.) and therefore it is essential the workers maintain control over their identity documents. Forced, prison, and child labor are prohibited and those factories that are found to have violated this provision will cease to produce merchandise for standard and all merchandise produced will be subject to destruction. Suppliers and factories found to have used child labor will be asked to remediate the situation by implementing a satisfactory solution that places the best interest of the child first. Suppliers and factory management must ensure working hours are not only consistent with local laws and regulations but also are not excessive. In the absence of regulations regarding working hours and rest days, employers must provide workers with rest days. Specifically: Child Labor, Underage workers and juvenile (minor) workers o Child Labor: Factories are prohibited from employing any workers under the age of 14 regardless of local and national regulations. o Under age workers: Factories are prohibited from employing workers below the minimum working age as defined by local and national regulations. All workers must be at or above the legal minimum age at time of employment. o Juvenile (minor) workers: Where a national law specifies juvenile (minor) employment restrictions or requirements, the factory must demonstrate their compliance with the local legal requirements. o Factories must have age-verification procedures that are effectively implemented. The personnel (personal) file of each worker must contain copies of identification documents (such as birth certificates, national ID cards or school certificates) submitted by the worker as proof of age and education (where applicable). Forced Labor o All forms of prison or forced labor are prohibited as well as any subcontracting arrangement with prisons is prohibited. o Any restrictions for workers to voluntarily end their employment, such as, excessive notice periods or substantial fines for terminating their employment contracts, are prohibited. o Factories must grant employees permission to leave the factory under reasonable circumstances, such as personal or family emergencies, without disciplinary penalty. Factories must never physically prevent or delay workers from leaving the facility or its grounds. o Factories must not require or allow employment agents to require any monetary deposits or keep any original identification documents. The practice of deposits (money/original identification) may prevent workers from freely ending their employment (within the legal context). Working Hours o Overtime must be strictly voluntary. Any form of pressure to perform overtime is prohibited. o Factories must comply with local and national regulations regarding limitations on overtime hours. If local and/nor national regulations regarding the number of maximum overtime hours that may be worked by individual workers do not exist, then the working hours should not exceed 60 hours per week consisting of a maximum of 48 hours of regular hours and 12 hours of overtime. o Factories must meet the requirements for working hours as stipulated by the local and national regulations. o Schedules implemented by factories must be in compliance with national and local regulations where the regular workday, workweek, rest days and/or holidays are defined. o Where regulations do not specify rest days, workers should have a minimum of one day off in seven; workers may work on their rest day but no more than once in every two weeks. Factories should ensure that workers do not consistently work on their rest day by monitoring and limiting the practice of working on a rest day. Workers ability to work on a rest day should be limited to twice per month and only two months consecutively in one calendar year. For example, a worker may only be allowed in a one year period to have two consecutive months where 2 days of rest were taken. Generally, workers must have 4 days of rest in every month. o Time records for all workers must be available for review. Employees must maintain their own time records, i.e. punch in and out themselves. o Factories must record all employee working hours completely and accurately. o Factories should have a working time clock that employees use to record their hours, both regular and overtime. 3. Hiring and Employment Practices Suppliers must implement hiring practices that accurately verify workers’ legal right to work in the country and age prior to employment. All terms and conditions of employment including, but not limited to, hiring, pay, training, promotion, termination, and retirement must be based on an individual’s ability and willingness to do the job. Suppliers as well as factory management must implement internal controls to validate the legal right of foreign workers to work in the country, that is, each worker has a valid work permit and are in the country lawfully. Additionally, suppliers and factory management must validate the age of their workers prior to employment. Work permits as well as copies of government issued identification documents must be maintained in the personnel files of all workers. Employment practices of suppliers and factory management must be based on equal opportunity for all workers. Employment practices include, but are not limited to, recruiting, hiring, training, job assignments, pay, benefits, promotions, discipline, termination or retirement. Suppliers and factory management must not engage in any discrimination based on gender, age, religion, marital status, race, social background, diseases, disability, pregnancy, ethnic and national origin, nationality, membership in worker organizations or any other personal characteristic. Specifically: The process used by factories for hiring, compensation, promotion, termination and retirement practices and access to training should be based on a person’s ability to perform the job effectively, and not on a person’s individual characteristics. Practices that use religion, sex, ethnicity or nation origin, disability, political affiliation, social status, sexual orientation, actual or perceived HIV status or legal migrant worker status as a basis for the above is prohibited. Discrimination in any form is prohibited. Factories must not require female applicants, contract workers or employees to be tested for pregnancy unless the factory is required by law to conduct such tests. Pregnancy testing should be voluntary not mandatory. Mandatory pregnancy testing (if not a legal requirement) is prohibited. It is prohibited for factories to ask female applicants about their pregnancy status and must not discriminate in their hiring, salary, benefits, advancement, discipline, termination or retirement practices. Restricting or limiting reproductive rights is prohibited. Factories must meet any legal conditions on working environment for women and pregnant, post-partum and lactating women. Women returning from maternity leave must be given an equivalent position and equal pay as required by local laws and regulations Factories must make reasonable accommodations in job conditions for pregnant women (such as job reassignments to non-hazardous or lighter work, provision of seating, extended breaks, etc.). 4. Compensation Suppliers must compensate all workers with wages, overtime premiums, and benefits that meet or exceed legal standards, local industry standards, or collective agreements, whichever are higher. Suppliers are encouraged to provide wages and benefits that are sufficient to meet workers’ basic needs and provide some discretionary income for workers and their families. Suppliers and factory management must compensate all workers in accordance with local regulations and where applicable with contractual agreements. Workers must be provided with written and understandable details regarding their employment and compensation. Deductions from wages must not be made without the express permission of workers and must not be made as a disciplinary measure. Specifically: Factories must be in compliance with respect to all workers, including employees on piece rate. Where the industry wage is greater than the minimum wage, the industry wage should be paid. Factories must provide all benefits and bonuses in accordance with the law. Workers should be aware of their benefits and understand how their wages are calculated. Workers should be provided with pay slips in a language the workers understand and that show regular and overtime hours worked, regular and overtime rates and wages, bonuses and deductions. Factories must only deduct from wages what is legally permitted; factories must not deduct for tardiness exceeding the actual hour(s) lost and recruitment agency fees. 5. Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining Suppliers must respect the right of workers to choose whether to lawfully and peacefully form or join trade unions of their choosing and to bargain collectively. Workers must be able to join or form trade unions consistent with laws and regulations. Suppliers and factory management must not prevent workers from exercising their rights and must not discriminate against worker representatives and union members due to their membership or affiliation with a trade union. In accordance with local regulations, suppliers and factory management must give worker representatives access to the workplace in order to carry out their representative functions. Specifically: Freedom of Association o Factories must respect employee rights to freedom of association; they must not impose any punitive actions against workers in supporting a union such as threatening, fining, suspending or firing workers exercising those rights. Any action that suppresses freedom of association is prohibited, and may be an act deemed illegal in some countries’ labor codes. o Where the right to freedom of association and collective bargaining is restricted under law, the supplier should not hinder the development of lawful parallel means for independent free association and bargaining. o Managers and supervisors should be trained in freedom of association compliance when possible, and workers should receive instruction on their rights under national law and company standards. Collective Bargaining o Factories must honor the right of workers to bargain collectively. o Employees should be able to raise issues regarding any collective bargaining agreement compliance by the employer/factory without retaliation. o In situations where a Trade Union is not recognized as the bargaining agent of some or all of the workers in a factory, the Trade Union should have the means for defending the occupational interests of its members. 6. Health and Safety Suppliers must provide workers with a safe and healthy work environment and where applicable, safe and healthy residential facilities. Suppliers must take proactive measures to prevent workplace hazards. The work environment and, where applicable, residential facilities must be safe and clean to ensure the health and safety of all workers. Supplier and factory management must implement procedures and safeguards with the spirit of preventing accidents and injuries to workers; procedures and safeguards include, but are not limited to, inspection of buildings (residential and factories), machinery, and fire extinguishers. Workers must be provided with periodic health and safety training related to the handling and disposal of hazardous materials. Additionally, personal protective equipment and clothing must be provided to all workers handling hazardous materials. Specifically: Fire Safety – Suppliers must ensure: o Aisles and exits are kept clear and unblocked at all times o Exits are unlocked at all times during working hours and are clearly marked o Factories conduct regular fire drills per local laws, but not less than once yearly o Factories have functional and sufficient fire fighting equipment Electrical Safety – Suppliers must ensure: o Factories maintain appropriate electrical wiring and circuit box conditions PPE/Chemical Safety – Suppliers must ensure: o Factories establish appropriate spill response programs o MSDS sheet information is available for utilized chemicals in local language o Factories provide appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and training for workers o Factory workers properly utilize PPE o Factories appropriately store chemicals (proximity of incompatible chemicals, away from ignition sources, etc) o Eye wash stations are appropriately located and maintained Sanitation – Suppliers must ensure: o Accessibility of drinking water for their workersRestrooms, canteens, food preparation areas, dormitories, etc. are maintained in a safe and clean condition o Factories possess appropriate hygiene certificates for their canteen and its workers per local laws Accident/First Aid – Suppliers must ensure: o Factories maintain detailed accident/incident logs o Factories maintain an appropriate First Aid program with locally mandated and trained responders/clinics/hospitals per local requirements/laws o Factories maintain sufficient First Aid boxes (1 per 100 employees) which are consistently monitored/refilled 7. Environment Suppliers must ensure every manufacturing facility complies with national and local environmental laws, including all laws related to waste disposal, air emissions, discharges, toxic substances and hazardous waste disposal. Suppliers must validate that all input materials and components were obtained from permissible harvests consistent with international treaties and protocols in addition to local laws and regulations. In addition to meeting specific laws and regulations such as acquiring the necessary permits and approvals relating to waste disposal, air emissions, wastewater discharge, water use, energy conservation, Greenhouse Gases, hazardous substances, environmental impact assessment, land use, and noise pollution, Walmart expects its suppliers to implement measures for reducing air and water pollutants, energy and water usage, and waste. Specifically: Waste Management – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Obtain appropriate permits for on site waste disposal as required by local and national regulations o Deliver hazardous waste for offsite treatment and disposal only to contractors licensed by appropriate competent authority (if any) o Handle and store hazardous waste in a safe and environmentally sound manner to control any risks of environmental contamination o Maintain waste containers and labels in an appropriate condition Maintain waste inventory and tracking records Wastewater & Effluents Management – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Obtain appropriate permits for wastewater/effluents treatment and discharge as required by local and national regulations o Conduct regular wastewater monitoring (sampling & testing) as required by local and national regulations o Strictly comply with wastewater/effluents discharge limits as required by local and national regulations o Take immediate corrective actions in the event discharge limits are exceeded o Have a drainage system in place to convey wastewater to treatment plant and/or final discharge points. Drainage layout must be made available upon request. Drains must be regularly cleaned and maintained o Maintain wastewater treatment plant in safe operating conditions to avoid any risks to environment and/or human health Air Emissions Management – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Obtain appropriate permits for air emissions as required by local and national regulations o Conduct regular air emissions monitoring (sampling & testing) as required by local and national regulations o Strictly comply with air emissions limits as required by local and national regulations o Take immediate corrective actions in the event emission limits are exceeded o Maintain on a regular basis air emission control equipment o Establish an inventory of sources related to air emission points o Expand the inventory of ODS (ozone depleting substances) containment equipment Inspect and maintain ODS (ozone depleting substances) containment equipment to prevent the accidental release of substances Water Management – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Obtain appropriate permits for water use / extraction as required by local and national regulations o Maintain data regarding water use consumption (e.g. water consumption data from water bills and meter readings) Energy use and GHG (greenhouse gases) management – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Meet applicable legal requirements in terms of energy use and GHGs emissions o Set up energy use inventory (e.g. energy consumption data from energy bills and meter readings, fuel bills, gas bills) o Maintain Greenhouse Gas Emissions (direct and indirect) inventory Land Use and Biodiversity– Suppliers must ensure factories: o Conduct Environmental Impact Assessment and submit the results to competent authority for review and approval as required by local and national regulations o Obtain appropriate permits for land use and facilities construction as required by local and national regulations o Meet applicable local and national regulations regarding protected land Environmental Management System – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Adopt environmental policy o Have a mechanism in place to monitor environmental laws and regulations changes to achieve compliance Appoint a member of management team for the coordination of environmental management activities and ensure he/she is properly trained o Develop an emergency protocol to deal with environmental incidents. The emergency protocol should include emergency plan, trained emergency team and regular drills o Provide regular environmental training to impacted employees Hazardous Substances Management / Soil & Ground water Pollution Prevention – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Do not utilize banned chemicals as required by local and national regulations o Obtain appropriate permits for hazardous substances handling & storage as required by local and national regulations o Take appropriate measures to prevent & control any risks of environmental pollution from hazardous substances release o Verify the existence of sensitive receptors (e.g. rivers, underground water, etc.) close to production facilities and implement special measures to prevent contamination where needed Noise Pollution – Suppliers must ensure factories: o Obtain appropriate permit for noise pollution as required by local and national regulations o Perform noise pollution assessments as required by local and national regulations o Conduct regular noise pollution monitoring as required by local and national regulations o Strictly comply with noise pollution limits as required by local and national regulations o Take immediate corrective actions in the event the noise pollution limits are exceeded Permissible harvests and origin of raw (input) materials: Suppliers and factories should maintain inventory records and production records to demonstrate origin of incoming materials and place of production o Factories must demonstrate through Chain of Custody documents (certifications) that raw materials (cotton, wood, etc.) were obtained from legal harvests consistent with international treaties and protocols in addition to local laws and regulations even if national regulations do not regulate harvests. 8. Gifts and Entertainment Company’s policy of not permitting any gifts and entertainment stems from our goal to maintain Every Day Low Costs. Suppliers offering gifts, favors or entertainment to associates put our associates into difficult positions, where they must decline and report the incident. Specifically: Suppliers must ensure factories do not offer gifts or entertainment to company’s associates .Gifts include but are not limited to: o Meals o Travel expenses o Money or the equivalent o Free goods o Tickets or access to events o Personal favors 9. Conflicts of Interest Suppliers must not enter into transactions with Company’s that create a conflict of interest. A conflict of interest may exist when personal interests interfere or appear to interfere with business interests. 10. Anti-Corruption Suppliers must not tolerate, permit, or engage in bribery, corruption, or unethical practices whether in dealings with public officials or individuals in the private sector. Suppliers and factories may not promise, offer, or pay anything of value to a government official or political party to obtain or retain business or secure an improper advantage on behalf of Walmart Suppliers and factories may not promise, offer, or pay anything of value to any business or any individual in the private sector to obtain or retain business or secure an improper advantage on behalf of Walmart 11. Financial Integrity Suppliers must keep accurate records of all matters related to their business with Walmart in accordance with standard accounting practices such as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Suppliers and factories must keep only one set of financial records, and should accurately record all legitimate financial transactions within those records using standard accounting practices. Financial records must be made available for both pre-arranged and unannounced audits by Walmart or third party representatives.
Job Description of Compliance Professional:
Implementing law-2006, & various compliance related issues, COC of different reputed buyers and implementation of those in the factory. Handle workers compensation, disability claims, evaluate employees. Conduct vendor compliance audits in factories and follow up compliance issues. Improve factories’ social compliance and quality performances by following up on Corrective Action Plans with frequent factory visits, training and support appropriate measures. Good knowledge in social compliance programs (e.g. BSCI, SA8000) and quality a (e.g. ISO9000, ISO14000) Do all paper work related to keeping office and factory ready to face audits Help prepare reports and mails for correspondence with buyers and various compliance monitoring agencies as needed. Interact with factory floor personnel to prepare them for compliance audits and make them aware on maintaining better compliance standards Prepare regular compliance reports Support HR and Welfare and other departments as the case may be, in successfully implementing compliance related initiatives Looks after various Compliance Issues in the Factory. Complying the Buyer’s COC and applicable Labor Law- 2006 in every area. Looks after and ensure Health and Safety issue under the individual Buyer’s requirement. Maintain good relation with workers and management. Should be responsible to maintain all issues related to compliance and provide the summaries feedback. Procure regulatory documents relating to labor ordinance, health & safety and others. Train concerned/staffs on compliance standards and requirements. To follow up the progress of internal factory audit. Ensure facility’s Compliance requirements as per local-international legal standards, Find out any non-conformity in relation to Compliance and make sure that those findings are resolved in a systematic and planned manner. Collect and maintain regulatory documents relating to labour ordinance, occupational health & safety and social responsibility etc. Stand for vendor compliance requirements and follow up compliance issues. Interface with internal and external customers on compliance-related requests, inquiries and matters. Sufficient knowledge on compliance issues of a sweater factory is essential. Individuals must have the capability to handle all compliance issues of a sweater factory independently. Assist & coordinate in HR Recruitment and selection process. Assist the Management in conducting Skill/Competency Assessment of staff. Ensure occupational Health, Hygiene and safety management of the company. Handle employee grievance, counseling and ensure employee disciplinary functions. Employment:- Selection, interviewing, Testing, Recruitment & Placement. Employee benefits: Salary, Wages, pay scale, increment, incentives, allowances etc. Job Change: Transfer, Promotion, & demotion Handling Employee grievance for- employees’ compliance. Employees’ Performance Evaluation. Industrial Relation: Relation between Employee and Management. Employee Services: Employee Wale fare. Occupational Health, Safety & Hygiene. Employee counseling. Developing Personnel Policy- HR Handbook Needs for training assessment. Disciplinary Action Attendance, Leave & Holiday Management. Time Management Productivity enhancement. To Up-date Company policies, prepare work place, code of conduct, formulate workers handbook, training policy, training development. To organize separate training program for the factory management, middle management and staff / workers regarding HR and Compliance Issues. To develop the physical and Mental Capacity of workers, so that they can fulfill the highest standard of production. To ensure the health, safety and better working condition in all work place. To arrange orientation and professional training program for each category of staff and workers. To ensure leave and rest facilities, salary, OT allowances and compensation to all the workers and staff within the stipulated time. To maintain and monitor proper disciplinary procedure among the workers and staff. To implement the buyers COC/ institution, factory acts and compliance in all the factories as per buyer desire. To pre-evaluate the factories before buyers evaluation and make ready the factories as per buyer desire. To conduct constant and regular visit to all the factories in search of new points of compliance and put suggestions to the factory management to remedy as soon as possible time. To make good and peaceful relationship between the employees and employer. To maintain the chemical compliance per buyer’s desire. To maintain and monitor the compliance. To keep the security system update under the security policy . Maintain relation and discipline in the factory for all staffs and workers Deal Recruitment Process Leave Management, Attendance monitoring, Salary Administration, Performance Appraisal. Handling Disciplinary & Grievance issues. Look after employees Health, Safety & Welfare. Look after social security of employees. Organizational Development. Maintain Buyers CoC. Look after the Compliance & HR issues of the factory Complying the EU/USA buyers requirement Maintaining the standard in social and technical compliance issues Updating the essential legal matter i,e Fire certificate, environmental certificate and all statutory permissions Providing reports to the queries of buyer and meet their requirement in connection with compliance issue Supervise the health and safety issues and ensure the readiness for Emergency Conducting Training Program in different level Efficient at all HR Issues (Increment, Disciplinary action, File management, Payroll, training & development etc)Looks after all Compliance Issues in the Factory. Complying the deference Buyer’s COC and applicable Labour Law- 2006. Maintain Register Separately for Leave Employee Insurance. Maternity Cases and Disciplinary procedure and prepare update leave statement, Yearly Increment, Salary Adjustment and individual Salary Statement. Looks after and ensure that Health and Safety issue under the individual Buyer’s requirement. Maintains the good relationship with workers and management. Responsible to deal with labor Law and Law related occupational Safety. Should be responsible to manage all issues related to compliance and provide the summaries feed back. Look after social security of employees. Organizational Development. Maintain requirement of SA 8000, ISO, WRAP, SEDEX, BSCI, FLO-Fare trade, GOTS etc.
Important Component of Social Compliance
Labour welfare activities in an industrialized society has far reaching impact not only on the work force but also all the facets of human resources. Labour welfare includes all such activities, which not only secures existential necessities but also ensures improvement in spiritual and emotional quotient. It comprises of short term and long terms goal toward building a humane society. PRINCIPLES FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF WELFARE ACTIVITIES The success of welfare activities depends on the approach which has been taken into account in providing such activities to the employees. Welfare policy should be guided by idealistic morale and human value. Every effort should be made to give workers/ employees some voice in the choice of welfare activities so long as it does not amount to dictation from workers. There are employers who consider all labour welfare activities as distasteful legal liability. There are workers who look upon welfare activities in terms of their inherent right. Both parties have to accept welfare as activities of mutual concern. Constructive and lasting Progress in the matter of social justice can be achieved only if welfare activities are accepted as essential factors in the progress of the business organization Labour welfare is dependent on certain basic principles. The following are the principles on which successful implementation of welfare programmes depends :
- Adequacy of Wages: Labour welfare measures cannot be a substitute for wages. Workers have a right to adequate wages. But high wage rates alone cannot create healthy atmosphere, nor bring about a sense of commitment on the part of workers. A combination of social welfare, emotional welfare and economic welfare together would achieve good results.
- Social Liability of Industry: Industry, according to this principle, has an obligation or duty towards its employees to look after their welfare. The constitution of India also emphasizes this aspect of labour welfare.
- Impact on Efficiency: This plays an important role in welfare services, and is based on the relationship between welfare and efficiency, though it is difficult to measure this relationship. Programmes for housing, education and training, the provision of balanced diet and family planning measures are some of the important programmes of labour welfare which increases the efficiency of the workers, especially in underdeveloped or developing countries.
- Increase in Personality: The development of the human personality is given here as the goal of industrial welfare which, according to this principle, should counteract the baneful effects of the industrial system. Therefore, it is necessary to implement labour welfare services. Both inside and outside the factory, that is, provide intra-mural and extra-mural labour welfare services.
- Totality of Welfare: This emphasizes that the concept of labour welfare must spread throughout the hierarchy of an organization. Employees at all levels must accept this total concept of labour welfare programme will never really get off the ground.
- Co-ordination or Integration: This plays an important role in the success of welfare services. From this angle, a co-ordinated approach will promote a healthy development of the worker in his work, home and community. This is essential for the sake of harmony and continuity in labour welfare services.
- Democratic Values: The co-operation of the worker is the basis of this principle. Consultation with, and the agreement of workers in, the formulation and implementation of labour welfare services are very necessary for their success. This principle is based on the assumption that the worker is “a mature and rational individual.” Industrial democracy is the driving force here. Workers also develop a sense of pride when they are made to feel that labour welfare programmes are created by them and for them.
- Responsibility: This recognizes the fact that both employers and workers are responsible for labour welfare. Trade unions, too, are involved in these programmes in healthy manner, for basically labour welfare belongs to the domain of trade union activity. Further, when responsibility is shared by different groups, labour welfare work becomes simpler and easier.
- Accountability: This may also be called the Principle of Evaluation. Here, one responsible person gives an assessment or evaluation of existing welfare services on a periodical basis to a higher authority. This is very necessary, for then one can judge and analyze the success of labour welfare programmes.
- Timely: The timeliness of any service helps in its success. To identify the labour problem and to discover what kind of help is necessary to solve it and when to provide this help are all very necessary in planning labour welfare programmes. Timely action in the proper direction is essential in any kind of social work.
Last, but not the least is the fact that labour welfare must aim at helping workers to help themselves in the long run. This helps them to become more responsible and more efficient.
PERCEPTIVE OF LABOUR WELFARE ACTIVITIES The focus on the labour welfare Activities has led to a growing interest by stakeholders who have started to identify the problem of the labour welfare and formulate their position. The main stake holders are the enterprises investors, employees, trade urions and governments. They are, therefore, gradually becoming aware of the potential of labour welfare activities, albeit from different prospective.
The basic questions in this prospective are the followings:
- Should labour welfare activities be mandatory for enterprises ?
- If mandatory should law and/or social organization should regulate the labour welfare activities?
If voluntary, how to secure the interests of the employees at enterprise level ?
STATUTORY WELFARE SCHEMES
The statutory welfare schemes include the following provisions:
- Drinking Water: At all the working places safe hygienic drinking water should be provided.
- Facilities for sitting: In every organization, especially factories, suitable seating arrangements are to be provided.
- First aid appliances: First aid appliances are to be provided and should be readily assessable so that in case of any minor accident initial medication can be provided to the needed employee.
- Latrines and Urinals: A sufficient number of latrines and urinals are to be provided in the office and factory premises and are also to be maintained in a neat and clean condition.
- Canteen facilities: Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employer so as to provide hygienic and nutritious food to the employees.
- Spittoons: In every work place, such as ware houses, store places, in the dock area and office premises spittoons are to be provided in convenient places and same are to be maintained in a hygienic condition.
- Lighting: Proper and sufficient lights are to be provided for employees so that they can work safely during the night shifts.
- Washing places: Adequate washing places such as bathrooms, wash basins with tap and tap on the stand pipe are provided in the port area in the vicinity of the work places.
- Changing rooms: Adequate changing rooms are to be provided for workers to change their cloth in the factory area and office premises. Adequate lockers are also provided to the workers to keep their clothes and belongings.
- Rest rooms: Adequate numbers of restrooms are provided to the workers with provisions of water supply, wash basins, toilets, bathrooms, etc.
NON STATUTORY SCHEMES
Many non statutory welfare schemes may include the following schemes:
- Personal Health Care (Regular medical check-ups): Some of the companies provide the facility for extensive health check-up
- Flexi-time: The main objective of the flextime policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work with flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by management to meet business commitments while supporting employee personal life needs
- Employee Assistance Programs: Various assistant programs are arranged like external counseling service so that employees or members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters.
- Harassment Policy: To protect an employee from harassments of any kind, guidelines are provided for proper action and also for protecting the aggrieved employee.
- Maternity & Adoption Leave – Employees can avail maternity or adoption leaves. Paternity leave policies have also been introduced by various companies.
- Medi-claim Insurance Scheme: This insurance scheme provides adequate insurance coverage of employees for expenses related to hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy.
- Employee Referral Scheme: In several companies employee referral scheme is implemented to encourage employees to refer friends and relatives for employment in the organization.
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in the RMG Sector
Occupational health and safety (OHS) in the garment sector relates to: temperature, noise, light, ventilation, machine, chemical, electrical, and fire safety; and ergonomics. OHS requirements and measurement parameters (if applicable) can be found in:
- The Bangladesh Labor Law 2006 (sections 51-94)
- The NationalBuilding Code 2006
- The ILO Core Labor Conventions (C155, C161)
- Standards as given by the Occupational Safety and Health Authority (OSHA) of the US Labor Department
- International standards (SA8000, BSCI, ETI, WRAP, etc.) and buyers’ codes of conduct
Both employers and workers have a responsibility to contribute to a working environment free of health and safety hazards. OHS training to both mid-level management and workers raises awareness and reduces workplace-related accidents, injuries and diseases. PROMOTING OHS STANDARDS Increased knowledge of OHS standards and their application in the workplace is vital for ensuring the industry’s ability to address current and emerging OHS issues at all levels. PROGRESS promotes the implementation of OHS standards by building the capacity of OHS trainers linked to private and public service providers. In addition, PROGRESS has been assisting partners to carry out improvement activities at the factory level. OHS factory improvement activities are implemented in four steps. Step : 01 Orient factory management and the social compliance office Baseline floor visit Develop corrective action plan (CAP). Step : 02 Monitor implementation of CAP Recommend ways to overcome shortcomings Train mid-level management. Step : 03 Monitor implementation of recommendations Guide workers’ OHS training activities Assess impacts of mid-level management training. Step : 04
- Evaluate OHS improvement measures
Discuss progress achieved with management Recommend further improvement measures.
Occupational Safety and Health
Accidents in the workplace Many serious accidents at work involve machinery and occur for several reasons, including:
- Lack of machine guards
- Poorly designed machine guards (e.g., those that can be removed)
- Poor maintenance of machines and guards
- Lack of supervisory system to ensure that guards are used
- Payment/bonus systems that encourage “shortcuts” (e.g., guards can be removed if they restrict production)
- Lack of adequate training for workers on the safe use of machines
Machine guards are essential for protecting workers from needless and preventable injuries (see the picture below). Any machine part, function, or process which may cause injury must be guarded. All too often workers can get caught in unguarded machinery. A combination of unguarded machines and loose clothing, long hair, dangling chains, gloves, rings, etc., can be fatal. How workers get injured at machines A worker may be injured at machinery as a result of:
- Coming in contact with moving parts of a machine – being hit or getting caught
- Getting trapped between moving parts of a machine or material and any fixed structure
- Being hit by material or parts which have been thrown out of the machine
Machine guards: requirements and types There are a number of general requirements for all machine guards if they are to protect workers against mechanical hazards. Guards must:
- Prevent contact – The guard must prevent hands, arms, or any other part of a worker’s body from coming in contact with dangerous moving parts. A good guard eliminates the possibility of the operator placing their hands near dangerous moving parts.
- Be secure – The guards should be firmly fixed to the machine (or preferably an integral part of the machine) and not easily removed. Remember that if a guard can be removed easily, it is no safeguard at all! Guards should be made of durable materials that can withstand workplace conditions over the lifetime of the machine.
- Protect from falling objects – The guard should ensure that no objects (such as a tool) can fall into moving parts.
- Create no new hazards – A guard defeats its own purpose if it creates another hazard such as its own shear point or a jagged or sharp edge, which can cause cuts.
- Create no interference with work – Any guard which impedes a worker from performing his/her job efficiently and in comfort is likely to be removed or overridden. It should be pointed out that proper guards on machines can actually improve productivity, as workers then have confidence that they will not be injured.
- Allow safe lubrication – If possible, the operator or maintenance worker should be able to lubricate the machine safely without removing the guard or having to reach inside the machine and into any hazardous area.
There are various types of guards that can be used to prevent injury in the workplace, including:
- Fixed guards – These are the most common type of guard found in garment factories and basically prevent any contact between hands, arms, or other body parts and any moving machine parts. They should not easily be removed. In the best cases they provide the maximum amount of protection and require the minimum amount of maintenance. In some cases these guards can interfere with visibility.
- Interlocking guards – When this type of guard is opened or removed, the tripping mechanism and/or power automatically shuts off or disengages. The machine cannot start until the guard is back in place.
- Adjustable guards – These guards are useful because, as the name implies, they allow flexibility in accommodating various sizes (thickness, width, height, etc.) of stock. The best examples in a garment factory are the band knives in the cutting section where the guards are adjustable and can deal with varying thickness of material blocks.
- Self-adjusting guards – The openings of these barriers are determined by the movement of the stock. As the operator moves the stock into the danger area, the guard is pushed away, providing an opening which is only large enough to admit the stock. After the stock is removed, the guard returns to the rest position. In some cases, these guards can interfere with visibility.
There are also a number of other techniques that can be used, including restraints, two-hand controls, safety trips, pullback mechanisms, and automatic feeds. Their name describes the mode of action but all work on a principle of disabling the machine as soon as a part of the body gets near a dangerous, moving component. These safety devices are unfortunately rarely found in garment factories in Cambodia. Guard-related problems in garment factories The most common accidents in the garment industry tend to be:
- Cut fingers, for machine operators in the cutting section
- A needle in the finger, for sewers
- Burns from irons, in the ironing section
(Note: A close analysis of the factory’s accident record book can help to identify priority areas that need to be addressed as a matter of urgency.)As with all machinery, the machines in the garment industry are potentially dangerous. The most obvious are probably the band knives in the cutting section. In a walk-through survey of a garment factory, one of the most common observations is the number of machines that have missing or inadequate guards. As has been discussed, it is important to purchase so-called safe machines with fixed guards as an integral part – guards that cannot be removed, that allow for safe maintenance, and that provide clear visibility. Accidents and unguarded machines Tragically, accidents occur in all workplaces and the garment industry is no different. Accidents are costly to the employer in terms of loss of productivity; to the worker in terms of injury, loss of wages, etc.; and to society as a whole. The three factors that contribute to accidents are:
- faulty technical equipment
- the working environment
- the worker
In the analysis of workplace accidents, it is clear that they are always the result of either unguarded machines, unsafe conditions in the workplace, and/or unsafe acts. In companies with poor industrial relations, there tends to be a “culture of blame”. In apportioning blame:
- Many employers tend to blame the worker for unsafe acts
- Many workers tend to blame the employer for faulty equipment and unsafe environments
It must be remembered that international and Cambodian standards specify that it is the employer’s duty to provide a safe and healthy workplace. In reality, accidents occur as a combination of unsafe conditions and unsafe acts.
Occupational Safety and Health
1. Do workers know how to switch off the machine in case of emergency? Are ON/OFF and cut-off emergency switches clearly marked? 2. Are all workers trained to use the machines safely prior to operation? 3. Are robust, fixed guards attached to dangerous moving parts of machines? 4. Are these machine guards and other protective devices regularly checked and maintained by a qualified person? 5. Have any of the machine guards been removed or are any missing? 6. Is the area around the machine clean, tidy and free from obstruction? 7. Are supervisors informed if machines are not working properly? 8. Do any workers have dangling chains, loose clothing, gloves, rings or long hair which could get caught in moving parts of machines? 9. Are workers wearing appropriate PPE when working with such machines?* Questions 1 – 4, 6, 7 and 9: A “No” answer calls for an entry under “Action Required”. * Questions 5 and 8: A “Yes” answer calls for an entry under “Action required”. Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) is special gear used to protect the wearer from specific hazards of a hazardous substance. It is a last resort protection system, to be used when substitution or engineering controls are not feasible. PPE does not reduce or eliminate the hazard, protects only the wearer, and does not protect anyone else. PPE includes gloves, respiratory protection, eye protection, and protective clothing. The need for PPE is dependent upon the type of operations and the nature and quantity of the materials in use, and must be assessed on a case by case basis. Workers who rely on PPE must understand the functioning, proper use, and limitations of the PPE used. Occupational Health & Safety
- Has a task analysis been completed for jobs requiring use of hand tools on a regular basis? Are suitable ergonomically designed tools selected where possible?
- Did the employees have a say in your tool use options and selection?
- Have the employees been educated on proper ergonomic tool use?
- Does your ergonomic tool selection take into account various hand sizes and grips of employees? Are various sizes made available to the employees?
- Do employees understand that ergonomic tools are to be used within design limitations and only for intended tasks/purposes?
- Are tasks designed where possible to reduce force and strain on the employees?
- Do you ensure tools do not require excessive force or grip to use?
- Are hand tools selected with soft grips, non-slip surfaces, comfortably curved shapes, and appropriate lengths for employees’ use during shifts?
- Is overtime reduction considered as a method to reduce excess strain?
- Are ergonomic tools inspected before use and as needed to keep them in good repair? By policy, does dullness, damage, bending, stress-related cracking, or other wear require that items be removed from service or replaced?
- Are awkward task positions reduced/avoided where possible?
- Is power tool assistance utilized where possible to reduce hand/arm strain?
- Are employees aware of potential injury associated with “non” neutral positions, excessive grip, or excessive force with various tasks and that they can ask for assistance to correct without fear of reprisal?
- For those tasks requiring additional PPE (such as gloves), are additional selection criteria such as fit, decreased grip ability, and size taken into consideration?
- Are work positions adjusted where possible to avoid excessive reaching, bending, or hyperextensions?
- Is excessive vibration controlled/reduced where possible?
- Do employees understand that using hand tools should not cause pain, stiffness, or swelling to hands, wrists, arms, or shoulders? Do they know to report these problems for assistance before an injury occurs?
Health and safetyHealth and safety is a key function in HR and Admin management. Key contents of Health and safety can include ones as follows. 1. Health and safety procedures 2. Health and safety instructions 3. Health and safety training 4. Health and safety records 5. Health and safety committee
HAZARD INVESTIGATION REPORT
Type of Hazard: Date: Location: Department: Investigation was: • Regularly scheduled • Requested by management • Requested by employee • Triggered by outside request Identify requester of investigation: What reasons were given: Work process, procedure, or activity that precipitated hazard: Job titles (departments) of affected employees: Identify potentially hazardous equipment: Identify potentially hazardous materials: Identify potentially hazardous activities: What would it take to trigger an accident or injury? What damage/injuries would result in the worst case scenerio? How likely is the worst case scenerio? What damage/injuries would result in the most likely case? How probable is the most likely case? Has the hazard already caused accidents/injuries? 0 Yes 0 No If so, describe with dates, triggers for incidents, damages, injuries, workdays lost, etc. What alternatives exist that might eliminate the hazard entirely? Include cost and timetable. Extra: List contributing factors and give suggestions on how to control them and what they might cost. Additional findings, recommendations, or suggestions: Investigator’s Name: Signature: Title: Date: Manager’s Signature: Date: Safety compliance questionnaire
• Is the clinic suitably equipped in compliance with the guidelines ( beds, first aid materials, medicines)? • Are screens/curtains provided to allow privacy? • Is there system in place to check expiration dates of medicine? • Are sufficient number of employees trained in First Aid by a recognized organization
First Aid Kits questions
• Are First Aid kits available in all work areas ( 1 per every 100 workers) • Are First Aid kits are easily accessible, identified and/or unlocked? • Are First Aid kits adequately stocked and appropriate for work areas?
Chemical Storage Area
• Are appropriate warning signs displayed? • Is there an effective ventilation system? • Is there an effective secondary containment system for liquid chemicals? • There should be no floor drain in the chemical ware house • Are all drums, containers, dispensers clearly labeled? • Is eye wash is available within 30 M of where chemicals are stored? • Are Fire Extinguisher available? • Is MSDS ( Material Safety Data Sheet ) is posted in areas where chemicals are stored?
Signs/Labeling safety questions
• Are signs /labeling displayed in bilingual language? • Are signs are large enough to see from a distance and clear?
General Equipment / House Keeping / Electricity
• Use of Electricity • Are electrical switches labeled in bilingual language? • Are generators installed suitable earthed? • Are copies of Electrician qualifications certificates etc. kept on file? • Are all electrical maintenance carried out are properly recorded?
General Equipment / House Keeping / Electrical Hazards
• Are “Danger: high Voltage” warning signs clearly displayed around high voltage areas and access to authorized personnel only? • Are high voltage areas are clean and tidy with no material storage? • Is access to generator areas restricted to authorized personnel only? Are warning signs posted? • Is generator room is clean and tidy with no material storage? • Is adequate noise protection provided for workers working in generator rooms? Are hearing protection warning signs displayed? • Is electrical wirings suitably insulated and labeled? • Are workers provided with necessary protective equipment (PPE) and trained in the correct use of PPE?
Machinery safety questions
• Is the risk of personal injury from dangerous machinery controlled by adequate (a) hand operation switches (b) guards (c) minimized gaps (d) emergency stops (e) protective gloves (f) warning signs • Are fan blades adequately guarded (Mesh /screen holes)? • Are all conveyer belt gears, drive shafts and belts adequately guarded? • When necessary, is suitable eye protection provided and used to reduce the risk of eye injuries? • Are air compressor areas clean and tidy and free of material storage? • Are noise level in the work areas acceptable? Have noise survey been conducted?
Kitchen safety questions
• Are Kitchen & floors are kept clean, sanitary, odor free and free of grease? • Are Kitchen Staff given regular medical Check ( particularly test for transmissible disease such as hepatitis and typhoid )? • Are refrigeration facilities available in kitchen? • Are food preparation surfaces clean, free of cracks, cuts etc? • Are there sufficient tables/chairs inside canteen or eating facilities provided under a roof? • Are all preparation knives & chopping boards kept clean, sharp, rust free and are correctly stored? • Are all electrical appliances are in good condition in kitchen? • Is system in place to ensure the food prepared in canteen is fresh /hygienic? • Are all dry foods correctly stored, clear and above the floor? • Is the factory maintained in a clean and tidy state? • Is there arrangements to remove produced waste effectively and regularly? • Are passage way kept clear of obstructions? • Do all kitchen personnel wear hats or hair nets?
Bathrooms / Toilets safety questions
• Is number of toilets sufficient for both men and women ? • The bathroom facilities are clean and generally free of odor? • Are the bathroom facilities are well ventilated and have running water? • Is soap / liquid soap, tissue paper, hand towels available in the toilets? • Are proper masks, rubber shoes, aprons etc provided to house keepers? • Toilets have water flushing system?
Emergency Exits questions
• Is there sufficient directional and exit signs to ensure that all exit routes are clearly indicated in bilingual language • Do all work areas have at least two exits • Emergency Exits door to be opened out side.
Emergency Lighting questions
• Do all emergency lighting units work properly? • Are all Emergency lights tested monthly and records of test kept?
Fire Extinguishers/ Hose Reel / Hydrant
• Are there adequate number of fire extinguishers available? • Are locations of fire extinguishers clearly marked? • Are extinguishers visually checked monthly ( with control tags)? • Are fire extinguishers inspected annually by outside professional agency; documentation is on file
• Does a facility has a documented emergency preparedness program? • Records of Evacuation Drill • Records of tests of alarm & emergency lighting system • Does the facility has the documented fire & emergency evacuation plan? • The plan has floor maps prominently displayed in the factory ( including office)? • Actual Location ( “You are here”) • Extinguisher location • Identification of major fire risks • Phone numbers of local fire dept(s) • Phone numbers of ambulance/hospital • Evacuation routes • Assembly areas EMPLOYEE ACCIDENT REPORT No: Date: Name of the Department : Location : Name of the Person Injured : Age : Name of person to whom working: Profession : Date and Time of Accident : Address Name & Address of the Witness : Nature of Accident : Minor / Medium / Severe or Major Details of Accident (Provide details of how the Accident happened) Nature of Injury : Action Taken : Report Prepared By: Counter Signed by admin manager: ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENT No: Date: Name of the Project : Location : Name of the Person Injured : Nature of Injury : Reasons : Individual Fault/ Lack of Supervision/ Lack of Knowledge Measures Suggested : Corrective Measures taken Action taken by admin manager: Signature of admin manager: Directions & Signature of Technical Head Date : OSH management commitment checklist OSH management commitment checklist 1. Adequate resources are provided for safety management. 2. Employees are provided sufficient time to perform tasks related to OSH 3. Employees are made accountable for safety and health in their area of responsibility. 4. Managers and employees understand and accept their responsibilities under the OSH Act. 5. Managers and Supervisors at all levels are actively involved in safety management. 6. Competent person coordinates safety management activities. 7. There is an up-to-date University OSH Policy in your area 8. All employees know about the OSH Policy Workplace effectiveness checklist This checklist help you to improve your workplace conditions 1. Are parts identified by number and status? 2. Is cell documentation in place per requirements. 3. Note any unsafe conditions. Involve the operators. 4. Is required documentation being completed in a timely manner? 5. Is the process flow available and being followed? 6. Is the cell operating per the control plan? 7. If SPC is utilized are the charts noting a stable process? 8. Are cell personnel training records available and are they certified to operate in the cell? 9. Are nonconforming products identified and stored as not to enter the process flow? 10. Are operators aware that they have the authority and responsibility to shut down production if nonconforming product is detected? 11. Explain XXXXXs Quality Policy 12. Do you know where to find the documents and procedures that affect your job? (On Network or at workstation). 13. Do you know how to initiate or change a company document? 14. Do the operators understand the nonconforming material process? 15. What improvements can the cell personnel define? What is Blood-Borne Pathogens Standard? Blood-Borne Pathogens Standard is an OSHA standard that sets forth requirements for employers with workers exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials. In order to reduce or eliminate the hazards of occupational exposure, an employer must implement an exposure control plan for the worksite with details on employee protection measures. The plan must also describe how an employer will use a combination of engineering and work practice controls, ensure the use of personal protective clothing and equipment, provide training, medical surveillance, hepatitis B vaccinations, and signs and labels, among other provisions. Engineering controls are the primary means of eliminating or minimizing employee exposure and include the use of safer medical devices, such as needleless devices, shielded needle devices and plastic capillary tubes. What is MSDS? Material safety data sheet (MSDS) is a detailed description of each hazardous chemical located in the workplace, which includes information regarding potential health risks, symptoms and treatment measures to be taken if exposure occurs. First aiders job description First aiders job description
Number of first – aiders
The number of First-Aiders shall be provided according strength of manpower in the Departments / Sections.
First Aider Duties
1. Cover overview of first aid services required during specific times refer to Departments / sections about policy on first aid and how this applies to the provision of first aid services. 2. Provide information on first aid emergency awareness training for staff including emergency notification processes, responsible officers and provision of emergency phone numbers. 3. Cover how to provide staff and student awareness sessions in first aid and emergency procedures. 4. Provide opportunity for discussion on or investigation of employee’s safety issues. Adventure Activities are reference sources. 5. Provide information and practical exercises on range of first aid treatments of commonly occurring first aid incidents – cuts, abrasions, contusions, management of severe bleeding, basic wound care, fractures and soft tissue injury. 6. Provide information and practical exercises on emergency life support including care of life threatening conditions possible. 7. Participating in the risk management process within the Factory as part of the OHS leadership team. 8. Providing first aid emergency awareness training for staff and workers including emergency notification processes, a list of responsible Statutory officers and provision of emergency phone numbers. 9. Coordinating first aid duty rosters and maintaining first aid room and first aid kits. 10. Providing first aid services commensurate with competency and training. 11. Providing input on first aid requirements for excursions. 12. Summaries major first aid duties. 13. Cover information on first aid kit contents and first aid room design and contents. 14. Provide information and practical exercises on response to common health issues requiring first aid. First aid policy
Definition of first aid
First aid is defined as emergency treatment and life support provided to employees, and visitors who suffer injury or illness while at workplace.
Purpose of first aid
• To encourage preventative measures which include the development of procedures to minimize emergency situations and to promote safety awareness. • To provide all employees with an awareness of safety issues and first aid skills within the context of a comprehensive health education. • To ensure that workplaces are supplied with the resources and training necessary to provide effective initial treatment in the event of sudden illness or injury to employees.
Principles of first aid
• The Safety Committees’ approach towards health and safety is primarily one of prevention. • Effective first aid should be available to all employees who need it. • First aid is to be a part of a comprehensive health education program for employees as outlined in the personality development framework. • Adequate training and resources are to be provided to effectively deliver first aid in the event of sudden illness or injury to employees.
First Aid Room
First aid room it should be • Located to provide easy access to injured persons. It should be well illuminated, ventilated and clearly identified. • Easy access for a stretcher or wheelchair • Access to a sink or washbasin • Electric power points • Couch or bed with blankets and pillows • Arm chair • Stretcher • Telephone access • Red light above the outside door • An emergency bell • Workplaces with more than 100 employees will have a first aid room. • Workplaces without a first aid room should provide a first aid area (‘sick bay’) for ill or injured people to rest. These areas should meet as many as possible of the minimum requirements for first aid rooms. • All employees should be advised of the location of the first aid room/area.
First Aid Kits
• Minimum requirements for First Aid Kits are: One major First Aid Kit at the sick bay. • The location, content and number of other first aid kits shall be determined having regard to: number of departments / sections; the number of employees using the area; the nature of hazards; the frequency and types of accidents; authorized after hours programs or shift work.
FIRST AID INSTRUCTIONS
When below situation happen, all manager/supervisor, employee must follow instructions as follows: 1. Abdominal wounds • No time must be lost in sending the patient to the hospital. • Keep the patient flat. • Give nothing by mouth • Maintain warmth. • If intestines protrude from the wound, do not attempt to touch or replace them. • Apply sterile dressing and binder as for wounds. • Provide careful, immediate transportation to the hospital. 2. Eye-wounds • Removal may be attempted, if foreign body is not embedded. • Do not apply oil or ointment. • If there is foreign body embedded in the eye ball, send the worker immediately to the doctor after applying pad and loose bandage. 3. Chemical Burns of the Eyes • Immediate washing of the eye at least for fifteen minutes if of great importance. • Apply sterile bandage and send the worker immediately to the doctor. • Neutralizing agents or ointments should be used. 4. Shock • Lay the patient on his back. • Stop bleeding if any. • Relieve pain by supporting injured part. • Keep the patient comfortable, but not hot. Do not cause Sweating. • Fluids may be given in small amounts unless the patient is nauseated, unconscious, likely to be operated on, or has an abdominal wound. • Reassure and cheer up the patient. 5. Wounds • Stop the bleeding, by any of the following methods: Direct pressure; Direct finger pressure into the wound in cases of large bleeding wounds; Tourniquet (seldom needed) use only as a last resort. • Avoid touching the wound with hands or unsterile material. • Clear the wound with running water and surrounding area with soap or spirit with clean gauze washing away from the wound. Apply ready made adhesive gauze bandage or sterile gauze and roller bandage as needed. • Keep the patient quiet : raising the extremely if it is the bleeding par, give no stimulants. • Never apply anti-septic ointment, lotion or iodine or germicide tot eh wound. 6. Suffocation • Remove the patient from the source of danger. • Make a rapid examination to ensure that the air passages are free and clean them, if necessary. • Restore natural breathing by artificial respiration, if breathing has ceased. 7. Electric Shock • Remove the patient from the source of danger. • Make a rapid examination to ensure that the air passages are free and clean them, if necessary. • Restore natural breathing by artificial respiration, if breathing has ceased. 8. Bruises • Cold applications at first 24 – 48 hours. • Later heat – after 24 – 48 hours. 9. Burns • Act quickly. • Put the affected part in cold water. • Pour water over burns that cannot be immersed (cold water relieves pain, reduces fluid loss). • Cover affected area with a sterilized dressing. 10. Snake bite • Clam and reassure the patient, immobilize the bitten limb by splinting it. • Wash and cool the wound with soap water. • Do not cut, rub, or suck the bite. • Take a doctor. • Press hard over wound for 15 minutes. • Do not remove cloth if it has been placed. 11. Insensibility • Send for doctor if possible. • Pending his arrival. • Where the patient’s face is pale, lay him flat and face downwards with his head turned to one side. If his face blushed or blue, raise and support the head and shoulders. • Control any serious bleeding. • Loosen any tight clothing and let him have plenty of air. • Do not give anything by mouth. • If doctor is not available send the casualty to hospital. 12. Backbone (Spinal) Fracture • Transport on a rigid frame. This frame may be improvised by using available board or a door. • The rigid frame may be placed on a stretcher for transportation. • If a frame cannot be improvised, transport patient on abdomen on stretcher made of canvas or blanket. • In neck fracture cases it is much better to get a doctor to the scene for danger to life is great. First aid boxes First aid boxes First aid boxes can include components as follows: 1. Note-Book for monthly Replenishment indent, Qty = 2pcs 2. Sterilized Wound dressings small size, Qty = 5pcs 3. Sterilized Wound dressings medium size, Qty = 5pcs 4. Sterilized Wound dressings large size, Qty = 5pcs 5. Sterilized eye pad, Qty = 5pcs 6. Sterilised packet of Cotton wool, Qty = 2pcs 7. Roller Bandages ( 2 inches), Qty = 2pcs 8. Roller Bandages ( 4 inches), Qty = 2pcs 9. Bottle of Betadine antiseptic solution, Qty = 1pcs 10. Iodex Ointment or similar, Qty = 1pcs 11. Antiseptic Cream tube, Qty = 1pcs 12. Ointments for burns, Qty = 1pcs 13. Triangular Bandage, Qty = 1pcs 14. Adhesive Plaster Roll, Qty = 1pcs 15. Eye Drops, Qty = 1pcs 16. Pair of scissors, Qty = 1pcs 17. Tablet Crocin, Qty = 15pcs 18. Band-aid strips, Qty = 10pcs Note : First aid boxes by weekly. Hazard training checklist 1. Identify which employees need training. 2. Include new-employee training before their first project. 3. Share with employees the hazards associated with performing non-routine tasks. 4. Train employees to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in the workplace. 5. Train employees on how to reduce or eliminate their exposure to hazardous chemicals in their work areas. 6. Inform employees of the specific information and training requirements for the standard. 7. Notify employees as to the requirements of the standard and their rights under the law. 8. Make certain employees are aware of the training requirements. 9. Inform employees of the different types of chemicals and the hazards associated with each. 10. Instruct employees on the proper handling techniques for potentially hazardous chemicals. 11. Instruct employees in emergency and first-aid procedures and in identifying the warning signs of overexposure. 12. Post a list of all the hazardous chemicals in the workplace. 13. Train employees to know when and how to update this hazardous chemical list. 14. Develop an MSDS for each hazardous chemical in the workplace. 15. Fully explain how to use an MSDS. 16. Notify employees of the list of hazardous chemicals and MSDS and where they are located. 17. Explain to employees how to read the labels of hazardous chemicals and their warnings. 18. Create a system to ensure that all incoming hazardous chemicals are checked for proper labels and MSDS. 19. Develop a way to identify and inform employees of new hazardous chemicals before they are introduced to the workplace. 20. Establish a way to inform employees of new hazards associated with the chemicals they already use. 21. Develop a way to keep track of which employees receive training. 22. Establish procedures to ensure proper labeling for containers that hold hazardous chemicals.
FIRST AID AND MANAGEMENT
OF MINOR INJURIES
Serious accidents and injuries on expeditions are rare. However, minor injuries ofone kind or another are encountered on most expeditions. In some cases injuredexpedition members need to be evacuated to medical care, but most injuries can bemanaged adequately in the field. First aid books are of limited use to expeditionsgoing overseas as they place great emphasis on getting medical help which in many parts of the world may be many days’ travel away. This chapter covers the followingtopics: • Approach to the injured casualty • Resuscitation • Disorders of consciousness • Wound care • Wound infections • Burns • Bone and joint problems • Pain management PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID • Assess the situation • Make the area safe • Assess the casualty – starting with the ABC of resuscitation – identify the injury or illness • Give easy, appropriate and adequate treatment in a sensible order of priority • Make and pass on a report • Organise removal of casualty to secondary care where appropriate PRINCIPLES OF RESUSCITATION A Assessment of the scene A Airway with neck control B Breathing C Circulation with control of bleeding D Disability E Exposure with environment control BASIC RESUSCITATION Basic life support is the maintenance of breathing and circulation without the use ofequipment apart from a simple airway device or a shield to protect the person beingresuscitated from possible infection. The combination of (mouth-to-mouth) expiredair resuscitation and chest compression is known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR). The best way to learn about CPR is to go on a first aid course (see Chapter ).The main points are summarised here as a reminder. Outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation Survival from cardiac arrest is most likely when the collapse is witnessed, when earlycardiopulmonary resuscitation is started and defibrillation (electric shock treatmentof the heart) and advanced life support are started at an early stage. On an expedition,it is unlikely that advanced life support will be available. If attempts at resuscitationare not successful after minutes, the chances of success are extremely low. There are two important exceptions: where a victim has been struck by lightning orhas been immersed in cold water. In these cases successful resuscitation has occurredafter hours or more. Important note. If the pulse is absent (cardiac arrest) it is unlikely that the casualty will recover as a result of cardiopulmonary resuscitation alone. Once the heart has stopped beating the casualty is dead, and if your attempts to resuscitate are unsuccessful the casualty remains dead. It is important to remember this if the casualty does not recover. Outline of resuscitation: At the scene of an incident on an expedition where there appears to be an unresponsive patient: • Stop and think. • Do NOT put yourself in danger – ask the question “Am I safe?” • Approach the casualty and assess the situation. • Assess the casualty’s response; say loudly: “Are you OK?” Gently shake the shoulders. If the casualty responds: • Assess and treat any injuries or medical conditions • Consider placing the casualty in the recovery position, but alwaysremember that a spinal injury may be present. If there is no response: • Shout for help. • Open the airway by lifting the jaw upwards (chin lift), but avoid extending the neck more than necessary (head tilt). • Remove any obvious obstructions in the mouth but do not poke fingersblindly into the mouth. • Look at the chest, listen and feel if the casualty is breathing out against your cheek for seconds. If there is no breathing: • Give two breaths of expired air resuscitation. Pinch the casualty’s nostrils, take a breath, place lips over the casualty’s lips and breath out steadily into the casualty’s chest. This should take about seconds.Watch to ensure that the chest rises. Use a protective shield if available. • After two breaths check the carotid pulse (if trained to do so) in the neck for seconds and look for other signs of circulation: choking, coughing, return of colour.If there is no pulse or sign of circulation commence chest compressions. • First identify the site for chest compressions: run fingers along the rib margin to the breast bone. • Place your index and middle fingers together at this point then slide the heel of the other hand to touch above your fingers. Ensure that only the heel of the hand is in contact with the casualty. • Interlock the fingers and leaning well over the casualty with your arms straight, press down vertically at a rate of approximately compressions per minute. In an adult the compressions should be about –cm in depth.Compression and release phases should be equal in time. • After compressions give two breaths of expired air resuscitation and repeat. Do not stop to check for a pulse – if resuscitation is successful the casualtywill start to cough, swallow or choke. Dangers of resuscitation There is understandable concern about the transmission of blood-borne diseases during resuscitation – particularly HIV and hepatitis. Although viruses can be isolated from the saliva of infected persons, transmission is rare and there are only fifteen documented cases of CPR-related infection in the literature. Three cases of HIV have been reported and were acquired during resuscitation of infected patients – ontwo occasions from a needle-stick injury and in the third after heavy contaminationof broken skin. To minimise the risk of acquiring infection rescuers should wear gloves and usebarriers whenever possible. Great care must be taken with sharp objects. DISORDERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS It is very worrying if someone cannot respond normally on an expedition because of an accident or illness. There are many reasons why someone may not be fully conscious; some of the commoner causes are: • Head injuries • Fainting • Convulsions • Death. Head injuries Head injuries are a significant risk on expeditions, particularly in mountaineeringaccidents, motor vehicle accidents and on building project sites.Head injuries can resultin changes in conscious level, bleeding, infection and disability.It is very important to avoid injuring the neck when moving patients after head injuries as about % of individuals who receive a head injury that causes unconsciousness will have an associated neck injury. Be suspicious of a neck injury in anyonewho has a significant injury above the collarbones.Minor head injuries may cause a transient loss of consciousness, but serious open head injuries are usually rapidly fatal. It is helpful to know a little more about headinjuries so that decisions about the need for evacuation can be made. The followingtypes of head injuries will be discussed: • Closed head injuries • Closed head injuries – with internal bleeding – with brain swelling • Open head injuries • Base of skull fractures. Closed head injuries In closed head injuries the skull remains intact and there is no communication between the brain and the outside world. Bleeding or brain swelling may complicate closed head injuries. Closed head injuries with internal bleeding Any head injury may result in loss of consciousness. If the head injury is serious a patient may never regain consciousness; conversely, a minor injury may result in a brief loss of consciousness with mild concussion (a temporary loss of brain function). Where bleeding inside the skull complicates a head injury, the patient may be knocked out at the time of the injury, regain consciousness (the lucid interval) and then lose consciousness again. As blood collects inside the skull it exerts pressure on the brain tissue. Increasing pressure inside the skull results in increasing coma and eventually death. The Glasgow Coma Scale describes the changes as a patient becomes more deeply unconscious Closed head injuries with brain swelling During a head injury, the brain moves inside the skull and may be damaged against the bony ridges inside the base of the skull or by the impact against the inside of the skull. The greater the degree of swelling, the deeper and longer the coma is likely to be. Open head injuries These injuries are usually serious because there is communication between the inside of the skull and the outside world and hence the main danger is the risk of infection. A common scenario might be a large scalp laceration with an underlying skull fracture. If available, antibiotics should be given during evacuation. In severe open head injuries the skull is open with brain substance exposed.Great force is required to produce these injuries and the outcome is usually severe disability or death, even if the injury occurs near a properly equipped hospital. Fractures of the base of the skull These are open head injuries, because in fractures of the base of the skull infection may spread from the nose, ears or sinuses. Features of base-of-skull fractures are as follows: • Racoon eyes – bruising around both eyes following a blow to the head • Battle’s sign – bruising behind the ear • Cerebrospinal fluid leaking from the ears or nose. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the straw-coloured fluid that bathes the brain and spinalcord and helps to protect them from injury. Bloodstained fluid from the ears or nosemay contain blood and CSF. If the fluid is dripped onto a sheet or handkerchief, twoconcentric rings are formed if both blood and CSF are present. Because of the risk ofinfection, antibiotics should be given during evacuation.. Treatment of head injuries All head injuries should be treated according to first aid principles: A Assessment of the scene. Ensure that you do not endanger yourself. A Airway with neck control. An unconscious casualty’s airway is at risk as many people vomit following a head injury. The gag and cough reflexes may not function normally to clear the airway, depending on the level of unconsciousness, so it is important to place the casualty carefully in the recovery position A chin lift and head tilt will normally open the airway. Remember the possibility of an associated neck injury, but always give the airway priority. Try to avoid overextending the neck and stabilise the neck in a neutral position. B Breathing. Once the airway is secure, check that breathing is adequate and measure the breathing rate. C Circulation with control of bleeding. Look for any obvious external haemorrhage and control bleeding with direct pressure.Measure the pulse rate. D Disability. Assess the response level using AVPU: • Awake and Alert • Voice – responds to voice • Pain – responds to pain • Unresponsive. Look at the pupils and check that they constrict when a light is shone into the eye. Rising pressure inside the skull may mean that one or both pupils fail to respond to light and are fixed and dilated. This is a serious sign and means evacuation should be arranged immediately.The Glasgow Coma Scale allows a more comprehensive assessment of unconsciousness. E Exposure with environment control. Examine the casualty carefully from head to toe by undressing but always be aware of the risk of hypothermia. Do not move the casualty unnecessarily. Head injuries and the need for evacuation When a head injury occurs in a remote place, it is often difficult to know whether you should cancel your expedition plans and head off to the nearest hospital or whether it is safe to observe a casualty in a base camp or similar. Three groups of patients always need tobe evacuated for expert medical assessment: . Patients who remain unconscious. . Patients who have open or base-of-skull fractures. . Patients who have had a convulsion or fit. It is more difficult to decide whether to evacuate a conscious patient following a head injury. The following pointers may be helpful in deciding who to evacuate: • Worsening headache • Vomiting • Drowsiness • Confusion • A dilated, unresponsive pupil on one or both sides • Convulsions • Blood or fluid seeping from the ears or nose • Deep scalp lacerations • Worsening Glasgow Coma Scale score. It is always better to be overcautious where head injuries are concerned. If in doubt, make arrangements to evacuate the patient for assessment in a hospital. Fainting Fainting is not usually a serious condition and may follow severe pain, exhaustion, dehydration (for example, following a bout of diarrhoea), lack of food or an emotional upset. Faints are caused by a temporary decrease in the flow of blood to thebrain. The pulse becomes very slow during a faint, unlike in shock where the pulse is rapid. Someone who is about to faint usually becomes very pale, starts to sweat and may feel nauseated.At the first signs, encourage the patient to sit down with their head between their legs or to lie flat. If the patient loses consciousness, lay him or her flat, loosen tight clothing and elevate the legs. Usually, unconsciousness lasts only a few minutes; sometimes there are convulsive movements during the faint.After regaining consciousness the casualty should be reassured and checked for any injury that may have been sustained during the fall to the ground. Convulsions A fit or a seizure is caused by abnormal electrical activity in one or more parts of the brain. Fits are most commonly seen in people with epilepsy but can occur with brain infections (meningitis and encephalitis) or following head injuries. People with diabetes may fit when their blood sugar level becomes low. People with alcohol and drug problems may fit during withdrawal. If there are people with epilepsy in your expedition team it would be wise to learn more about the management of their disease. If a fit does occur it is important to note the following: • How long did the fit last? • Was there loss of consciousness? • Were all limbs involved in the convulsion? • Was there eye rolling, salivation and incontinence? • Was there a period of sleepiness after the fit? During a fit, teeth may be broken and the tongue may be bitten. Sometimes vomit is breathed into the lungs leading to pneumonia or asphyxia. Injuries may occur as a result of falling at the beginning of a seizure. Prolonged fits may deprive the brain of oxygen and result in brain damage, although this is rare. Treatment of a fit • Do not restrain the person unless injury is likely. • Open the airway with head tilt and chin lift. • Do NOT force things between the teeth – you may break teeth or get bitten. • Place the casualty in the recovery position . • If a fit occurs following a head injury, evacuate immediately. • If meningitis appears likely treat with antibiotics and arrange evacuation. Meningitis should be suspected if a patient has a high fever, severe headache, vomiting or a stiff neck, is very sensitive to light and has a rash. The diagnosis of death Unfortunately, death is always a risk in a remote wilderness setting. It is therefore essential to diagnose death with certainty, particularly if a body is to be buried at sea or cremated in the mountains. Victims of hypothermia and cold water immersion injury should not be considered dead until they are warm and dead. In some cases where a body must be left behind it may be important to take photographs toestablish the facts. The signs of death are as follows: • Unresponsiveness • Absent heart sounds • No breathing effort • Pupils are fixed and dilated when a light is shone into them • Later signs include rigor mortis (stiffness) and clouding of the cornea of the eyes. WOUND CARE Minor cuts and grazes are common on expeditions. All wounds may be managed using the following principles: • Stop the bleeding. • Decrease the risk of infection by cleaning. • Dress the injury for comfort and to maintain cleanliness. • Promote healing and restore function. Stopping bleeding All wounds bleed to a greater or lesser extent. In some cases, bleeding may be life threatening. As always, use first aid principles: • Apply direct pressure over the wound with any available clean material or dressing. • Lay the casualty down. • Raise the limb above the level of the heart. • Apply further dressings to control the bleeding on top of any original pad. • Bandage firmly to hold dressing in place. When there are very deep wounds it may not be possible to control bleeding by applying pressure on the surface of the skin. The only way to stop severe, persistent bleeding from deep inside a wound may be to remove the dressings, open the wound, remove clots and debris, and pack the wound open with sterile gauze. The use of artery forceps should be avoided as they may damage important structures such as tendons and nerves.Tourniquets should be reserved for injuries where a limb has been amputated or for uncontrollable bleeding. The tourniquet should be released every 10–15 minutes otherwise tissues beyond the tourniquet will die. Preventing infection • Clean all wounds with an antiseptic solution. • Remove any foreign material. • Cover wound with a non-stick dressing. • Bandage to hold the dressing in place. If foreign bodies are deeply embedded and cannot be removed easily, they should be left in place for removal by a surgeon. If an object remains embedded, the surrounding wound should still be cleaned carefully and then dressed. In the UK wounds are quickly seen by a doctor or nurse; however, during an expedition it may be necessary to care for wounds for days or even weeks. Every wound should be inspected at least daily and clean dressings applied. Any pus or exudate should be gently removed but damage to healing tissues must be avoided. If dressings do stick, soaking may allow easier removal. Infection with tetanus should not be a risk for expedition wounds if all expedition members are immunised correctly prior to travel butalways check on a casualty’s tetanus immunisation status. Dressings and bandaging The principle of wound dressing is to apply layers to the wound: . Non-stick sterile dressing against the wound (such as Melolin or Jelonet). . Sterile gauze swabs to absorb any pus or exudate from the wound. . Crepe bandage, Tubinet or Tubigrip to hold the dressing in place. The bandage should hold the dressing in place without producing pressure or constriction. Bandaging techniques are taught on all first aid courses. Promoting healing and restoration of function Wound healing is aided by a healthy diet and rest. Any significant wound will heal more quickly with an increase in oxygen at altitudes below .. Rest is neededinitially but prolonged splinting leads to stiffness and muscle wasting. Joints adjacent to a wound or burn should be kept mobile. Methods of wound closure A gaping wound will heal better if the skin edges are brought together. This may beaccomplished with Steri-strips or sutures. Steri-strips Steri-strips are paper stitches which come in a variety of lengths and widths. They areplaced across a laceration and, if left in place for a week or so, result in a clean, neatscar. Steri-strips are not as effective near joints, on the palms of the hands and solesof the feet, or on the scalp. However, they are excellent for finger lacerations and facialwounds. Steri-strips stick less effectively in humid or wet environments, such asthe jungle or at sea. Applying Friar’s Balsam to the skin may help to keep the Steristripsin place. Suturing Steri-strips should be used where possible. If Steri-strips will not close the wound,sutures will be necessary. Only clean wounds that are less than hours old are suitablefor suturing. Deep wounds may need to be closed in layers by a qualified surgeon.This is outside the skill of an expedition paramedic; in this case the woundshould be cleaned, packed open and redressed daily. This may allow the wound toheal from the bottom upwards. Sutures should never be applied to animal or human bites, deep wounds or contaminated wounds. Types of wounds Abrasions These are grazing injuries where the top surface of the skin is removed. Abrasions should be cleaned and a non-stick dressing applied. Ingrained dirt, if not removed, will result in tattooing and makes wound infection more likely. Dressings may need to be changed once or twice daily depending on the environment. Dressings may stick and can be soaked off with clean water or saline. Puncture wounds Infection may occur at the base of deep, penetrating wounds. Tetanus is a risk, particularly with puncture wounds, and all expedition team members should be immunised. The skin surface should be prevented from sealing over by placing a small wick into the wound. This allows healing to occur from the bottom of a puncture wound upwards, otherwise abscess formation may occur. Blisters Blisters are best prevented. All group members should be encouraged to stop walking and to cover “hot spots” before they develop into blisters. If a blister does develop, the fluid should be drained using a clean (sterile) needle and then the area covered with an adhesive plaster or Moleskin. Compeed and Spenco are alternative dressings. Blis-ters may become de-roofed; in this case treat as a graze with a non-adherent dressing. A thin application of Friar’s Balsam at the edge of a blister may help the dressing to stay in place. Healing is rapid if friction at the blister site can be eliminated. Leaving the blister uncovered, where possible, will assist healing by allowing the area to dry out. Bruises Contusions or bruises are usually caused by a direct blow to the skin surface. Bleeding under the skin gives the bruise its characteristic appearance. Rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE) all help to reduce swelling and pain. Compression may be achieved by applying a crepe bandage firmly around the affected area. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or aspirin may also help. After a day or two the affected part should be mobilised to reduce stiffness. A subungual haematoma (a blood blister beneath the finger nail) can be easily treated by melting a hole through the nail using an opened paper clip heated to red heat in a flame. This is surprisingly painless and gives immediate relief. Crush injuries Large amounts of tissue may be damaged in crushing injuries and the potential for infection is high. The crushed part should be carefully cleaned and then elevated. Swelling in the affected part may cut off the blood supply to the limb beyond the injury. If the injury is severe there may be a risk of losing the limb and it is important to evacuate the casualty for medical assessment. Amputation A digit or limb may be replaced by microsurgery if the patient and the amputated part can be delivered to a surgeon in less than hours. The amputated part should be kept cool, preferably in a container with ice, but not in direct contact with the ice. In an expedition setting it is highly unlikely that such surgical facilities will be available; in this case, treat the bleeding with direct pressure and elevation. The stump should be cleaned gently and then covered with a non-adherent dressing such as paraffin gauze. People with these injuries need to be evacuated to allow surgical treatment to shorten any bone ends and cover the stump with a flap of skin so that healing cantake place. Impalement An impaled object protruding from a wound should be left in place. Removing an impaled object may cause further damage and therefore should be done in a suitably equipped hospital. Large objects, such as arrows or fence posts, may need to be stabilised and carefully cut to allow evacuation. Pain relief will be required. Wounds causing particular problems Deep wounds In a deep wound underlying structures, for example arteries, nerves, tendons and muscles, may be damaged. It is important to assess: • Movement: the patient should be asked to move the affected part through the full normal range. • Circulation: check by feeling for pulses and look for capillary refill (see below). • Sensation: check beyond the level of the injury To check for capillary refill press firmly over a fingernail or bony prominence for seconds to produce blanching. When the pressure is released the colour should begin to return quickly (in less than seconds), otherwise indicating the patient to be extremely cold or shocked, or that the blood supply to the limb is interrupted. If the blood supply to a limb is completely interrupted it will be painful, pulseless, pale and cold. Surgical treatment is required within a few hours to salvage the limb. Deep wounds are also prone to infection. They should be cleaned carefully and packed open so that the wound can heal from the bottom upwards. Dressings should be changed daily until the wound can be dealt with surgically. Neck wounds Injuries to the neck may be associated with damage to important underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves and the airway. Neck wounds should be cleaned carefully but never probed. Unless the wound is clearly superficial it should be assessed medically. Bandages should never be placed around the neck as subsequent swelling may compromise the airway. Flaps Flap wounds are caused by slicing injuries, for example with machetes on expeditions. Proximal structures are those near to the trunk; distal structures are those further away. In a proximal flap the point of attachment of the flap of skin is towards the trunk. Since arteries travel away from the heart, proximal flaps have a reasonable blood supply. Conversely, in a distal flap the point of attachment of the skin lies distal to the rest of the wound. The blood supply is therefore poor and so the skin overlying distal flaps often becomes infected and dies. When managing a flap wound: • Turn the skin flap back and clean underneath. • Snip away small pieces of dead tissue with sterile scissors. • Apply a non-stick dressing around the edges of the wound, under the flap. This stops the wound from sealing and allows exudate to drain away. It is important to let a flap wound heal from its base to its tip. Distal flaps usually become dusky and either dry out and go black or become infected. Patients with such flaps need to be evacuated for surgical treatment and usually require skin grafting. Treated properly, however, proximal flaps often heal well without infection. Flap wounds need to be re-dressed daily and a little less non-stick dressing applied eachday so as to allow the flap to heal. Flap wounds should not be closed with sutures. Contaminated wounds Wounds are very likely to become contaminated in some environments such as the jungle. Wounds should be cleaned carefully to remove any foreign material that might form a focus for infection. Painkillers given half an hour before scrubbing out a wound may decrease pain during the procedure; alternatively, an injection of local anaesthetic may make the task of cleaning the wound easier if someone is available to administer it. Debris can be flushed out of the wound using sterile saline. Contaminated wounds should not be sutured closed. It is better to let the wound heal from the bottom upwards by packing the wound open and changing dressings daily. Oral antibiotics may be necessary if wounds are very deep or contaminated, particularly if there are signs of infection (see below). These wounds should heal but there may be scarring. Hand and foot wounds Wound complications in the hands or feet may result in crippling deformity.Any significant foot wound will not heal while an expedition member continues to walk around, so rest is imperative.Wounds should be treated by cleaning, careful assessment of movement, circulation and sensation, and then rest in the position of function. In the case of the hand, this means bandaging the hand with a sock or a crepe bandage initially, followed by gentle mobilisation. It should never be splinted with the hand and fingers straight, since if there is any stiffness after the injury the hand will be useless. Infections in the hands or feet can be devastating. If there is any suspicion of infection antibiotics should be started sooner rather than later (flucloxacillinor erythromycin). Facial wounds Facial wounds usually heal quickly and with little infection. They should be cleaned, closed using Steri-strips rather than sutures where possible, and dressed as usual. Eye abrasions Corneal abrasions can be caused by the removal of part or all of the top surface of thetransparent cornea. This may be caused by a foreign body such as a contact lens,which may or may not leave a remnant in the eye. These abrasions can be extremelypainful and visually debilitating. Immediate relief and some restoration of vision canbe achieved with a drop of amethocaine, which can be repeated but should not beused in excess. If the patient is in safe surroundings, a drop of tropicamide and chloramphenicol ointment can be applied and the eye should then be firmly padded, takingcare that the lids are closed beneath the pad. Even a total removal of the cornealtop layer should heal within hours. If not, further specialised attention should besought to exclude an infection or retained foreign body. Bites Animal and human bites almost invariably become infected. Wounds should be cleaned very carefully and any dead tissue snipped away with a pair of sterile scissors. As these wounds are likely to become infected it is sensible to use antibiotics (coamoxiclav or Augmentin) prophylactically. Scalp wounds The scalp has a very good blood supply and lacerations usually bleed copiously. Bleeding should be stopped with direct pressure. The skin edges may be brought together by tying the hair together, by using surgical “superglue” (for example Histoacryl) or by suturing the skin edges. Foreign bodies Foreign bodies in the eye The patient is usually sure that something has gone into the eye. Check the surface of the eye carefully by asking the casualty to look in all directions. It may be possible to see the offending object and to remove it with a moistened cotton bud. However, often the foreign body is under the upper lid or there is too much spasm of the eyelid muscle to allow a good view. A couple of drops of local anaesthetic (amethocaine drops) will produce numbness after momentary stinging. It should then be possible to examine the eye more easily and evert the cartilagenous tarsal plate of the upper lid to check for a foreign body. To evert the lid ask the patient to look downwards. Grasp the upper eye lashes firmly while applying a cotton bud or match-stick to the skin crease of the upper lid. Push down with the cotton bud while lifting the eyelashes upwards with the other hand. This should provide a good view of the underside of the upper lid. Any foreign body can then be removed. If the foreign body cannot be removed easily the patient should be assessed by a doctor or nurse. Relief is usually instant and dramatic but the foreign body may have left an abrasion that can feel like a persistent foreign body. Foreign bodies in the ear Insects and ticks may crawl into the ear on expeditions. This may be very frightening for the individual.Water or oil should be poured into the ear. This will kill the insectand may allow it to float out. Avoid using instruments to try to remove foreign bodies in the ear as they may cause damage. Splinters Splinters can usually be removed using a fine pair of tweezers (the ones on Swiss Army knives are good) or a sterile needle. For more stubborn splinters, soaking may help. Spines from sea urchins are easier to remove after a couple of days when the wound becomes inflamed, or after softening the skin by soaking or applying salicylic acid ointment. Wound infections Any wound can become infected. However, certain wounds, particularly bites, contaminated wounds and deep wounds, are more likely to become infected. Signs and symptoms of wound infection are pain, redness, heat, swelling and loss of function. In the later stages, red lines may be seen running from a limb wound up towards the body. Lymph nodes in the armpit, groin or neck may become enlarged and fever maydevelop. Abscesses An abscess is a collection of pus. Even small collections of pus around the fingernails or toenails (whitlows) are extremely painful and debilitating.As pus accumulates, the skin over the abscess thins; this is referred to as pointing. Once the pus discharges through a breach in the thinned skin the pain, which is usually described as throbbing, rapidly resolves. If an abscess develops during an expedition, local heat and oral antibiotics (for example, flucloxacillin) may help. However, once pus is present it may be quicker and kinder to drain it. The skin may be numbed by applying ice, and then a swift crescent-shaped cut in the skin will produce a large enough hole to let the pus drain. A small piece of gauze soaked in saline inserted into the incision will act as a wick and stop the roof of the abscess healing over before all the pus has drained. In this way the abscess cavity will heal from the bottom upwards. The wick should be changed daily until the abscess has healed. Cellulitis Cellulitis means infection of the skin. There may not be an obvious source of infection but the signs are the same as for a wound infection, i.e. redness, heat, pain and swelling. Treatment with antibiotics for streptococci or staphylococci will be necessary (amoxicillin plus high-dose flucloxacillin, or erythromycin). BURNS Burns may be caused by dry heat, chemicals, friction or hot liquids. On expeditionsopen fires and fuel stoves commonly cause injuries, particularly when people refuel lighted stoves or burn rubbish with petrol. Classification of burns Burns may be divided into superficial, partial-thickness and full-thickness burns. • Superficial burns: characterised by redness, swelling and tenderness; for example, mild sunburn or a scald from hot water. • Partial-thickness burns: characterised by painful, red, raw skin and blisters. • Full-thickness burns: characterised by pale, waxy and sometimes charred skinwith a loss of sensation. On an expedition it is important to differentiate between partial-thickness and fullthickness burns. Full-thickness burns need skin grafting so evacuation to medical help will be necessary. Extent of burns The “rule of nines”, which divides the surface area of the body into areas of approximately %, is used to calculate the proportion of the body that is burned and so helps determine treatment ( It may be easier to remember that the patient’s palm and outstretched fingers constitute approximately % of the body surface area. The severity of burns is often underestimated, even by doctors and nurses, and extensive burns need specialist assessment and treatment. Treatment of burns and scalds on an expedition The usual first aid aims of caring for a burned patient are to: • halt the burning process and relieve pain; • resuscitate if necessary; • treat associated injuries; • minimise the risk of infection; • arrange urgent removal to hospital. In practical terms, to treat a burned patient: • Resuscitate as appropriate, following ABC guidelines. • Lie the casualty down. • Douse the burn with copious amounts of cold water. • Clean the burn carefully, leaving any adherent burnt clothing, etc., on the skin. • Drain large blisters, as appropriate, by inserting a sterile needle at the edge of the blister, although the skin should not be removed. BONE AND JOINT PROBLEMS Fractures Fractures may be classified as follows: • Simple fractures, where there is a single, clean, bony break. • Comminuted fractures, where the bone is broken into more than two fragments. • Open or closed fractures, depending on whether the skin is breached. • Complicated fractures, if other tissues are involved. Diagnosis of fracture A fracture is suggested by pain and tenderness at the site of injury, swelling, bruising or discoloration, deformity and grating (crepitus). The last sign usually confirms a fracture. Pain, tenderness, bruising and swelling can also be seen in sprains and other soft-tissue injuries.However, loss of limb function usually, but not always, suggests a fracture. In an expedition setting where X-ray facilities are not available, treat as a fracture if uncertain. Evacuation can sometimes be delayed until the exact nature of the injury becomes more obvious. Treatment of fractures Alignment of the bone ends at a fracture site to enable healing requires immobilisation, which prevents further damage, reduces pain and decreases the risk of shock. This cannot always be obtained in the field.Many things can be used to improvise splints for immobilisation: • Karrimat • Sleeping bags • Inflatable splints • Trekking poles • Skis • Triangular bandages • Canoe paddles • Purpose-built splints such as Frakstraps. When splinting any fracture, bony prominences must be padded and the joints above and below the fracture immobilised. It may be necessary to straighten the limbin order to apply a splint, to relieve pressure on a blood vessel or to allow transfer on to a stretcher. Straightening the limb (reduction) is painful but rarely causes increased damage. Reduction requires strong traction/counter-traction in the long axis of the limb and is more readily done soon after the injury, before severe muscle spasm occurs. If there is no pulse beyond a fracture site the limb must be manipulated urgently into a position to restore the blood supply to the limb. Signs of an interrupted blood supply are absent pulses with pale, cold skin and severe pain. Movement, circulation and sensation should be checked both before and after any manipulation or movement. Bleeding Bleeding occurswith all fractures andmay result in shock or even death, particularly in fractures of the thigh or pelvis. Shock should be anticipated and treated appropriately. Open fractures In an open fracture the skin is breached and therefore there is a risk of infection. Infection involving the bone is called osteomyelitis. This can be difficult to treat and can lead to crippling deformity and even amputation. Open fractures should always be treated as for contaminated soft-tissue injuries, by cleaning the wound to remove grit and foreign material and covering with sterile dressings. Co-amoxiclav (Augmentin) or erythromycin should be commenced to prevent infection and urgent evacuation should be arranged. Pain relief Pain caused by fractures is decreased by effective immobilisation. Painkillers should be given before attempting reduction and during evacuation. Transportation Fractures should be immobilised and other injuries attended to before evacuation, unless there are hazards in the immediate area. Always consider spinal injury, particularly if there is any injury above the level of the collarbones. Casualties with fractures of the upper limbs and ribs may be able to walk. Those with head injuries, back, neck or lower limb injuries must be carried by stretcher. Spinal injuries Damage to the spinal cord can result in permanent paralysis and even death. The higher the level of spinal injury the greater the degree of disability. In about % of head injuries leading to unconsciousness there is an associated neck injury so all casualties with significant head injuries should be treated as if they have an unstable neck fracture. Spinal injury should be suspected if there is neck or back pain or pain radiating around to the front of the body. On examining the casualty there may be a “step” or swelling along the vertebral column, or loss of sensation, weakness or paralysis. In males erection of the penis may occur (priapism). Remember the spinal cord may not be damaged initially even with a spinal fracture; however,moving an unstablespine may damage the spinal cord and result in permanent paralysis. All casualties at risk of spinal injury should therefore be moved with the spine “in line” as if they have an unstable spine.Movement, circulation and sensation should be assessed before moving the victim, unless the danger of further injury necessitates a scoopand- run approach. For details on stabilising neck injuries and log-rolling patients see Chapter . Patients with a suspected spinal injury should be evacuated by helicopter; how-
Standard Bacteriological Test of Drinking Water
Commonly used standard parameter in bacteriological testing of water is to detect and enumerate the indicator organism i.e. the coliform group of bacteria which is a common group of gram negative bacteria. The principal species in this group are Escherichia coli and enterobacter. “Total Coliform” level is the criterion of sanitary quality of water for a number of reasons. First, many are native to the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals and man and enter water with faecal discharge. While relatively harmless, themselves, coliform organisms are found in the company of such enteric pathogens as those responsible for typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. Coliform is a useful indicator because they normally survive longer than their disease producing fellow travelers. Thus, once they have died off, the danger is normally past. Faecal Coliforms are positive indication of presence of harmful bacteria. It has become the custom to report the results of the coliform test as a Most Probable Number (MPN) index which denotes the number of coliform bacteria in water sample. To test bacteriological quality of drinking water needs a well equipped laboratory and services of expert microbiologist. Standard Coliforrn or faecal coliform test takes longtime and also expensive. Water Quality Standards World Health Organization (WHO), guidelines for drinking water quality states that E.Coli or thermo tolerant coliform bacteria must not be detectable in 100 ml sample of drinking water.
HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY
___________________(name of the company), in connection with all areas of its operation, is committed to maintaining an environment that is compatible with the aim of ensuring that the health and safety of all employees and non-employees in the manufacture, maintenance, and or delivery of its products The Management System does, by controlling the Health, Safety and Welfare of employees, and non-employees, and setting and reviewing health and safety objectives and targets, aim for …. HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY ______________________(name of the company) shall works towards providing a safe and healthy working environment at its service shop, and to take adequate steps to prevent accidents & injury to health arising out of the course of working by minimizing, as far as is reasonably practicable, the causes of hazards inherent in the working environment. We shall Comply with all relevant and applicable statutory provisions pertaining to health and safety. Take all measurers to prevent accidents and occupational hazards. Provide necessary information, awareness and training to all employees and contractors to carry out their tasks in a safe and responsive manner. Provide and ensure regular use of Personal Protective Equipment. Conduct periodic audits and risk analysis for hazardous operations.
The Rules For Fire Fighting:
Just remember three A’s: Activate : Alarm System activate someone. Assist : Assis person after making safe himself. Attempt : After Obtaining Activate & Assistane, then attempt tfire extinguish. Only Fight a Fire : If the fire is small & contaminated: The time to use fire extinguish at early stages or incipient stages of fires. Once the fires start to grow or spread, it is best to evacuate the building, closing door or windows behind you. If you are safe from toxic smoke : If the fire producing large amount of thick, black smoke or chemical smoke , it may be best not try to use fire extinguisher. Neither should you attempt to extinguish the fire in a confined space. Outdoors approach the fire with the wind at your back. Remember that all fire produced carbon monoxide and many fires will produce toxic gasses can be fatal, even in small amount. If you have means of escape: You should always fight a fire with an exit or other means of escape at your back. If the fire is not quickly extinguished , you need to be able to get out quickly and avoid becoming trapped. If your instincts tell you Its OK : If you do not feel comfortable attempt to extinguish the fire do not try….get out & let the fire department do their job. The following is a list of the “Ten Standard Firefighting Orders.” Take the time to study and memorize them.
- Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first
- Initiate all action based on current and expected fire behavior
- Recognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts
- Ensure instructions are given and understood
- Obtain current information on fire status
- Remain in communication with crew members, your supervisor and adjoining forces
- Determine safety zones and escape routes
- Establish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations
- Retain control at all times
- Stay alert, keep calm, think clearly, act decisively
Rules of Firefighting
FIREFIGHTER’S RULE OF GRAVITY: Any tool, when dropped, will always come to rest in the least accessible place possible. THE FIRST RULE OF EQUIPMENT: Any piece of firefighting equipment will never malfuntion or fail until (a) you need it to fight a fire or (b) the salesman leaves. SECOND RULE OF EQUIPMENT: Interchangeable parts don’t, leakproof seals aren’t and self starters won’t. FIREFIGHTER’S RULES OF THE BATHROOM: (a) If you have just gone to the bathroom, no call will be received. (b) If you have no just gone to the bathroom, you will soon regret it. (c) The probability of receiving a call increases proportionally to the time elapsed since last going to the bathroom. RULES OF WARNING DEVICES: (a) The use of a siren on a firefighting vehicle while responding to a call will cause acute and total (but temporary) deafness to the drivers of vehicles in its path. (b) The use of warning lights on a firefighting vehicle while responding to a call will cause acute and total (but temporary) blindness to the drivers of vehicles in its path. FIREFIGHTER’S RULE OF LIGHT: As the seriousness of any given situation increases, the availability of light to illuminate the situation decreases. FIREFIGHTER’S THEORY OF WEIGHT: The weight of the equipment that you are about to carry increases by the square of the sum of the distance to reach the situation. FIREFIGHTER’S RULE OF RULES: As soon as the firefighting rules are accepted as absolutes, an exception to that rule will immediately occur.
A fire extinguisher, flame extinguisher, or simply an extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. In the United States, fire extinguishers, in all buildings other than houses, are generally required to be serviced and inspected by a Fire Protection service company at least annually. Some jurisdictions require more frequent service for fire extinguishers. The servicer places a tag on the extinguisher to indicate the type of service performed (annual inspection, recharge, new fire extinguisher) and when. There are two main types of fire extinguishers: stored pressure and cartridge-operated. In stored pressure units, the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the firefighting agent itself. Depending on the agent used, different propellants are used. With dry chemical extinguishers, nitrogen is typically used; water and foam extinguishers typically use air. Stored pressure fire extinguishers are the most common type. Cartridge-operated extinguishers contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge, exposing the propellant to the extinguishing agent. This type is not as common, used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities, where they receive higher-than-average use. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge, allowing an operator to discharge the extinguisher, recharge it, and return to the fire in a reasonable amount of time. Unlike stored pressure types, these extinguishers use compressed carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen, although nitrogen cartridges are used on low temperature (-60 rated) models. Cartridge operated extinguishers are available in dry chemical and dry powder types in the US and in water, wetting agent, foam, dry chemical (classes ABC and BC), and dry powder (class D) types in the rest of the world. Fire extinguishers are further divided into handheld and cart-mounted, also called wheeled extinguishers. Handheld extinguishers weigh from 0.5 to 14 kilograms (1 to 30 pounds), and are hence, easily portable by hand. Cart-mounted units typically weigh 23+ kilograms (50+ pounds). These wheeled models are most commonly found at construction sites, airport runways, heliports, as well as docks and marinas. Fire extinguishers are divided into four categories, based on different types of fires. Each fire extinguisher also has a numerical rating that serves as a guide for the amount of fire the extinguisher can handle. The higher the number, the more fire-fighting power. The following is a quick guide to help choose the right type of extinguisher.
- Class A extinguishers are for ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cardboard, and most plastics. The numerical rating on these types of extinguishers indicates the amount of water it holds and the amount of fire it can extinguish. Geometric symbol (green triangle)
- Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, grease and oil. The numerical rating for class B extinguishers indicates the approximate number of square feet of fire it can extinguish. Geometric symbol (red square)
- Class C fires involve electrical equipment, such as appliances, wiring, circuit breakers and outlets. Never use water to extinguish class C fires – the risk of electrical shock is far too great! Class C extinguishers do not have a numerical rating. The C classification means the extinguishing agent is non-conductive. Geometric symbol (blue circle)
- Class D fire extinguishers are commonly found in a chemical laboratory. They are for fires that involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium. These types of extinguishers also have no numerical rating, nor are they given a multi-purpose rating – they are designed for class D fires only. Geometric symbol (Yellow Decagon)
Class K fire extinguishers are for fires that involve cooking oils, trans-fats, or fats in cooking appliances and are typically found in restaurant and cafeteria kitchens. Geometric symbol (black hexagon) Some fires may involve a combination of these classifications. Your fire extinguishers should have ABC ratings on them. Here are the most common types of fire extinguishers:
- Water extinguishers or APW extinguishers (air-pressurized water) are suitable for class A fires only. Never use a water extinguisher on grease fires, electrical fires or class D fires – the flames will spread and make the fire bigger! Water extinguishers are filled with water and are typically pressurized with air. Again – water extinguishers can be very dangerous in the wrong type of situation. Only fight the fire if you’re certain it contains ordinary combustible materials only.
- Dry chemical extinguishers come in a variety of types and are suitable for a combination of class A, B and C fires. These are filled with foam or powder and pressurized with nitrogen.
- BC – This is the regular type of dry chemical extinguisher. It is filled with sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate. The BC variety leaves a mildly corrosive residue which must be cleaned immediately to prevent any damage to materials.
ABC – This is the multipurpose dry chemical extinguisher. The ABC type is filled with monoammonium phosphate, a yellow powder that leaves a sticky residue that may be damaging to electrical appliances such as a computer Dry chemical extinguishers have an advantage over CO2 extinguishers since they leave a non-flammable substance on the extinguished material, reducing the likelihood of re-ignition.
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are used for class B and C fires. CO2 extinguishers contain carbon dioxide, a non-flammable gas, and are highly pressurized. The pressure is so great that it is not uncommon for bits of dry ice to shoot out the nozzle. They don’t work very well on class A fires because they may not be able to displace enough oxygen to put the fire out, causing it to re-ignite.
CO2 extinguishers have an advantage over dry chemical extinguishers since they don’t leave a harmful residue – a good choice for an electrical fire on a computer or other favorite electronic device such as a stereo or TV.
An empty fire extinguisher which was not replaced for years. Most countries in the world require regular fire extinguisher maintenance by a competent person to operate safely and effectively, as part of fire safety legislation. Lack of maintenance can lead to an extinguisher not discharging when required, or rupturing when pressurized. Deaths have occurred, even in recent times, from corroded extinguishers exploding. There is no all-encompassing fire code in the United States. Generally, most municipalities (by adoption of the International Fire Code) require inspections every 30 days to ensure the unit is pressurized and unobstructed (done by an employee of the facility) and an annual inspection by a qualified technician. Hydrostatic pressure testing for all types of extinguishers is also required, generally every five years for water and CO2 models up to every 12 years for dry chemical models. Recently the National Fire Protection Association and ICC voted to allow for the elimination of the 30 day inspection requirement so long as the fire extinguisher is monitored electronically. According to NFPA, the system must provide record keeping in the form of an electronic event log at the control panel. The system must also constantly monitor an extinguisher’s physical presence, internal pressure and whether an obstruction exists that could prevent ready access. In the event that any of the above conditions are found, the system must send an alert to officials so they can immediately rectify the situation. Electronic monitoring can be wired or wireless. In the UK, three types of maintenance are required:
- Basic Service: All types of extinguisher require a basic inspection annually to check weight, correct pressure (using a special tool, not just looking at the gauge) and for signs of damage or corrosion, cartridge extinguishers are opened up for internal inspection & check weighing of the cartridge, labels are checked for legibility, where possible dip tubes, hoses and mechanisms checked for clear free operation.
- Extended Service: Water, Wet Chemical, Foam & Powder extinguishers require every five years a more detailed examination including a test discharge of the extinguisher and recharging; on stored pressure extinguishers this is the only opportunity to internally inspect for damage/corrosion. By recharging fresh agent is used as they all have a shelf life, even water goes foul inside an extinguisher; Note: extinguishers should be percentage tested according to total number of units in any given area. Some extinguishers contain pressure in excess of 1.38 MPa (200 psi) and this internal pressure over periods of time affects each brand & make differently depending on their placement & location.
- Overhaul: CO2 extinguishers, due to their high operating pressure, are subject to pressure vessel safety legislation and must be hydraulic pressure tested, inspected internally & externally and date stamped every 10 years. As it cannot be pressure tested a new valve is also fitted. If replacing any part of the extinguisher (valve, horn, etc.) with a part from another manufacturer then the extinguisher will lose its fire rating. This may invalidate insurance, as would incorrect or inadequate servicing if it were to be found.
In the United States there are 3 types of service as well:
- Maintenance Inspection: All types of extinguishers should be inspected at least once a year. The extinguisher is checked to make sure it has proper pressure (gauge in green or proper cartridge weight), has the correct volume of extinguishing agent (tech weighs it), is within the required hydrotest and internal maintenance intervals, is in good condition and all external parts are serviceable. Often, dry chemical and dry powder types are hit on the bottom with a rubber mallet to make sure the powder is free-flowing, which is called “fluffing” the powder. The tech will then attach a new tamper seal around the pin and a yearly service tag.
- Internal Maintenance:
- Water – every 5 years
- Foam – every 5 years
- Wet chemical & CO2 – every 5 years
- Dry chemical – every 6 years
- Halon and clean agents – every 5 years.
The extinguisher is emptied of its chemical and pressure to check for proper operation. All components are disassembled, inspected, cleaned, lubricated, or replaced if defective. Liquid agents are replaced at this time, dry agents may be re-used if in good condition, halon is recovered and re-used, but CO2 is discharged into the atmosphere. The extinguisher is then re-filled and recharged, after a “verification of service” collar is placed around the cylinder neck. It is impossible to properly install or remove a collar without depressurizing the extinguisher. Note: Cartridge-operated extinguishers should be visually examined, but do not require a verification of service collar.
- Hydrostatic testing: Water, Foam, Wet chemical, and CO2, every 5 years. Dry chemical, dry powder, halon, and clean agents, every 12 years.
Note: these are the required intervals for normal service conditions, if the extinguisher has been exposed to excessive heat, vibration, or mechanical damage it may need to be tested sooner. The agent is emptied and depressurized and the valve is removed. After a thorough internal and external visual inspection, the cylinder is filled with water, placed inside a safety cage, and pressurized to the specified test pressure (varies with the type, age, and cylinder material) for the specified time period. If no failure, bulges, or leaks are detected, the cylinder passes. The cylinder is then emptied of water and thoroughly dried. CO2 types have the test date, company’s ID, etc. stamped on the cylinder, all other types get a sticker on the back of the cylinder. Once dry, the units are recharged. Unlike the UK, the US does not rebuild extinguishers and replace valves at specific intervals unless parts are found to be defective, with the exception of halon. Halon types are often given new o-rings and valve stems at every internal maintenance to minimize any leakage potential. OEM equipment must be used for replacement parts for the extinguisher to maintain its UL rating. If parts are unavailable, replacement is recommended, keep in mind extinguishers have a projected service life of about 25–35 years, although many are of such quality that they can outlast this, but realize that science is ever-changing, and something that was the best available 30 years ago may not be acceptable for modern fire protection needs. What is the State of Matter of Fire or Flame? Is it a Liquid, Solid, or Gas? The ancient Greeks and alchemists thought that fire was an element. They also considered earth, air, and water to be elements. However, the modern definition of an element defines it by the number of protons a pure substance possesses. Fire is made up of many different substances, so it is not an element. For the most part, fire is a mixture of hot gases. Flames are the result of a chemical reaction, primarily between oxygen in air and a fuel, such as wood or propane. In addition to other products, the reaction produces carbon dioxide, steam, light, and heat. If the flame is hot enough, the gases are ionized and become yet another state of matter: plasma/ FIRE BEHAVIOR AND CHEMISTRY
Effective fire control and extinguishment requires a basic understanding of the chemical and physical nature of fire. This includes information describing sources of heat energy, composition and characteristics of fuels, and environmental conditions necessary to sustain the combustion process.
ANATOMY OF FIRE
Combustion is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel being reduced by an oxidizing agent along with the evolution of heat and light. Fires are defined by their physical characteristics. They may vary from very slow oxidation, as in rusting, to very fast oxidation, such as detonations and explosions. Somewhere between these extremes are the two most common reactions concerning firefighters: smoldering fires and flaming or free-burning fires. For many years, the “fire triangle” (oxygen, fuel, and heat) was used to teach the components of fire. While this simple example is useful, it is not technically correct. For combustion to occur, four components are necessary: Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Fuel Heat Self sustained chemical reaction (also referred to as the chain reaction) These components can be graphically described as the “fire tetrahedron”. Each component of the tetrahedron must be in place for combustion to occur. This concept is extremely important to fire suppression personnel. Remove any one of the four components and combustion will not occur. If ignition has already occurred, the fire is extinguished when one of the components is removed from the reaction.
Oxidizing agents are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction. Oxidizers are not themselves combustibles, but they support combustion when combined with a fuel. While oxygen is the most common oxidizer, other substances fall into this category. Common oxidizers include: Bromates Bromine Chlorates Chlorine Flourine Iodine Nitrates Nitric Acid Nitrites Perchlorates Peroxides Permanganates Most fires involve a fuel that is chemically combined with the oxygen normally found in atmospheric air. Atmospheric air contains 21 percent oxygen, 79 percent nitrogen and 1 percent of other gases.
Fuel is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process. In scientific terms, the fuel in a combustion reaction is known as the “reducing agent”. Most common fuels contain carbon along with combinations of hydrogen and oxygen. These fuels can be further broken down into hydrocarbon-based fuels (such as gasoline, fuel oil, and plastics) and cellulose-based materials (such as wood and paper). Fuel may be found in any of three (3) states of matter: Solid Liquid Gas The initiation of combustion requires the conversion of fuel into the gaseous state by heating. Fuel gases are evolved from solid fuels by pyrolysis. This is defined as the chemical decomposition of a substance through the action of heat. Fuel gases are evolved from liquids by vaporization. This process is the same as boiling water or evaporation of a pan of water in sunlight. In both cases, heat caused the liquid to vaporize. No heat input is required with gaseous fuels and this places considerable restraints on the control and extinguishment of gas fuel fires.
Solid fuels have definite shape and size. One primary consideration with solid fuels is the surface area of the material in relation to its mass. The larger the surface area for a given mass, the more rapid the heating of the material and increase in the speed of pyrolysis. The physical position of a solid fuel is also of great concern to firefighting personnel. If the solid fuel is in a vertical position, fire spread will be more rapid than if it is in a horizontal position. This is due to increased heat transfer through convection and direct flame contact in addition to conduction and radiation. PYROLYSIS Temperature Reaction 3920F Production of water vapor, carbon dioxide, formic and acetic (2000C) acids 3920-5360F Less water vapor – some carbon monoxide – still primarily an (2000-2800C) endothermic reaction (absorbing heat) 5360-9320F Exothermic reaction (giving off heat) with flammable vapors (2800-5000C) and particulates; some secondary reaction from charcoal formed Over 9320F Residue primarily charcoal with notable catalytic action (5000C)
Liquid fuels have physical properties that increase the difficulty of extinguishment and hazard to personnel. Liquids will assume the shape of their container. When a spill occurs, the liquid will assume the shape of the ground (flat) and will flow and accumulate in low areas. The density of liquids in relation to water is known as specific gravity. Water is given a value of one. Liquids with a specific gravity less than one are lighter than water, while those with a specific gravity greater than one are heavier than water. It is interesting to note that most flammable liquids have a specific gravity of less than one, therefore they would float on top of water. The solubility of a liquid fuel in water is an important factor. Hydrocarbon liquids as a rule will not mix with water. Alcohol and polar solvents mix with water and if large volumes of water are used, they may be diluted to the point where they will not burn. Consideration must be given to which extinguishing agents are effective on hydrocarbons (insoluble) and which affect porous solvents and alcohol (soluble). The volatility or ease with which the liquid gives off vapor influences fire control objectives. The density of gas or vapor in relation to air is of concern to volatile liquids and with gas fuels.
Gases tend to assume the shape of their container but have no specific volume. If the vapor density of a gas is such that it is less dense than air (air is given a value of one), it will rise and tend to dissipate. If a gas or vapor is heavier than air, it will tend to hug the ground and travel as directed by terrain and wind. An easy way to remember those gases that are lighter than air is the acronym “HA HA MICEN”, where: H = Hydrogen A = Anhydrous Ammonia H = Helium A = Acetylene M = Methane I = Illuminating Gas C = Carbon Monoxide E = Ethylene N = Nitrogen This is a significant property for evaluating exposures and where hazmat gas and vapor will travel. The mixture of the fuel vapor and air must be within the flammable range. The upper and lower limits of concentration of vapor in air will allow flame propagation when contacted by a source of ignition. The flammable range varies with the fuel and with the ambient temperature. Usually the flammable range is given for temperatures of 700F (210C). EXAMPLES OF FLAMMABLERANGES Fuel Lower Limit Upper Limit Gasoline Vapor 1.4 7.6 Methane (natural gas) 5.0 17.0 Propane 2.2 9.5 Hydrogen 4.0 75.0 Acetylene 2.5 100.0 When the proper fuel vapor/air mixture has been achieved, it must be raised to its ignition temperature. HEAT Heat is a form of energy that may be described as a condition of matter in motion caused by the movement of molecules. All matter contains some heat regardless of how low the temperature is because molecules are constantly moving all the time. When a body of matter is heated, the speed of the molecules increases, thus the temperature increases. Anything that sets the molecules of a material in motion produces heat in that material. There are four (4) general categories of heat energy and they include: Chemical Heat Energy Electrical Heat Energy Mechanical Heat Energy Nuclear Heat Energy Chemical Heat Energy Heat of Combustion – The amount of heat generated by the combustion (oxidation) process. Spontaneous Heating – The heating of an organic substance without the addition of external heat. Spontaneous heating occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the heat produced. The speed of a heating reaction doubles with each 180 F (80 C) temperature increase. Heat of Decomposition – The release of heat from decomposing compounds. These compounds may be unstable and release their heat very quickly or they may detonate. Heat of Solution – The heat released by the mixture of matter in a liquid. Some acids, when dissolved, give off sufficient heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles. Electrical Heat Energy Resistance Heating – The heat generated by passing an electrical force through a conductor such as a wire or an appliance. Dielectric Heating – The heating that results from the action of either pulsating direct current, or alternating current at high frequency on a non-conductive material. Induction Heating – The heating of materials resulting from an alternating current flow causing a magnetic field influence. Leakage Current Heating – The heat resulting from imperfect or improperly insulated electrical materials. This is particularly evident where the insulation is required to handle high voltage or loads near maximum capacity. Heat from Arcing – Heat released either as a high-temperature arc or as molten material from the conductor. Static Electricity Heating – Heat released as an arc between oppositely charged surfaces. Static electricity can be generated by the contact and separation of charged surfaces or by fluids flowing through pipes. Heat Generated by Lightning – The heat generated by the discharged of thousands of volts from either earth to cloud, cloud to cloud or from cloud to ground. Mechanical Heat Energy Frictional Heat – The heat generated by the movement between two objects in contact with each other. Friction Sparks – The heat generated in the form of sparks from solid objects striking each other. Most often at least one of the objects is metal. Heat of Compression – The heat generated by the forced reduction of a gaseous volume. Diesel engines ignite fuel vapor without a spark plug by the use of this principle. Nuclear Heat Energy Nuclear Fission and Fusion – The heat generated by either the splitting or combining of atoms.
Phases of Fir
The burning process occurs in clearly defined stages. By recognizing the different phases (or stages), a fire fighter can better understand the process of burning and fighting the fire at different levels and with different tactics and tools. Each phase (or stage) is characterized by differences in room temperature and atmospheric composition. A firefighter may be confronted by one or all of the following three phases (or stages) of fire at any time: Incipient Phase (Growth Stage) In the first phase, the oxygen content in the air has not been significantly reduced and the fire is producing water vapor, carbon dioxide, perhaps a small quantity of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gases. Some heat is being generated, and the amount will increase with the progress of the fire. The fire may be producing a flame temperature well above 1,0000F (5370C), yet the temperature in the room at this stage may be only slightly increased. Free-Burning Phase (Fully Developed Stage) The second phase of burning encompasses all of the free-burning activities of the fire. During this phase, oxygen-rich air is drawn into the flame as convection (the rise of heated gases) carries the heat to the upper most regions of the confined area. The heated gases spread out laterally from the top downward, forcing the cooler air to seek lower levels, and eventually igniting all the combustible material in the upper levels of the room. This heated air is one of the reasons that firefighters are taught to keep low and use protective breathing equipment. One breath of this super-heated air can sear the lungs. At this point, the temperature in the upper regions can exceed 1,3000F (7000C). As the fire progresses through the latter stages of this phase, it continues to consume the free oxygen until it reaches the point where there is insufficient oxygen to react with the fuel. The fire is then reduced to the smoldering phase and needs only a supply of oxygen to burn rapidly or explode. Smoldering Phase (Decay Stage) In the third phase, flame may cease to exist if the area of confinement is sufficiently airtight. In this instance, burning is reduced to glowing embers. The room becomes completely filled with dense smoke and gases to the extent that it is forced from all cracks under pressure. The fire will continue to smolder, and the room will completely fill with dense smoke and gases of combustion at a temperature of well over 1,0000F (5370C). The intense heat will have vaporized the lighter fuel fractions such as hydrogen and methane from the combustible material in the room. These fuel gases will be added to those produced by the fire and will further increase the hazard to the firefighter and create the possibility of a backdraft.
TIME TEMPERATURE CURVE
The demarcations between the three phases can be identified by a “time temperature curve”. During the incipient (or growth) phase of a fire, shown below as the upward curve, the time can vary depending on the type of fuel, the size of the room, and the amount of oxygen supplying the fire. Flashover occurs at the end of the incipient (or growth) phase and start of the free burning (or fully developed) stage. Backdraft can occur in the smoldering (or decay) phase.
Flashover occurs when a room or other area becomes heated to the point where flames flash over the entire surface or area. Originally, it was believed that flashover was caused by combustible gases released during the early stages of fire. It was thought that these gases collected at the ceiling level and mixed with air until they reached their flammable range, then suddenly ignited causing flashover. It is now believed that while this may occur, it precedes flashover. The cause of flashover is not attributed to the excessive build-up of heat from the fire itself. As the fire continues to burn, all the contents of the fire area are gradually heated to their ignition temperatures, through “thermal radiation feedback”. When they reach this point, simultaneous ignition occurs and the area becomes fully involved in fire.
Firefighters responding to a confined fire that is late in the free-burning phase or in the smoldering phase risk causing a backdraft or smoke explosion if the science of fire is not considered in opening the structure. In the smoldering phase of a fire, burning is incomplete because not enough oxygen is available to sustain the fire. However, the heat from the free-burning phase remains, and the unburned carbon particles and other flammable products of combustion are just waiting to burst into rapid, almost instantaneous combustion when more oxygen is supplied. Proper ventilation releases smoke and the hot unburned gases from the upper areas of the room or structure. Improper ventilation at this time supplies the dangerous missing link — oxygen. As soon as the needed oxygen rises in, the stalled combustion resumes, and it can be devastating in its speed, truly qualifying as an explosion. Combustion is related to oxidation, and oxidation is a chemical reaction in which oxygen combines with other elements. Carbon is a naturally abundant element present in wood, among other things. When wood burns, carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, or carbon monoxide, depending on the availability of oxygen. When oxygen is no longer available, free carbon is released in the smoke. A warning sign of possible backdraft is dense, black (carbon-filled) smoke. The following characteristics may indicate a backdraft or smoke explosion condition: 1. Smoke under pressure 2. Black smoke becoming dense gray yellow 3. Confinement and excessive heat 4. Little or no visible flame 5. Smoke leaves the building in puffs or at intervals 6. Smoke-stained windows 7. Muffled sounds 8. Sudden rapid movement of air inward when opening is made This type of condition can be made less dangerous by proper ventilation. If the building is opened at the highest point involved, the heated gases and smoke will be released, reducing the possibility of an explosion. HEAT TRANSFER Heat can travel throughout a burning building by one or more of three methods, commonly referred to as conduction, convection and radiation. Since the existence of heat within a substance is caused by molecular action, the greater the molecular activity, the more intense the heat. A number of natural laws of physics are involved in the transmission of heat. One is called the Law of Heat Flow. It specifies that heat tends to flow from a hot substance to a cold substance. The colder of two bodies in contact will absorb heat until both objects are the same temperature. Conduction Heat may be conducted from one body to another by direct contact of the two bodies or by an intervening heat-conducting medium. The amount of heat that will be transferred and its rate of travel depends upon the conductivity of the material through which the heat is passing. Not all materials have the same heat conductivity. Aluminum, copper and iron are good conductors. Fibrous materials, such as felt, cloth and paper are poor conductors. Liquids and gases are poor conductors of heat because of the movement of their molecules. Air is a relatively poor conductor. Certain solid materials when shredded into fibers and packed into batts, make good insulation because the material itself is a poor conductor and there are air pockets within the batting. Double building walls that contain an air space provide additional insulation. Convection Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid. When water is heated in a glass container, the movement within the vessel can be observed through the glass. If some sawdust is added to the water, the movement is more apparent. As the water is heated, it expands and grows lighter, hence, the upward movement. In the same manner, air becomes heated near a steam radiator by conduction. It expands, becomes lighter and moves upward. As the heated air moves upward, cooler air takes its place at the lower levels. When liquids and gases are heated, they begin to move within themselves. This movement is different from the molecular motion discussed in conduction of heat and is knows as heat transfer by convection. Heated air in a building will expand and rise. For this reason, fire spread by convection is mostly in an upward direction, although air currents can carry heat in any direction. Convected currents are generally the cause of heat movement from floor to floor, from room to room and from area to area. The spread of fire through corridors, up stairwells and elevator shafts, between walls and through attics is mostly caused by the convection of heat currents and has more influence upon the positions for fire attack and ventilation than either radiation or conduction. Another form of heat transfer by convection is direct flame contact. When a substance is heated to the point where flammable vapors are given off, these vapors may be ignited, creating a flame. As other flammable materials come in contact with the burning vapors, or flame, they may be heated to a temperature where they too, will ignite and burn. Radiation The warmth of the sun is felt soon after it rises. When the sun sets, the earth begins to cool with similar rapidity. We carry an umbrella to shade our bodies from the heat of the sun. A spray of water between a firefighter and a fire will lessen the heat reaching the firefighter. Although air is a poor conductor, it is obvious that heat can travel where matter does not exist. This method of heat transmission is known as radiation of heat waves. Heat and light waves are similar in nature, but they differ in length per cycle. Heat waves are longer than light waves and they are sometimes called infrared rays. Radiated heat will travel through space until it reaches an opaque object. As the object is exposed to heat radiation, it will in return radiate heat from its surface. Radiated heat is one of the major sources of fire spread, and its importance demands immediate attention at points where radiation exposure is severe. PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION When a material (fuel) burns, it undergoes a chemical change. None of the elements making up the material are destroyed in the process, but all of the matter is transformed into another form or state. Although dispersed, the products of combustion equal in weight and volume that of the fuel before it was burned. When a fuel burns there are four products of combustion: Fire gases Flame Heat Smoke The smoke encountered at most fires consists of a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide gases, finely divided carbon particles (soot), and a miscellaneous assortment of products that have been released from the material involved. Heat is a form of energy that is measured in degrees of temperature to signify its intensity. In this sense, heat is the product of combustion that is responsible for the spread of fire. In a physiological sense, it is the direct cause of burns and other forms of personal injury. Injuries caused by heat include dehydration, heat exhaustion and injury to the respiratory tract, in addition to burns. Flame is the visible, luminous body of a burning gas. When a burning gas is mixed with the proper amounts of oxygen, the flame becomes hotter and less luminous. This loss of luminosity is because of a more complete combustion of the carbon. For these reasons, flame is considered to be a product of combustion. Heat, smoke and gas, however, can develop in certain types of smoldering fires without evidence of flame. Some materials give off more smoke than others. Liquid fuels generally give off dense black smoke. Oils, tar, paint, varnish, molasses, sugar, rubber, sulfur and many plastics, also generally give off a dense smoke in large quantities. FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT THEORY The extinguishment of fire is based on an interruption of one or more of the essential elements in the combustion process. With flaming combustion the fire may be extinguished by reducing temperature, eliminating fuel or oxygen, or by stopping the uninhibited chemical chain reaction. If a fire is in the smoldering mode of combustion, only three extinguishment options exist: reduction of temperature, elimination of fuel or oxygen. Extinguishment of Temperature Reduction One of the most common methods of extinguishment is by cooling with water. The process of extinguishment by cooling is dependent on cooling the fuel to a point where it does not produce sufficient vapor to burn. If we look at fuel types and vapor production, we find that solid fuels and liquid fuels with high flash points can be extinguished by cooling. Low flashpoint liquids and flammable gases cannot be extinguished by cooling with water as vapor production cannot be sufficiently reduced. Reduction of temperature is dependent on the application of an adequate flow in proper form to establish a negative heat balance. Extinguishment by Fuel Removal In some cases, a fire is effectively extinguished by removing the fuel source. This may be accomplished by stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid fuel in the path of the fire. Another method of fuel removal is to allow the fire to burn until all fuel is consumed. Extinguishment by Oxygen Dilution The method of extinguishment by oxygen dilution is the reduction of the oxygen concentration to the fire area. This can be accomplished by introducing an inert gas into the fire or by separating the oxygen from the fuel. This method of extinguishment will not work on self-oxidizing materials or on certain metals as they are oxidized by carbon dioxide or nitrogen, the two most common extinguishing agents. Extinguishment by Chemical flame Inhibition Some extinguishing agents, such as dry chemicals and halons, interrupt the flame producing chemical reaction, resulting in rapid extinguishment. This method of extinguishment is effective only on gas and liquid fuels as they cannot burn in the smoldering mode of combustion. If extinguishment of smoldering materials is desired, the addition of cooling capability is required. CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES AND EXTINGUISHMENT METHODS Class A Fire – Fires involving ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastics. Water is used in a cooling or quenching effect to reduce the temperature of the burning material below its ignition temperature. Class B Fires – Fires involving flammable liquids, greases and gases. The smothering or blanketing effect of oxygen exclusion is most effective. Other extinguishing methods include removal of fuel and temperature reduction. Class C Fires – Fires involving energized electrical equipment. This fire can sometimes be controlled by a non-conducting extinguishing agent. The safest procedures is always to attempt to de-energize high voltage circuits and treat as a Class A or B fire depending upon the fuel involved. Class D Fires – Fires involving combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium and potassium. The extremely high temperature of some burning metals makes water and other common extinguishing agents ineffective. There is no agent available that will effectively control fires in all combustible metals. Special extinguishing agents are available for control of fire in each of the metals and are marked specifically for that metal.
1.1.1 Class K Fires – Class K is a new classification of fire as of 1998 and involves fires in combustible cooking fuels such as vegetable or animal fats.
Its fuels are similar to Class B fuels but involve high temperature cooking oils and therefore have special characteristics. Class K agents are usually wet chemicals, water-based solutions of potassium carbonate-based chemical, potassium acetate-based chemical, or potassium citrate-based chemical or a combination. These agents are usually used in fixed systems, but some extinguishers are available.
DEFINITIONS: The following are some terms used to define and describe fire activity. BOILING POINT – The temperature of a substance where the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation. BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU) – The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F. CALORIE – The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade. CENTIGRADE (Celsius) – On the Centigrade scale, zero is the melting point of ice; 100 degrees is the boiling point of water. ENDOTHERMIC HEAT REACTION – A chemical reaction where a substance absorbs heat energy. EXOTHERMIC HEAT REACTION – A chemical reaction where a substance gives off heat energy. FAHRENHEIT – On the Fahrenheit scale, 32 degrees is the melting point of ice; 212 degrees is the boiling point of water. FIRE POINT – The temperature at which a liquid fuel will produce vapors sufficient to support combustion once ignited. The fire point is usually a few degrees above the flash point. FLAMMABLE OR EXPLOSIVE LIMITS – The percentage of a substance in air that will burn once it is ignited. Most substances have an upper (too rich) and a lower (too lean) flammable limit. FLASH POINT – The minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface. At this temperature, the ignited vapors will flash, but will not continue to burn. HEAT – The form of energy that raises temperature. Heat is measured by the amount of work it does. IGNITION TEMPERATURE – The minimum temperature to which a fuel in air must be heated in order to start self-sustained combustion independent of the heating source.
EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN
ANY ONE NOTICING EMERGENCY SITUATION LIKE FIRE, EXPLOSION, TOXIC GAS LEAKAGE ETC. MUST
- Attract the nearby person/employee by shouting “FIRE – FIRE – FIRE. “
- Seek help from the persons working nearby.
- Try to control the incident at its initial stage with available means/sources quickly.
- Inform Shift In-charge / Duty Officer (In Night Shift ) about the Incident.
- Do not be panicky.
- Do not run – Walk fast.
INCIDENT CONTROLLER MUST
- IF FIRE / OTHER INCIDENTS ARE CONTROLLABLE
- Approach the emergency site immediately taking note of wind direction.
- Assess the situation.
- Inform Security Officer, Tell – NAME, TYPE OF INCIDENT, ACTION TAKEN, HELP NEEDED and Order Security Officer/Guard to inform all KEY persons.
- Take lead in controlling emergency until such time concerned Section Manager takes over the charge.
- Do not be panicky.
- Do not lose temperament.
DON’TS B. IF FIRE/OTHR INCIDENTS ARE NOT CONTROLLABLE In Addition to Above (A)
- Order to blow emergency `ALERT’ Siren (30 second continuous).
- Organize Fire fighting / rescue team members to control the Incident.
- Take stock of situation if required shut down the plant / process in affected area.
- Call Fire Brigade if situation demands.
- Evacuate affected area.
- Organize head count of the plant.
- Act as INCIDENT CONTROLLER till such time senior person takes charges as indicated in Emergency organisation
NOTE: 1) Messenger will wait until such time Security Officer arrives. 2) Also inform Telephone Operator.
SECURITY OFFICER / GUARD
- Do not allow any vehicle to come inside the factory.
- Do not entertain any outside call except for emergency purpose.
- Do not allow visitors to move around.
- Inform all key persons about location and type of emergency.
- Follow this sequence – Inform concerned HOD/Section Head, Main Site Controller, Main Incident Controller & Safety Officer and other KEY persons.
- Inform Main Site Controller about Government visitors, if any.
- Do not entertain any outside call except for emergency purpose.
- Do not allow visitor to move around, from reception.
SECURITY GUARD DO’s
- Immediately report at Security Gate in shortest possible time.
- Follow instructions of Officer In-charge.
- Assist in controlling emergency.
- Assist in controlling contractors, vehicle movement and mob.
- Assist in cordoning off the area.
- Take note of wind direction while approaching emergency site.
- Render all possible help for controlling overall situation.
- Do not leave the site unless asked to do so.
EMERGENCY VEHICLE DRIVER DO’s
- Immediately start vehicle and reach rescue squad assembly point (near security gate).
- Rescue squad members to emergency site.
- Take vehicle near to emergency site as directed.
- Take note of wind direction.
- Reverse the emergency vehicle for quick transports of injured, if any.
- Keep vehicle engine running.
- Always be on Driver’s seat of the vehicle.
- Take the injured to the hospital as directed.
- Do not leave the vehicle.
- Do not take the vehicle very near to the site.
INCIDENT CONTROLLER DO’s
- Approach emergency site as early as possible taking note of wind direction.
- Take stock of situation.
- Interact with all concerned departments as the situation demands.
- Keep Main Site Controller informed about the latest emergency situation on continuous basis.
- Will approach emergency site immediately / Assess the situation.
- Consult Incident Controller.
- Consult advising Committee Members.
- Instruct Main Incident Controller.
- Communicate to higher ups and Govt. authorities, if required.
- Decide upon need for evacuation and blow `Disaster Siren’.
- After getting satisfied with the situation, give instruction to blow ALL CLEAR Siren.
- Do not instruct to blow ALL CLEAR siren unless the situation is fully under control.
- Don’t evacuate the entire plant unless the situation demands.
FIRE FIGHTING SQUAD ON HEARING SIREN DO’s
- Inform fellow employees/Officers.
- Report to Fire Squad Assembly point.
- Find out emergency location.
- Approach emergency site immediately.
- Take quick action as per the instructions from Incident controller.
- Bring emergency under control as early as possible.
- Do not leave process/equipment in UNSAFE CONDITION.
- Do not leave emergency site unless ALL CLEAR siren blown.
- Do not use improper fire extinguisher.
- Do not be panicky.
RESCUE SQUAD DO’s
- Report to assembly point near Gate.
- Get in touch with security about location and type of emergency.
- Approach emergency site quickly with Breathing Apparatus set and First Aid box.
- Get in touch with incident controller.
- Follow instructions of Incident controller.
- Render first aid to the injured, hospitalize, if required.
- Accompany him to hospital and assist Doctor / Nurse.
- Search for missing person in that area, if required.
- Help in head count.
ALL GENERAL EMPLOYEES EXCEPT THOSE WHO ARE IN EMERGENCY ORGANIZATION ON HEARING SIREN
- Be alert and be available if required.
- Wait for further instructions.
- Bring down the process/plant/equipment in SAFE CONDITION in case of DISASTER siren as per instructions from Incident Controller.
- Approach respective safe assembling points route as taking note of wind direction.
- Help in taking roll call.
- After hearing ALL CLEAR, go back to the departments.
- Start the work again after setting instruction from Incident controller.
- Do not be panicky. Do not run.
- Do not approach emergency site unless asked for.
- Do not engage telephone except for emergency purpose. Keep lines free.
TECHNICAL TEAM: ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT / ENVIRONMNET, SAFETY AND HEALTH DEPARTMENT ON HEARING SIREN DO’s
- Be available in Engineering Department at respective location for any help.
- Approach emergency site with required with tools and equipments and should work on instructions of Incident controlle.
- Help Incident Controller to provide technical assistance.
- Isolate lines, process equipments, if required by Incident Controller.
- Provide emergency equipments like Fire Extinguisher, Hoses, etc., if asked by Incident Controller.
- Provide stop gap arrangements as per the requirement of Incident Controller.
- Carry out electrical isolation of area as per instructions from Incident Controller.
ADVISORY COMMITTEE (ALL DEPARTMENT HEADS) DO’s
- Approach emergency site as early as possible.
- Render advise to Main Incident Controller and Main Site Controller to control emergency.
COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE – (P&A) DO’s
- Consult Main Site Controller
- Give necessary instructions to security / Telephone Operator.
- Give instruction to Security to control traffic / crowd.
- Look after injured, communicate with the family members, if situation demands.
- Arrange transportation, if required.
- Do not communicate to any one or brief press without permission of Main Site Controller.
GENERAL INTRUCTIONS DO’S
- Stop work at height. / Stop all hot works.
- Stop all vessel entry.
- Take note of wind direction.
- On hearing Disaster Siren evacuates as per evacuation route without running and panicky and assembles at respective safe Assembly Points.
- Do not use telephone except for emergency purpose.
- Do not start work at height, vessel entry, hot work unless permit conditions are verified.
- Do not allow unauthorized person to approach emergency site.
To provide adequate control of the health and safety risks arising from our work activities.
- To consult with our employees on matters of health and safety.
- To provide and maintain safe plant, equipment and buildings.
- To ensure safe handling and use of substances.
- To provide instruction and supervision for employees.
- To ensure all employees are competent by selection and training.
- To prevent accident and cases of work related ill health.
- To maintain safe healthy working conditions.
- To review and revise this policy as often as necessary at regular intervals continuous improvement is maintained.
FIRE SAFETY EQUIPMENT: ü Emergency Exits Dry powder/CO2 Fire Bucket Stations Smoke Detector Fire Hose Reels Fire Alarms First Aid Emergency Water Tank Water Dram Water Bucket Gong Bell Megaphone ü Fire Beater Fire Hook Gas Musk Hand Gloves Lock Cutter Belcha 1 ¼ Dia Manila Coil Safety Helmet Stretcher Emergency Light PA System Fire Blanket Fire Training CHEMICAL SAFETY POLICY Company Shall declares to require compliance with Chemical Restrictions Policy, from all international suppliers. To ensure a full compliance throughout the production chain, company requires all its suppliers to follow all local and required international limitations on the use of chemicals in their production. Our suppliers are obliged to sign this Chemical Restrictions Policy as to guarantee that they to follow all local restrictions on technical use of chemicals as well as those international restrictions governing the use of chemicals in products intended for our customer markets (compliance with any and all EU restrictions). The supplier also specifically declares that no such chemicals are used in its production process that can, as a residue in the end product, be a health risk to the user. The supplier also declares to follow ILO convention No. 170 to ensure proper measures are taken in every step of production to ensure workers’ chemical safety.
SOME COMMENDATIONS OF GOOD PRACTISE
IN GARMENTS INDUSTRY
- Educational Posters
- Emergency Plans
- Entrance Gate
- Establishing a Library
- Establishing a Proper Canteen
- Fabric Laying Technique
- Fabric Storage
- Fire Fighting
- Fire Safety
- Glare from Light Producing Machines
- Good Lighting
- Induction Training Kit
- Ironing Workstation Design
- Machine Maintenance
- Machine Safety
- Materials Handling in the Production Line
- Organization of Notice boards
- Personal Protective Equipment
- Personal Protective Equipment for Dyeing
- Proper Sanitation Facilities
- Proper Storage of Tools, Parts and Equipment
- Providing Support to Working Mothers
- Provision of Pure Drinking Water
- Quality Control Workstation Design
- Rubbish/Waste Collection
- Spot Cleaning Area
- Spot Cleaning Operation
- Stairway Safety
- Stock Control of the Garment Trims Store
- Store Organization
- Store Room Safety
01. Displaying Line Sample and Pattern
Finished products should always meet the buyer’s quality and design specifications. One way to achieve this is to display a sample of the finished product on the production line. This helps workers to see what the finished product should look like and to understand what the design, dimensions and quality of the finished product need to be.
Good practices for displaying line sample and pattern in sewing line
- Display both a line sample and the buyer’s sample for reference.
- This helps workers (and buyers) to see what the end product will be.
- Display the pattern in the production line.
- The pattern should include all product dimensions.
- Put two or three samples at each station on the production line and denote what part of the pattern each employee is working on.
- Reduces the risk of mistakes.
- Workers can see exactly what the finished product should look like.
- This helps ensure consistent quality and production.
- Easy for workers and supervisors to check measurements.
- Helps when supervisors introduce new product lines.
- Workers better understand how their job relates to the finished product and are thus better motivated.
- Use a plain white board and draw the garment pattern on it.
- Display a line sample and the buyer’s sample in the production line.
- Ensure that workers understand what the pattern depicts.
02. Educational Posters
Displaying educational posters is a powerful way to educate workers. It is very effective because they are easy to make, deliver a consistent message, and use pictures which are a strong form of communication targeting specific behavior. Examples which have been useful for other garment factories include posters on lifting postures, proper mask wearing and reproductive health.
Good practices for store organization
- Use posters to address specific problems or concerns. For example, posters can remind workers to dispose of fabric in rubbish bins or how o use proper lifting postures.
- Use posters to change (or reinforce) desired behaviors using local examples.
- Display posters where they will be useful and are easy to see.
- Posters relating to specific jobs should be near relevant workstations.
- Posters relating to general factory behaviors should be located in more centralized areas.
- Posters work best when they are part of a more comprehensive training program that includes training, information sessions, exercises, etc.
- Posters that promote safety and reinforce important skills will present a positive image of the workplace.
- Demonstrates to workers and buyers that the company cares about the welfare of its staff.
- Easily, cheaply and consistently communicates simple messages about jobs.
- Create your own posters. Draw pictures or have workers’ photographs taken and add text.
- Use posters to communicate simple points in order to make the message clear and direct.
- Download free posters or images from the internet and add in text.
- Make posters for specific work procedures, such as the information offered on the Good Practice Sheets.
03. Emergency Plans and Equipment
Emergency tools are required and important for all factories. Garment factories that care about the health and safety of their workers invest money on emergency equipment to ensure the safety of workers. Crucial emergency elements are alarms,
evacuation plans, emergency lights and gathering areas.
Good practices for equipping emergency fire prevention equipment
- Have people practice emergency evacuation procedures regularly.
- Post evacuation plans so workers understand where to exit in case of emergencies.
- Install an alarm system, including bells, smoke detectors and fire extinguishers.
- Ensure there are sufficient numbers, and check them regularly to ensure that they work properly.
- Install back up battery powered emergency lights in case of power outages.
- Make sure that every floor or large room has at least two exists, ensure that these remain unlocked at all times, and make sure they are labeled.
- Make sure that there is sufficient lighting and signage so workers are able to reach exits quickly.
- Designate safe gathering areas outside the factory to check and verify that all workers have been safely evacuated from factory buildings in an emergency situation.
- Reduces workers’ fear of workplace accidents.
- Promotes the image of a safe garment factory to buyers and other stakeholders.
- Can increase workers’ productivity.
- Identify appropriate places to install sufficient numbers of smoke detectors,and fire alarms.
- Fire extinguishers should be located near potential sources of fire.
- Inspect emergency equipment regularly to make sure they are working properly.
- Repair or replace old equipment regularly
04. Entrance Gate
Visitors and workers see the factory entrance first, which is an opportunity to send a strong positive signal about the quality and work of the factory. A neat and tidy entrance creates a positive first impression, while an entrance which is dirty or disorganized reflects poorly on it. A factory which has a clean, tidy and secure entrance demonstrates a commitment to quality, productivity, and sound working conditions.
Good practices for the factory’s main entrance
- Clearly display the factory name and logo.
- Make sure that the entrance to the factory is clean and tidy.
- Repaint old or flaking paintwork.
- Make sure that security guards are trained in the correct procedures for allowing workers and visitors to enter the factory.
- Use clear signage to help visitors and workers navigate around the factory.
- This also indicates that the factory is well organized .
- Inform workers of the factory’s expectations regarding behavior around the factory entrance.
- Sends a positive signal to visitors, buyers, and workers.
- Indicates an attitude of responsibility and attention to detail.
- Indicates that the company values productivity and good working conditions.
- Review the quality of the entrance to the factory by asking visitors.to the factory if it was easy to find and what they thought about the entrance.
- Install appropriate signage or replace old or out of date signs.
- Put someone in charge of maintaining the front area.
05. Establishing a Library
Factories with motivated and productive workers often outperform competitors. Establishing a library for the benefit of workers is an excellent way for a factory to demonstrate that it cares about its staff and to build goodwill in the community.
Good practices for store organisation
• Provide chairs and tables for workers to sit and read in the library .
• Establish a borrowing system by recording the names of workers
who borrow books to read at home .
• Encourage workers to donate their own books or magazines.
• Make sure workers can read and write. If they cannot, provide information
about a local instruction program.
• Ensure that all workers have equal access to use the library.
✓ Presents a positive image of the factory to buyers and the community.
✓ May increase sales to buyers who value social responsibility.
✓ Builds goodwill between the factory and workers.
✓ Better educated workforce.
✓ Library can be used to host a literacy program.
- Identify a suitable location for a library. The space should be on the factory premises and in a quiet location.
- Contact NGOs for books and possible funding.
- Budget for book renewal.
- Interested workers can use their free time to take responsibility for the library.
- A team can be created to develop the library.
- Ask workers what kind of books they want supplied
06. Establishing and Running a Proper Canteen
Because a balanced diet plays an important role in improving employees’ health, and boosting productivity, maintaining a good canteen can contribute to a productive work environment. Factories are increasingly investing in this area to ensure that productivity levels remain high throughout the work day. An ILO study on workers in developing countries found that food of poor quality (e.g. iron deficient) causes a productivity loss of $ 5 billion per annum in South East Asia, while providing a good meal can lead to productivity enhancements of 20%.
Good practices for the importance of establishing and running a proper canteen
• Include an area where workers can prepare drinks or heat up food from home.
• Food provided by the canteen should be nutritious and satisfying.
This way, energy that has been spent during productive work can be replenished.
• Ensure that the canteen, dishes, and silverware are all cleaned hygienically. For example, use hot water and dish soap to clean dishes and silverware after use .
• Provide healthy and nutritious food such a fruits, vegetables, proteins, and grains.
• Provide a comfortable and well-ventilated canteen that provides workers a place to relax after they have finished eating.
✓ Appropriate employee nourishment improves employee morale,
increases productivity, and prevents diseases.
✓ Centralized provision of food in a canteen during overtime work
saves time and enhances productivity.
✓ A well functioning canteen facilitates workers to enjoy a leisurely meal in their work place and increases morale.
• Select an appropriate location within or nearby the factory premises. Such a location must be away from workstations, to avoid contact with dirt, dust, or hazardous substances.
• Invest in proper furniture and facilities such as chairs, tables, fans
and a refrigerator.
• Ensure that the canteen allows employees to take a break from their work in a comfortable environment.
• Arrange for workers to eat at different times, thus reducing the space needed for sufficient seating.
07. Machine Maintenance
Good machine maintenance is an investment in productivity. Well maintained
machines are more reliable, safer and last longer. Basic maintenance is not
expensive and can often be done by workers. Workers should be taught simple machine maintenance skills such as machine cleaning, adjusting thread
tension, changing broken needles, bobbin changes and emptying the dust filter.
Good practices for machine maintenance
• Clean machines as often as possible to reduce the risk of dust
damaging machinery. Using a vacuum is recommended so that dirt
can be removed .
• Regularly clean or replace the sewing machine’s vacuum filter.
• Cover machines during lunch breaks and when they are not in use.
• Post maintenance information and maintenance schedules directly
✓ Reduces maintenance costs.
✓ Reduces risk of machine breakdown.
✓ Improved productivity.
✓ Safer working environment.
✓ Making machine covers reduces maintenance costs of machines.
• Purchase an industrial vacuum cleaner. The investment now will save
future machine maintenance costs.
• Use scraps to make covers for machines when not in use.
• Schedule a maintenance routine for all machines.
• Develop on-the-job training sessions where senior operators instruct
newer employees how to properly clean machines.
• Ask manufacturers for advice regarding machine maintenance.
08. Fabric Laying Technique
High quality and efficient garment manufacturing starts with a good fabric laying technique. Simple steps can lead to significant cost savings for the factory and improve the quality of the finished product. Poor or incorrect fabric laying technique lead to higher costs, slower production and inferior products quality.
Good practices for the fabric cutting area
• When laying fabric, make sure that the distance from the edge of the fabric to the marker is 2 cm in order to minimize waste.
• Each fabric has its own maximum lay depth. Design and display a fabric depth chart to inform workers about lay depth . Small samples of the fabric can be stapled to the chart in addition to the description so workers can clearly identify the fabric.
• When laying check patterned fabrics, using pin strips ensures straight checked lines.
• Use adjustable clamps to keep fabric from moving during the fabric cutting process .
✓ Improves quality of work.
✓ Improves productivity.
✓ Increases cutting accuracy.
✓ Reduces errors and waste.
• Fabric depth chart can be prepared by factory staff.
• Clamps are available at commercial markets.
• Provide regular training to teach workers the skills for good fabric laying
09. Fabric Storage
The quality of a finished garment dependent on the quality of the fabric used. Fabric should be kept in good condition and be consistent in appearance. A good storage system keeps the fabric in an ideal environment and tracks details of the fabric used in production. Please also refer to the Good Practice Guides for Store Organization and Stock Control of Garment Trims.
Good practices for fabric store
• Always store fabric on a rack or shelf and never on the floor.
• Identify and store the fabric by roll, width, batch, style, lot and color.
• Use a bin card system to update the stock balance.
• Store the fabric lying down, not standing up.
• Keep a record of which fabric rolls were used in the production
of garments so that quality problems can be identified easily.
• Have rolling carts available for moving fabric between storage
and production .
✓ Costs are reduced because fabric is less likely to be damaged.
✓ Prevent possible loss of costly material.
✓ Garments are produced from the same fabric batch, which ensures
consistency of colour and fabric quality.
✓ Increases productivity by reducing the amount of time needed
to look for fabric.
✓ Makes it easier to do a stock-take.
✓ Factory floor is kept clear, reducing risk of accidents
and increasing work space.
• Ensure that there are sufficient racks to store all fabric lying down,
off the floor.
• Use multilevel shelving to increase storage capacity.
• Implement better record-keeping procedures to keep track of fabric.
• Make sure that the factory store manager and staff take responsibility for storing, distributing and tracking fabric usage
10. Fire Fighters
It is a good idea to establish fire fighting teams. A quick response to fires can save money by reducing the chance of serious harm to people or property. Provide identification for fire fighters, so that in case of an emergency other workers know who
to ask for help. See also Good Practice Guides on Fire Safety and Fire Extinguishers.
Good practices for fire fighters
• Form fire fighting teams. There should be at least one fire fighter
for each section of the factory.
• Fire fighters must receive regular training, and the number
of fire fighters should be proportional to the total workforce.
• Provide identification to fire fighters. A good form of identification is a brightly coloured armband or a badge on their shirt.
• Pictures of fire fighters should be prominently displayed for all workers to see.
• Drill fire fighters and workers at least once every six months.
• Fire fighters must be part of a larger safety team that includes first aid coordinators, evaluation coordinators, etc.
✓ In case of a fire, the fire fighters can be easily identified and can respond fast and efficiently.
✓ A quick response to fires can save money and lives.
✓ Promotes a good image of a responsible workplace.
• Form fire fighting teams in each floor.
• Provide training to fire fighters.
• Provide identification to fire fighters by using garment scraps to make:
– uniforms; and/or
– badges; and/or
– arm bands;
• Post pictures of fire fighters so workers know who they are.
11. Fire Safety
Fire safety is important; it can save money and lives. The best fire safety practices prevent fires by reducing the risk of fire. Training workers is a very cost effective way to improve fire safety, because it teaches workers how to prevent fires from starting and what to do in case of an emergency. Make sure that there is enough fire safety equipment and that it is checked regularly. See also Good Practice
Guides on Fire Fighters.
Good practices for fire safety in the factory
• Suitable types of fire extinguishers and fire hoses must be available. Some fires (e.g. electrical fires) require special types of extinguishers. Common types of extinguishers are dry chemical, halon, and CO2.
• Place extinguishers and hoses where the risk of fire is greatest.
• Denote the location of fire extinguishers and fire hoses by marking the floor below and painting the nearest wall or pillar red and/or placing signs above head height. These signs also mean that nothing is allowed to obstruct access .
• Install back-up lighting and water supplies in case the electricity
or water mains are affected by fire.
• Install fire alarms in the factory .
• Ensure that electrical circuits are enclosed, insulated, earthed,
properly fused, and not overloaded.
• Keep combustible material away from hot surfaces and open flames.
✓ Fire prevention saves money by protecting property and lives.
✓ Minimizes fire hazards and risks.
✓ Safer workplace environment.
✓ Helps to show that the company cares about the welfare of its workers.
✓ May reduce insurance costs.
• Check fire safety systems to make sure that there are enough suitable extinguishers, hoses and exit signs.
• Make sure all fire safety equipment is tested at least once per year
and is in good condition.
• Make sure fire equipment is easy to get to in case of an emergency
and that signage is clearly visible.
• Form fire fighting teams .
• Implement an emergency plan which includes evacuation procedures.
• Run a factory inspection to determine where hazards are.
12. Glare from Light Producing Machines
Some light-producing machines used in garment factories can be hazardous to workers. Glare from the light can cause dizziness, headaches and fatigue, which can lead to mistakes and reduce productivity. Long-term exposure can damage the workers’ vision. Workers should wear suitable goggles, or guards should be fitted to the machines to deflect light away from the eyes.
Good practices for shading workers from glare
• Cover windows with blinds, curtains, louvers, shades or plants .
• Use translucent windows, instead of transparent ones.
• Ensure that workers are not facing directly toward the windows
by changing the orientation of their workstations .
• Use shades to deflect glare from light sources.
• Reflective surfaces can distract workers as well – ensure that light
from these sources does not shine in workers’ eyes.
• Make sure that there is enough light for workers to be able to see their work without straining their eyes.
• Change florescent light bulbs as soon as they stop working
to ensure good lighting.
✓ Reduces glare-related illness and injury.
✓ Reduces mistakes made by tired workers.
✓ Workers are more efficient.
• A plank of wood or metal sheeting can be used as a light shield.
• Reflective surfaces can be painted or covered with non-glossy material (such as whitewash).
• Bothersome light sources can be moved or lowered in brightness.
• Ensure that spare bulbs are available.
• Ask workers where they need more light.
13. Good Lighting
Proper lighting conditions are critical for good productivity. Many employers have found that lighting improvements have improved productivity by 10 percent, and reduced errors by 30 percent. Conversely, poor lighting can cause eye strain, fatigue and headache.
Good practices for good lighting
• Make full use of natural lighting through windows or skylights.
This reduces electricity bills and improves the work environment.
• Workstations that need more light should be moved closer to windows.
• Use a combination of natural and artificial light and adjust lighting
to the task-related types of work .
• Interior color affects how much illumination is needed. Ensure that ceilings are as close to white as possible. Use pale colors on walls.
• Use local lighting (needle lights) when necessary for some types of fabric, thread or seams at the needle point.
• Re-orient the workstations to maximize use of available light.
✓ Improved quality and higher productivity.
✓ Decreased fatigue and work-related illnesses like eye strain and headaches.
✓ Improved health condition of the workers leads to a decrease in absenteeism.
• Provide more windows and skylights throughout the entire factory.
These should be cleaned regularly.
• Install more light where necessary.
• Regularly maintain lights by dusting off light sources, replacing lights at regular intervals, and cleaning dirt on walls, ceilings, windows, and skylights.
• Observe workers and ask them about their vision problems.
• Contrasting colour paint for a tabletop or a partition between workstations is suitable for a visual background
14. Induction Training Kit
It is crucial that all new employees are properly oriented to their new working environment and understand their rights and responsibilities. This can ultimately help to reduce potential industrial disputes, improve understanding and communication between management and workers and promote higher productivity for the enterprise.
Good practices for induction training kit
• Management can use the Better Work training materials
to support their own induction process to educate new workers on
their rights and responsibilities when they are newly employed in
• HR managers should hold induction sessions regularly to ensure
that new workers are properly inducted and aware of their
workplace rights and responsibilities (See figure).
• Enterprise HR managers/trainers with induction responsibilities
should participate in Better Work training sessions so that
they clearly understand how to use the materials.
✓ Workers better understand their rights and responsibilities.
✓ Helps to build mutual understanding between management and workers.
✓ Helps to build trust and good workplace cooperation.
✓ Helps to reduce industrial dispute, leading to higher productivity.
• Get the induction materials from Better Work.
• Hold regular induction training programs and ensure that all new workers are properly inducted.
• Designate proper facilities (training rooms) to run the induction training and other training activities.
15. Ironing Workstation Design
A well-designed workstation is crucial to productive and efficient work. Even minor changes in workstation design can make a big difference t productivity, health and safety.
Good practices for ironing workstations
• Attach an elastic spring to the iron to reduce worker fatigue
and improve productivity .
• Provide an ‘ironing pad’ which the iron can rest on when it is not in use. This protects the surface and will keep the iron clean .
• Provide a ‘fatigue mat’ to workers who iron in the standing position.
This will help to reduce fatigue and improve productivity.
• Provide a foot platform so that shorter workers may iron at a comfortable height.
✓ Increases productivity.
✓ Improves garment quality.
✓ Reduce absenteeism due to sickness.
✓ Demonstrates that the factory cares about the
health and welfare of its employees.
• Install springs, fatigue mats, and ironing pads at each ironing workstation.
16. Machine Safety: Safety Guards
Machines in garment factories need to have safety guards in order to prevent serious injuries to workers. In particular, make sure that sewing machines have needle and belt guards installed.
Good practices for machine guarding
• Make sure that all machines have appropriate
safety guards installed .
• Make improvised guards for any machines which do not come
with guards .
• Needle guards must be well maintained and replaced regularly
to deter workers from removing them.
• Regularly provide workers with training on machine handling
and good safety practices.
✓ Reduces accidents and associated costs.
✓ Increases productivity because fewer accidents means increased production time.
✓ Enhances awareness of workplace safety.
✓ May improve work satisfaction and workplace performance.
✓ Workers understand that the employer cares about their safety,
and are then more motivated.
• Workshop staff can use metal sheets (or clear hard plastic sheets)
to build safety guards.
• Implement an on-going safety training program for all workers.
• Ensure that workers are aware of how dangerous unguarded machines
can be, and tell them not to remove guards.
17. Materials Handling in the Production Line
A more efficient workplace is more profitable. Introducing tools or systems which make the production line more efficient is often very cost effective. Simple measures which improve the efficiency of the production line include using wheel carts and hanging-rails on wheels.
Good practices for materials handling in production lines
• Use line pick-up trays to feed garment bundles into the production line.
• Use movable wheel carts to transport materials to the workstation .
• Use hanging-rails on wheels to prevent crumpling of ready-to-deliver products and make transportation of finished items safer .
✓ Reduces the amount of time spent on materials handling.
✓ Improves product quality.
✓ Reduces the amount of storage space needed
for finished goods and materials.
• Trays and hangers can be found locally in commercial markets
18.Organisation of Notice boards
A noticeboard is an important source of information for workers. It should be updated regularly and organised in an orderly manner so that workers can find the information they need easily.
Good practices for organisation of noticeboards
• Keep the noticeboard as neat and tidy as possible.
• Remove outdated pieces of information as frequently as possible.
• Label the noticeboard by topic and in multiple languages.
Workers can find the information they need quickly and easily .
• Place the noticeboard in a position where workers can easily see it.
• Consider making individuals (or teams) responsible for keeping
the noticeboard clean, tidy and up-to-date.
• Designate a section to be open for worker and union announcements.
✓ Keeps workers informed.
✓ Good image of workplace.
✓ Workers receive up-to-date information.
✓ Improves workplace cooperation between management and workers.
✓ Allowing workers to post announcements on a public forum increases trust.
• Appropriately label each type of information displayed.
• Remove outdated information and replace it with the up-to-date information
19. Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) needs to be provided to workers by the
factory. The type of PPE needed varies depending on the hazards of the work being performed. PPE should be used only as a last resort, after all other measures to
improve safety have been taken. See also “PPE in dyeing section.”
Good practices for the provision and use of PPE
• Provide chainmail (metal mesh) gloves to workers using cutting equipment to protect them from finger injuries , and make sure that gloves are available for left-handed workers.
• Provide adequate dust masks to workers (e.g. cutters) to protect them from breathing in chemical .
• Old or worn out PPE does not protect workers: Make sure that PPE is in good condition and always replace it when needed or after manufacturer’s recommended period of use expires.
✓ Reduces risk of accident and illness.
✓ Minimises future medical costs.
✓ Safer working environment.
• Purchase the best available PPE, not the cheapest.
Good quality PPE lasts longer and protects better.
• Provide training to demonstrate how to use PPE properly.
• Provide on-going training to educate workers on their specific
workplace risks and the benefits of using PPE in workplaces.
• Ensure workers wear appropriate PPE whenever necessary.
• Put up appropriate signs near relevant workstation.
20. Personal Protective Equipment for Dyeing
Many dyeing chemicals present serious health and safety risks to workers.
Some chemicals can cause burns to the skin and may be harmful if inhaled.
Measures should be taken to avoid exposing workers to dangerous substances. Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be provided.
Good practices for PPE
• After taking measures to avoid exposing workers to dangerous substances, provide PPE to workers to prevent exposure to harmful substances.
This may include safety masks, boots, gloves, aprons and goggles .
If gloves are necessary, make sure gloves are provided for left-handed workers.
• Purchase chain mesh gloves for workers who use cutting tools and
dust masks for workers who risk breathing in chemical dust .
• Educate workers on:
– the hazards that exist in their work area;
– how to maximize the utility of existing safety devices;
– how to wear the PPE correctly for maximum protection; and
– how to safely use and dispose of chemical substances.
• Old or worn out PPE does not protect workers. Make sure that PPE is in good condition and always replace it when needed or after manufacturer’s recommended period of use expires.
✓ Protects safety and health of workers.
✓ Offers worker security.
✓ Workers are more productive because they to do not spend time
or energy worrying about hazards.
• Purchase appropriate PPE, especially for workers in the dyeing section.
• Translate Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) into local languages
for workers to read.
• Place Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) on the walls in the
dyeing area so that workers can get information on the products
they are using.
• Implement a continuous safety training program for all workers.
These should involve workshops that explain how to use PPE.
• Use safety posters that give workers additional information on chemical products
and when and how to use PPE. See sheet about Posters for more information
21. Proper Sanitation Facilities
People need clean, sanitary toilet facilities. Proper facilities let workers and buyers know that the employer is concerned about employee safety and well-being. Conversely, poorly maintained toilets and sinks are a primary cause for poor health among workers. As a result, non-appropriate sanitation facilities may be a serious impediment to labour productivity. To ensure that a sufficient level of hygiene is established throughout the factory, toilet facilities must be of reasonable quality, well stocked, cleaned and maintained regularly.
Good practices for establishing proper sanitation facilities
• Toilets should be available on each floor and building on the factory premises.
• Generally, provide two toilets for every 40 men and for every 30 women. Provide a sink for every fifteen workers.
• Male and female workers should have separate toilets .
• Toilets should be equipped with ample amounts of soap, water, and toilet paper to ensure good hygiene practices.
• The floor must be clean and free from slippery areas.
• Washrooms should contain mirrors, rubbish bins, and ample water .
✓ Contributes to a lower incidence of employee illness, and less employee absenteeism.
✓ Improves morale among factory workers, which contributes to higher productivity.
✓ Promotes a positive impression of the factory to buyers.
✓ Hand-washing facilities prevent the spread of disease and illness,
and allows workers who work with chemicals to minimize chemical
absorption through their hands.
• Workers must have access to toilets without unreasonable restrictions.
• Toilets must be regularly cleaned (at least once a day).
• Toilets should have lockable doors, proper lightning, waterproof floors and walls and a proper drainage system.
• Make sure surfaces are smooth and easy to clean – tiles are a good
• Ensure that the room has proper drainage to minimize maintenance cost.
22. Proper Storage of Tools, Parts and Equipment
To ensure that tools and equipment remain in good condition and last for a long time, store them properly. Properly stored tools and equipment will be easy to find when needed and are less likely to be lost.
Good practices for mechanical room
• Parts should be properly stored and labeled.
• Tools should be properly labeled and placed on the board .
Consider drawing the shapes of the tools on the board so that they
always get put back in the same position.
• Use bins for storing small parts .
• Avoid storing things on the floor to increase space.
• Consider making an individual (or individuals) responsible
for the good maintenance of tools and parts.
• Make sure that mechanics have the tools they need to accomplish
their work, and make sure they understand the organization system.
✓ Tools and parts are kept in good condition and are easy to find.
✓ Costs are reduced.
✓ Productivity is increased because time is not lost looking for tools,
parts and equipment.
✓ Workshop staff develop a sense of responsibility and pride in their work.
• Workshop staff identify tools, parts and equipment.
• Workshop staff develop a system for labeling and storing tools,
parts and equipment.
• Maintain order in the mechanical room by establishing a criteria for performance review.
23. Providing Support to Working Mothers
Most countries have laws that specifically address working mothers. Following these laws ensures high morale among workers and a good reputation among buyers. The provision of a nursing room and a day care center provides a positive environment for mothers returning to the workforce.
Good practices for establishing breastfeeding and childcare facilities
• Provide the legally mandated maternity leave or 14 weeks, the
international good practice benchmark ( ILO Convention 183).
• Allow employees returning from maternity leave to do
only light work during the first 2 months back at work.
• Ensure that all pregnant workers have full job security.
• Provide paid breastfeeding breaks each day and offer Flexible working hours to breastfeeding women during the first year of their child’s life.
• Establish and operate breastfeeding facilities and a child-care room at the workplace .
• Encourage co-workers and management to have an accepting
and supportive attitude towards breastfeeding.
✓ Mothers who exclusively breast feed for the first 6 months of baby’s life have healthier and happier babies.
✓ Mothers of healthy babies worry less, which allows them to be more productive.
✓ Breastfeeding women are less likely to be absent from work.
✓ Well supported working mothers are more likely to return to work after maternity leave. This enables employers to keep trained, experienced and motivated workers with strong loyalty to the employer.
• Provide space for mothers to breastfeed their children on-site:
use a vacant room which is silent and private.
• Keep the environment of the nursing room clean and safe.
• Agree with the employee on a clear schedule of breaks in advance.
• Never allow children on the factory floor. Factory conditions pose
a major safety concern for young children.
24. Provision of Pure Drinking Water
Drinking water is very important for all workers especially those in hot and humid climates. Heat causes dehydration which leads to fatigue, loss of concentration and loss of productivity.
Good practices for provision of pure drinking water
• Workers must be provided with sufficient hygienic drinking water.
It must be put in a covered container with a spout at the bottom and
not exposed to the sunlight.
• Drinking water containers should be located close to the workstations, but not near sanitation facilities, dangerous machines, or areas where
chemicals are used frequently. This is so that the water doesn’t get
• If containers are not self-cooling, try to locate water in a relatively
cool spot in the factory.
• If there is any doubt about water contamination, the water must be boiled or filtered before consumption.
• Only use piped water if it is guaranteed to be sanitary. Use signs to
designate which water is safe to drink and which is not safe to drink.
• Workers should be provided with a proper place to store her/his
drinking cup/bottle. This ensures that drinking water doesn’t spill
on the work station.
• Use disposable cups or materials to minimize the spread of infection.
• Anticipate water consumption increase according to number of worked hours,
number of employees, and outside temperature.
✓ Helps workers to recover energy during long hour working days
and increases productivity.
✓ Decrease in fatigue and work-related illnesses.
✓ Improved health conditions of workers leads to a decrease in absenteeism.
• Sign service contract with reputable drinking water companies.
• Organize drinking water stations away from dust, sunshine, rubbish, and toilets.
• Ensure that workers have equal access to drinking water usage with no undue restrictions.
• Regularly clean water containers, replace old cup/bottles, and change water filters.
• Drinking fountains are a hygienic solution for providing water nearby workstations.
25. Quality Control Workstation Design
Because quality control is very important in garment manufacturing, the quality control workstation must be well designed. A poorly designed workstation may lead to poor quality work and the reputation of the factory can suffer. When designing the workstation, provide good lighting, clear work instructions, and all necessary tools.
Good practices for the quality control checking table
• Ensure that there is good clear lighting, but that it does not shine
directly into the worker’s eyes.
• Provide clear work instructions in the worker’s language and illustrated with pictures as necessary.
• A measuring tape can be fixed to the table to help when checking garment sizes. This measure can be permanently marked to indicate garment sizes .
• Materials and tools that are used more often should be located closer to the employee.
• Ensure that the worker is comfortable and has correct posture.
An adjustable chair with a backrest can greatly improve
the posture of seated workers .
✓ Increases quality and productivity.
✓ Reduces worker tiredness and mistakes.
✓ Makes quality control easier when new products are introduced.
✓ Ensures that workers are given clear instructions and
understand what is expected.
• Have factory staff build quality control workstations using plain white board.
• Install adequate lighting.
• Provide clear written and illustrated instructions to ensure quality work.
• Ensure that table is stable.
• Provide leg space for easy leg movement.
• Provide a footrest, especially for seated workers
26. Rubbish/Waste Collection
A clean workplace can help to achieve better productivity and protects worker’s health and safety. Factories should establish systems to make sure that waste is continuously cleared up and that the workplace is kept safe, healthy and hygienic at all times.
Good practices for rubbish collection
• Use rubbish bins to collect waste in the factory.
• Sewing machine scraps can be collected directly into a bin
below the sewing table.
• Make a hole in the sewing table and connect it to a bin below
with an adjustable slide .
• Designate specific rubbish bins to individual machines .
• Post signs to show where rubbish bins are located.
✓ Improves productivity.
✓ Promotes good health and safety practices amongst workers.
✓ Develops good housekeeping habits.
✓ Helps to eliminate waste and workers take pride in cleanliness of factory.
• Use baskets/bins where appropriate in all working areas.
• Encourage workers to develop good habits even during busy periods.
• Encourage workers to always keep the workplace clean.
27.Spot Cleaning Area
Spot cleaning is necessary in garment manufacturing, but some of the chemicals used can be dangerous. It is necessary to protect people who work in or near the spot cleaning area from chemicals, including chemical fumes. In particular, Trichloroethylene, a toxic chemical commonly used in spot cleaning, needs special care. It can cause harm if it is breathed in or if it touches the skin.
Good practices for store organisation
• Use a special room in a separate location for the spot cleaning area.
• Use water and detergent for spot cleaning instead of chemicals whenever possible.
• Make sure that workers read and understand Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) so that they learn about the dangers of the chemicals being used. If workers cannot read, ensure that workers understand the dangers of chemicals.
• Ensure that the spot cleaning room has clean air at all times by fitting fans and installing fume captors where the fumes are located. Ensure sufficient fume caption per minute.
• Install exhaust ventilation fans in the spot cleaning area to make sure that clean air flows towards the workers and chemical fumes flow away from the workers.
Caution: the air must not flow towards the worker’s face or they will breathe in the chemical .
• After taking all possible measures to improve the working environment, provide
workers with proper personal protective equipment such as masks, overalls,
gloves and safety goggles.
Caution: Dust masks are not suitable as they trap
the chemical over the worker’s face .
✓ Protects workers from direct and indirect exposure to spot cleaning chemicals.
✓ Protects workers from getting sick – including short and long-term diseases.
✓ Saves cost of medical treatment.
✓ Minimizes absenteeism from sickness.
✓ Safer working environment.
• Display this Guide and MSDS on the walls of the spot cleaning room.
• Purchase personal protective equipment such as gloves and overalls in local markets.
• Purchase safety goggles and filter respirator masks (for gases and solvents) in commercial markets.
• Find out if any of the chemical products used can be replaced by water and detergent.
• Train workers on proper safety procedures and make sure they know about
the hazards associated with the materials they are working using
28. Spot Cleaning Operations
Because spot-cleaning chemicals can be dangerous, spot cleaning operations should be kept separate from the main production area. Workers who use spot cleaning chemicals should be given safety equipment and clothing. Factories which have good spot cleaning operations can save money by reducing absenteeism and improving the health and morale of workers. A safe factory can also help to increase sales because working conditions are important to many garment buyers.
Good practices for spot cleaning operations
• Use water and detergent for spot cleaning instead of chemicals whenever possible.
• After taking all possible measures to improve the working environment, provide spot cleaning workers with appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as gloves, safety goggles, masks and overalls.
• Many factories use spot cleaning chemicals, which contain trichloroethylene. Trichloroethylene is toxic and can cause serious harm. It is especially important that workers wear correct PPE to prevent them from touching or breathing in this
• Ensure that workers are educated on how to properly handle chemicals.
Material Safety Data Sheets must be provided in language the workers understand.
• Make sure workers and medical staff know what to do in case dangerous
chemicals get spilt or a worker gets injured. Workers must wash themselves
after the use of chemicals.
• Make sure workers know how to properly dispose of chemicals.
• DO NOT expose pregnant women or women who breast-feed their children
to dangerous chemicals such as trichloroethylene.
✓ Safer and healthier working environment.
✓ Protection of workers’ health.
✓ Workers are happier when they no longer have to tolerate unpleasant smells,
headaches or irritation to eyes and skin.
✓ Minimises health risks of long term exposure to chemicals.
✓ Reduces absenteeism due to medical conditions.
✓ Improves productivity.
• Purchase necessary personal protective equipment (PPE).
• Train workers on safety procedures and emergency response in case
of accidental chemical absorption.
• Find out if any of the chemical products used can be replaced by water and detergent
29. Stairway Safety
Stairways can be dangerous but a few simple precautions can make them much safer. Make sure that stairways are large enough and are not blocked or slippery. Stairways need to be large enough for large groups of people to use in case of an emergency evacuation such as a fire.
Good practices for stairway safety
• Stairs should have non-stick ‘treading’ to prevent people from slipping .
• Stairs should have handrails for support.
• Stairs should be large enough for easy access and wide enough to allow two-way access.
• Make sure that there are enough stairways in case of an emergency such as a fire.
• Stairways need good lighting; otherwise workers may
trip and injure themselves.
• Schedule regular fire drills so employees get accustomed
to using stairs in an emergency situation in an orderly fashion.
• Use ramps instead of stairways where applicable.
Ensure that the ramp incline is less than 15 degrees.
✓ Safe stairways allow easy access in cases of emergency.
✓ Reduces accidents resulting from slipping and falling.
✓ Easier and more efficient movement of materials from one floor to another.
• Renovate existing stairs to implement these good practice guidelines if needed.
• Bring these issues to the building contractor when building new factories and expanding or renovating old ones.
• When building stairs, each stair should be the same height and depth.
• Schedule regular fire drills so employees get accustomed to using stairs in an emergency situation in an orderly fashion
30. Stock Control of the Garment Trims Store
Garment factories invest a huge amount of money in fabric. A well organised
warehouse and an inventory system which labels and tracks all stock helps to manage this inventory investment, improves productivity and reduces costs. Please also refer to the Good Practice Guides for Fabric Storage and Store Organisation.
Good practices for the garment trims store
• Classify and label all old and current stock .
• If stock is not used, get rid of it.
• Label the trims and classify them by item type .
• Use and display bin cards for all fabrics. Bin cards also make it easier when ordering and conducting stock-take .
• Keep track of which stock was used in which production run
and the date it was used.
✓ Increases productivity by reducing the amount of time
needed to search for fabric and conduct stock-take.
✓ Reduces costs by preventing unnecessary ordering.
✓ Reduces costs by decreasing the risk of stock being
damaged by being stored poorly or stolen.
✓ Makes inventory ordering quicker and easier.
✓ Makes it possible to produce garments from the same fabric batch which ensures consistency of colour and fabric quality.
• Train staff to understand the labeling process.
• Ensure that labeling is consistent.
31. Store Organization
Because garment factories make a large investment in materials it is necessary to store and organize this inventory in an efficient, safe and secure way. A well organized store helps to make a more productive factory, protects stock from being damaged, and saves money and time when ordering and conducting stock-take.
Good practices for store organisation
• Build a racking system and put boards at both ends
of each rack for identification.
• Use a logical identification system for organizing the racks.
For example, put numbers, letters (or a combination) on each row .
• Put frequently used stock in easily accessible locations.
• Attach a ‘bin card’ to each fabric roll. A bin card is used to record
the balance of the fabric .
• Invest in high quality ladders. They will save time and protect
the welfare of your staff.
• Teach workers how the storage system works, and train them
on the usage of ladders, forklifts and machine safety.
✓ Improves productivity.
✓ Reduces risk of materials being damaged, lost or stolen.
✓ Presents a positive image of the factory.
✓ Reduces the risk of over-ordering materials.
✓ Stock-take is quicker and more efficient.
✓ Ensures a safer workplace.
• Store staff can design or build.
• High quality racking systems can be purchased and fitted to your store
32. Store Room Safety: Stack Height
To make the factory safer and more productive, storage areas need to be efficiently and safely organised. Make sure that all boxes and materials are properly stacked and that the height of stacks is restricted and monitored.
Good practices for safe stacking in the store room
• Mark the maximum stack height using wooden guide poles .
• Or, paint red lines on the wall to indicate safe stacking height .
• Regularly check that boxes are stacked tidily and boxes or materials
are not stacked above the marked height.
• Never stack in front of emergency exits or in front of windows
or electrical panels.
✓ Improves the image of workplace.
✓ Creates a safer workplace.
✓ Reduces workplace accidents.
✓ Enhances awareness of safe practices.
✓ Improves the efficiency of the storeroom.
• Use pieces of wood as markers; or
• Paint a line to show the maximum stack height.
• Stack materials and boxes in areas that do not obstruct airflow
or movement within the factory.
Electricity has the potential to seriously injure and kill. As electricity is invisible, it is even more dangerous. As the manager of a small business, you are responsible for ensuring the electrical fittings and electrical equipment in your workplace is safe, and inspected and maintained regularly. You should involve your workers in filling out the checklist.
If you mark any NO box on the checklist, you need to take action to make your workplace safer.
|Date checklist completed: Date checklist to be reviewed: (annually or when there is a change in the electrical equipment or an electrical incident)|
|Name of person who completed checklist:|
|Position title: Company/workplace:|
|Electrical switchboards and equipment|
Are switchboards and electrical equipment in a safe condition?* Yes No Is everything on the switchboard clearly labeled? Yes No Have safety switches (residual current devices) been fitted to all circuits?* Yes No Power points, light fittings and switches Are all power points, light fittings and switches in a safe place and free from obvious Yes No defects (eg loose covers or wires, broken or damaged fittings, signs of overheating)?* Are isolating switches clearly labelled and accessible? Yes No Power tools, flexible leads and power boards Is portable electrical equipment protected by safety switches? Yes No Are all power tools, extension leads and power boards maintained in a safe Yes No operating condition (check for damaged insulation, water leaks, burn marks, bent or loose pins or fittings)? Are extension leads and power boards located in a safe position to prevent mechanical Yes No or other damage (including trips)?Inspecting and maintaining electrical equipment Are all electrical fittings and electrical equipment, including portable power tools, Yes No regularly inspected and maintained?
*For specialised advice about electrical safety, contact a licensed electrical contractor.
Electrical Safety: Checklist
Call a qualified electrician or your landlord if you have:
• Frequent problems with blowing fuses or tripping circuit breakers
• A tingling feeling when you touch an electrical appliance
• Discolored or warm wall outlets
• A burning or rubbery smell coming from an appliance
• Flickering or dimming lights
• Sparks from an outlet
Inspect your home for hidden electrical hazards.
Check electrical cords to make sure the wires are not damaged, cracked or loose. If the cords need to be repaired, take the item to a professional repair shop, hire an electrician or replace with a new item.
Make sure cords are not running across doorways or under carpets.
If they are, have a qualified electrician install more outlets.
Keep children away from electric cords and outlets. Cords placed in the mouth can cause a burn and objects placed in a receptacle can cause a shock, burns or electrocution
Make sure that all receptacle outlets and switches have faceplates.
Never put more than one plug in each receptacle. An outlet may have one or more receptacles — one to receive each plug.
Be sure that the bulbs in your lights match what is safe for the lamp. There should be a sticker that indicates the maximum wattage for the light bulb — such as use maximum of a 60 watt bulb
Light bulbs in the living area of your home, including closets, should have a shade or globe for protection. Light bulbs can get very hot and cause a fire if something that can burn is too close.
Ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) reduce the risk of shock by shutting off an electrical circuit when the circuit could be a shock hazard. Your home should have GFCIs in the kitchen, bathroom(s), laundry, basement, garage, and outdoor areas.
Heat producing appliances such as a toaster, coffee maker, iron or microwave oven draw a lot of electricity. Plug only one heat producing appliance in each outlet to prevent wiring from overheating.
Buy only appliances that have the label of a recognized testing laboratory.
Arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs) protect against fire by monitoring the electrical current in a circuit and shutting off the circuit when unintended arcing occurs. AFCIs should be installed in your home. If not, have a professional electrician install them for you.
Keep ladders away from overhead power lines, including the electrical service into your home.
Think Green! Turn off lights when you are not in the room. Unplug appliances when not in use.
ELECTRICAL CHECKLIST (OSHA)
|THINGS TO LOOK FOR||N/A||YES||NO||REMARKS/ACTION|
TAKEN/DATEYou specify compliance with OSHA for all contract electrical work. All employees are required to report as soon as practicable any obvious hazard to life or property observed in connection with electrical equipment or lines. Employees are instructed to make preliminary inspections and/or appropriate tests to determine what conditions exist before starting work on electrical equipment or lines. When electrical equipment or lines are to be serviced, maintained, or adjusted, are necessary switches opened, locked-out and tagged whenever possible. Portable electrical tools and equipment are grounded or of the double insulated type. Electrical appliances such as vacuum cleaners, polishers, and vending machines are grounded. Extension cords being used have a grounding conductor. Multiple plug adaptors are prohibited. Ground-fault circuit interrupters are installed on each temporary 15 or 20-ampere, 120 volt AC circuit at locations where construction, demolition, modifications, alterations or excavations are being performed. All temporary circuits are protected by suitable disconnecting switches or plug connectors at the junction with permanent wiring. When/If you have electrical installations in hazardous dust or vapor areas, they meet the National Electrical Code (NEC) for hazardous locations. Exposed wiring and cords with frayed or deteriorated insulation are repaired or replaced promptly. Flexible cords and cables are free of splices or taps. Clamps or other securing means are provided on flexible cords or cables at plugs, receptacles, tools, equipment, etc., and is the cord jacket securely held in place. All cord, cable, and raceway connections are intact and secure. In wet or damp locations, electrical tools and equipment are appropriate for the use or location or otherwise protected. The location of electrical power lines and cables (overhead, underground, under floor, other side of walls) is determined before digging, drilling, or similar work is begun. Metal measuring tapes, ropes, hand lines, or similar devices with metallic thread woven into the fabric are prohibited where they could come in contact with energized parts of equipment or circuit conductors. The use of metal ladders are prohibited in areas where the ladder or the person using the ladder could come in contact with energized parts of equipment, fixtures, or circuit conductors. All disconnecting switches and circuit breakers are labeled to indicate their use or equipment served. Disconnecting means are always opened before fuses are replaced. All interior wiring systems include provisions for grounding metal parts of electrical raceways, equipment, and enclosures. All electrical raceways and enclosures are securely fastened in place. All energized parts of electrical circuits and equipment are guarded against accidental contact by approved cabinets or enclosures. Sufficient access and working space is provided and maintained about all electrical equipment to permit ready and safe operations and maintenance. All unused openings (including conduit knockouts) in electrical enclosures and fittings are closed with appropriate covers, plugs, or plates. Electrical enclosures such as switches, receptacles, and junction boxes, are provided with tight fitting covers or plates. Disconnecting switches for electrical motors in excess of two horsepower, are capable of opening the circuit when the motor is in a stalled condition, without exploding? (Switches must be horsepower rated equal to or in excess of the motor hp rating.) Low voltage protection is provided in the control device of motors driving machines or equipment which could cause probable injury from inadvertent starting. Each motor disconnecting switch or circuit breaker is located within sight of the motor control device. Each motor located within sight of its controller or the controller disconnecting means is capable of being locked in the open position or is a separate disconnecting means installed in the circuit within sight of the motor. The controller for each motor in excess of two horsepower is rated in horsepower equal to or in excess of the rating of the motor it serves. Employees who regularly work on or around energized electrical equipment or lines are instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) methods. Employees are prohibited from working alone on energized lines or equipment over 600 volts. Inspector:Organization: Date:
HEALTH AND SAFETY
|Name of Inspector:|
IMPORTANT: Please indicate in the following manner: Acceptable Not Acceptable Not Applicable Date : Section : B (Health & Safety System)RatingAction Required1.1 OH&S policy displayed 1.2 Accident report book 1.3 Induction records 1.4 Rehabilitation policy available 1.5 Workplace inspection records 1.6 Emergency procedures 1.7 Training records 1.8 Documented safe work procedures 1.9 Protective clothing & equipment records 1.10 MSDS available 1.11 Occupational health & safety management systems 1.12 OH&S committee active 1.13 OH&S Committee representatives trained 1.14 Contractor risk assessment available Section C. Housekeeping 2.1 Work areas free from rubbish & obstructions 2.2 Surfaces safe and suitable 2.3 Free from slip/trip hazards 2.4 Floor openings covered 2.5 Stock/material stored safely AISLES 2.6 Unobstructed and clearly defined 2.7 Adequate lighting 2.8 Vision at corners 2.9 Wide enough Section D. Electrical 3.1 No broken plugs, sockets, switches 3.2 No frayed or defective leads 3.3 Power tools in good condition 3.4 No work near exposed live electrical equipment 3.5 Tools and leads inspected and tagged 3.6 No strained leads 3.7 No cable-trip hazards 3.8 Switches/circuits identified 3.9 Lock-out procedures/danger tags in place 3.10 Earth leakage systems used 3.11 Start/stop switches clearly identified 3.11 Start/stop switches clearly identified 3.12 Switchboards secured 3.13 Appropriate fire fighting equipment Section E. Plant & Equipment 4.1 Plant and equipment in good condition 4.2 Daily safety inspection procedures/checklists 4.3 Fault reporting/rectification system used 4.4 Operators trained and licensed 4.5 Warning and instructions displayed 4.6 Warning lights operational 4.7 Reversing alarm operational 4.8 Satisfactory operating practices 4.9 Fire extinguisher 4.10 Tyres satisfactory 4.11 SWL of lifting or carrying equipment displayed Section F. Machinery and Workbenches 5.1 Adequate work space 5.2 Clean and tidy 5.3 Free from excess oil and grease 5.5 Warnings or instructions displayed 5.6 Emergency stops appropriately placed and clearly WORKBENCHES 5.8 Clear of rubbish 5.9 Tools in proper place 5.10 Duckboards or floor mats provided Section G. Hazardous Substances 6.1 Stored appropriately 6.2 Containers labelled correctly 6.3 Adequate ventilation/exhaust systems 6.4 Protective clothing/equipment available/used 6.5 Personal hygiene – dermatitis control 6.6 Waste disposal procedures 6.7 Material safety data sheets available 6.8 Chemical handling procedures followed 6.9 Chemical register developed 6.10 Appropriate emergency – shower, eye bath, extinguishers 6.11 Hazchem signing displayed Section H. Welding 7.1 Gas bottles securely fixed to trolley 7.2 Welding fumes well ventilated 7.3 Fire extinguisher near work area 7.4 Only flint guns used to light torch 7.5 Flash back spark arrestors fitted 7.6 Vision screens used for electric welding 7.7 LPG bottles within 10 year stamp 7.8 PPE provided and worn 7.9 Hot Work permit system used Section I. Excavations 8.1 Shoring in place and in sound condition 8.2 Excavation well secured 8.3 Signage displayed 8.4 Banks battered correctly and spoil away from edge 8.5 Clear and safe access around excavation 8.6 Separate access and egress points from excavation 8.7 Safe work procedure in place Section J. Prevention of Falls 9.1 Work platforms have secure handrails, guarding or fence panels 9.2 Harness and lanyard or belts provided 9.3 All floor penetrations covered or barricaded 9.4 Unsafe areas signposted and fenced 9.5 Safe work procedure in place Section K. Stairs, steps and landings 10.1 No worn or broken steps 10.2 Handrails in good repair 10.3 Clear of obstructions 10.4 Adequate lighting 10.5 Emergency lighting 10.6 Non-slip treatments/treads in good condition 10.7 Kick plates where required 10.8 Clear of debris and spills 10.9 Used correctly Section L. Ladders 11.1 Ladders in good condition 11.2 Ladders not used to support planks for working platforms 11.3 Correct angle to structure 1:4 11.4 Extended 1.0 metre above top landing 11.5 Straight or extension ladders securely fixed at top 11.6 Metal ladders not used near live exposed electrical Section M. Personal Protection Rating Action Required 12.1 Employees provided with PPE 12.2 PPE being worn by employees 12.3 Suncream and sunglasses provided 12.4 Correct signage at access points Section N. Manual Handling Rating Action Required 13.1 Mechanical aids provided and used 13.2 Safe work procedures in place 13.3 Manual handling risk assessment performed 13.4 Manual handling controls implemented Section O. Workplace Ergonomics 14.1 Workstation and seating design acceptable 14.2 Ergonomic factors considered in work layout and task 14.3 Use of excessive force and repetitive movements 14.4 Appropriate training provided Section P. Material Storage 15.1 Stacks stable 15.2 Heights correct 15.3 Sufficient space for moving stock 15.4 Material stored in racks/bins 15.5 Shelves free of rubbish 15.6 Floors around stacks and racks clear 15.7 Drums checked 15.8 Pallets in good repair 15.9 Heavier items stored low 15.10 No danger of falling objects 15.11 No sharp edges 15.12 Safe means of accessing high shelves 15.3 Racks clear of lights/sprinklers Section Q. Confined Spaces 16.1 Risk assessment undertaken 16.2 Communication and rescue plan in place 16.3 Safety equipment in good working condition 16.4 Suitable training provided to employees 16.5 Confined Space permit used Section R. Lasers 17.1 Operator has laser operator licence 17.2 Signage displayed 17.3 Laser not used in a manner to endanger other persons Section S. Public Protection 18.1 Appropriate barricades, fencing, boarding, gantry secure 18.2 Signage in place 18.3 Suitable lighting for public access 18.4 Footpaths clean and free from debris 18.5 Dust and noise controls in place 18.6 Site access controlled 18.7 Traffic control procedures in place 18.8 Public complaints actioned Section T. Amenities 19.1 Washrooms clean 19.2 Toilets clean 19.3 Lockers clean 19.4 Meal rooms clean and tidy 19.5 Rubbish bins available – covered Section U. First Aid 20.1 Cabinets and contents clean and orderly 20.2 Stocks meet requirements 20.3 First aiders names displayed 20.4 First aiders location and phone numbers 20.5 Qualified first aider(s) 20.6 Record of treatment and of supplies dispensed Section V. Lighting 21.1 Adequate and free from glare 21.2 Lighting clean and efficient 21.3 Windows clean 21.4 No flickering or inoperable lights 21.5 Emergency lighting system Section W. Fire Control 22.1 Extinguishers in place 22.2 Fire fighting equipment serviced/tagged 22.3 Appropriate signing of extinguishers 22.4 Extinguishers appropriate to hazard 22.5 Emergency exit signage 22.6 Exit doors easily opened from inside 22.7 Exit path ways clear of obstruction 22.8 Alarm/communication system – adequate 22.9 Smoking/naked flame restrictions observed 22.10 Minimum quantities of flammables at workstation 22.11 Flammable storage procedures 22.12 Emergency personnel identified and trained 22.13 Emergency procedures documented – issued 22.14 Emergency telephone numbers displayed 22.15 Alarms tested 22.16 Trial evacuations conducted 22.17 Personnel trained in use of fire fighting equipment
|Is there an effective fire alarm?|
|Is the fire alarm tested every three months?|
|Is the fire alarm functioning correctly?|
|Are fire exits clearly marked and easily identifiable?|
|Are fire exits free from obstruction?|
|Are emergency procedures displayed?|
|Are the telephone numbers of emergency services clearly displayed?|
|Are there regular fire evacuation practices?|
|Have fire wardens been appointed and trained?|
|Are fire extinguishers available?|
|Are the fire extinguishers suitable to the type of fire that may occur (eg carbon dioxide for electrical fires).|
|Are fire extinguishers serviced regularly?|
|Are smoke detectors installed?|
|Is a fire sprinkler system installed?|
|Are fire sprinklers unobstructed?|
|Are hose reels available and connected to water supply?|
|Is access to the hose reels unobstructed?|
|Are flammable materials properly stored?|
FIRST AID Are first aid officers appointed? Are the names of first aid officers displayed? Are first aid kits full stocked? Are first aid kits readily accessible? Are there sufficient numbers of first aid kits? Are the contents of the first aid kits checked regularly? Are first aid kits replenished as necessary? Are first aid rooms appropriately equipped?
|Are all areas adequately lit?|
|Is natural light utilised to best advantage?|
|Is task lighting available where required?|
|Have measures been taken to reduce glare created by unshielded lights, sunlight or from bright reflecting surfaces?|
|Is there an emergency lighting system that is adequately maintained?|
|Are light fittings in good repair and clean?|
|Are all the light fittings shielded with a good cover?|
|Is there a program for the checking and replacement of faulty bulbs and tubes at regular periods?|
|Are fittings accessible for routine maintenance?|
|Are illuminated signs and notices in lifts and exits in working order?|
|Are individuals satisfied with thermal comfort?|
|Are individuals satisfied with quality of air conditioning?|
|Are air conditioning filters/vents cleaned regularly?|
|Are cooling towers treated regularly?|
|Are readings retained in a register?|
|Are the air conditioning controls easy to access and check?|
v Even surface (no holes) ! ! ! !
v Pits and drains covered when not in use ! ! ! !
v Suitable guarding around pit ! ! ! !
v Floor area obstruction free ! ! ! !
v Matting, floor coverings in good condition ! ! ! !
v Surface non-slip ! ! ! !
v Surface spills wiped up (grease, oil, etc) ! ! ! !
v Dropped items picked up ! ! ! !
v Wide enough for traffic ! ! ! !
v 1.2m passage ! ! ! !
v 810mm doors ! ! ! !
v 600mm temporary storage in passage ! ! ! !
v Adequately lit? ! ! ! !
v Marked with white/yellow lines? ! ! ! !
v Clear of cases, materials and rubbish? ! ! ! !
v Clear of electrical cords? ! ! ! !
Stairs and Landings
v No worn or broken treads? ! ! ! !
v Handrails present and in good repair? ! ! ! !
v Landings clear of obstructions? ! ! ! !
v Mezzanine floors adequately guarded? ! ! ! !
Windows and Doors
v Safety/reinforced glass where appropriate? ! ! ! !
v Clean, no broken panes? ! ! ! !
v Ledge, free of dust or rubbish? ! ! ! !
v Mesh under skylights? ! ! ! !
v Bins located at suitable points
v Bins emptied regularly?
Safety Inspection Checklist
Aisles, Exits, Floors, and Stairways
|01.||Are floors kept clean and dry?|
|02.||Are all floors, and passageways free from protruding nails, splinters, holes, and loose boards?|
|03.||Are aisles and passageways clear of all obstructions and in good repair?|
|04.||Are aisles and passageways wide enough to operate equipment safely?|
|07.||Are permanent aisles and passageways appropriately marked?|
|08.||Are all open sided floors, platforms, ramps, 4 feet above adjacent floor or ground, guarded with a railing?|
|09.||Are flights of stairs having four or more risers equipped with railing or handrails?|
|15.||Do the fixed stairways have a minimum width of 22 inches?|
|16.||Are all stair treads reasonably uniform and slip resistant?|
|17.||Is the stair nosing of non-slip finish?|
|Is a fire alarm facility available?|
|Are all fire alarm systems maintained in an operable condition?|
|Is the fire alarm system capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light levels?|
|Is the fire alarm system unobstructed, conspicuous and readily accessible?|
|Are all exits maintained to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts of the building?|
|Are all exits free of locks or fastening devices that could prevent free escape?|
|Are there two means of egress from the room?|
|a. Is the fire detection in working order?|
b. Is the sprinkler in working order? c. Are fire doors in working order? d. Does the emergency lighting work? Do doors used for egress have a clear width of at least 32 inches? Do all exits discharge directly to a street, yard, court, or other open space? Are all exits marked by proper sign and illuminated by not less than five (5) foot candles on the illuminated surface? Are all letters in EXIT sign not less than 6 inches high and 3/4 inches wide? Is access to exits marked with signs or arrows in all cases where the exit or the way to reach it are not immediately visible? Is care taken to insure that no exit signs are obscured by decorations, furniture, or equipment? Is exit access arranged so that it is not necessary to travel toward any high hazard area to escape? Are aisles maintained clear and unobstructed for movement of personnel? Are portable fire extinguishers maintained fully charged and operable and kept in designated places at all times? Are fire extinguishes conspicuously located, readily accessible, and available? Are extinguishes and locations conspicuously marked to indicate intended usage? Are extinguishers mounted so that the top is not more than 5 feet; not more than 3 ½ feet if weight equals more than 40 pounds? Are all extinguishers mounted in cabinets placed so that the instructions face outward? Are extinguishers available suited to the class of fire anticipated in each area? Are extinguishers placed according to distances for proper coverage? Class A Within 75 feet. Class B Within 50 feet. Class C Appropriate pattern Are extinguishers inspected, maintained, and replaced by spares when they are discharged or missing? Are monthly inspections of fire extinguishers complied with? Are portable fire extinguishers selected and distributed based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires? Is the clearance between stored materials and unit heaters, radiant space heaters, duck furnaces, flues and hot water tanks at least 3 feet in all directions? Are electrical distribution panels and entrance switches blocked or obstructed? Are “NO SMOKING” signs posted in prohibited areas? Is there an excess accumulation of paper and other flammable material? Does the facility have a published fire evacuation plan and has the plan been tested annually? Are portable fire extinguishers readily accessible to employees without subjecting the employee to possible injury? Are portable fire extinguishers subjected to an annual maintenance check? Is this maintenance check recorded and retained for one (1) year after the last entry or the life of the shell, whichever is less? Is alternate equivalent protection provide when portable fire extinguishers are removed from service for maintenance and recharging? Have extinguishers been hydroststically tested and has results, date of test, test pressure used, and the person or agency performing the test been recorded? Is each sleeping room provided with a single station smoke detector? Are gas fire devices used to generate heat for comfort such as furnaces vented to an external atmosphere to avoid the accumulation of combustible/noxious products of decomposition? Are motor vehicles parked in such a fashion that each individual vehicle will have exit access from the motor pool area and will not be blocked should a vehicle fire occur? Is an educational program provided for all employees to familiarize them with the general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved with incipient stage fire fighting? Initial and thereafter annual fire extinguisher training.
Are all areas of the workplace, including relevant outside areas adequately lit? Have excessive glare and reflections have been eliminated? Are workstations properly positioned to make the best use of natural light? Is local lighting provided to workstations where necessary? Is emergency lighting provided,with an independent power source which activates automatically when normal lighting fails? Does emergency lighting provide enough light?
Is the workplace too noisy? Is noise reduced at source by the provision of properly designed,well maintained and adjusted tools or machines? Are noise levels reduced by the use of sound-absorbent materials? Can the source of any excessive noise be enclosed or isolated? Is suitable hearing protection provided if noise levels cannot be reduced by any other means?
Is the workplace too hot or too cold? Can measures be taken to control temperature extremes? Is there enough natural ventilation in the workplace,eg windows or open doorways? If natural ventilation is insufficient, are ventilators, fans or air conditioners provided to ensure a consistent flow of fresh air? Is machinery and equipment which generates heat or fumes isolated or enclosed? Are adequate extraction systems fitted to machinery or equipment,or is local exhaust ventilation provided where necessary? Are ventilation and extraction systems regularly cleaned and maintained to ensure their efficiency?
HOUSEKEEPING &WASTE MATERIALS
Is the workplace kept generally clean and tidy? Are appropriate and convenient storage racks provided for tools, raw materials,parts and products? Are oil spills and other ‘slips, trips and falls’hazards promptly cleaned up or removed? Are all work areas cleaned and tidied up daily (or more frequently if necessary),with all hazardous waste materials disposed of properly? Are there enough waste receptacles or containers of adequate size? Is there provision for proper drainage of waste water or other liquids?
TRAFFIC ROUTE &PASSAGEWAYS
Are there separate routes for pedestrians and traffic (eg fork lift trucks,etc)in the workplace? Are aisles,passageways and traffic routes free from obstructions and other hazards, and clearly marked for safe movement of people, vehicles and materials? Have measures been taken to prevent workers from being struck by moving materials or vehicles? Are warning notices, signs or signals posted where hazardous conditions exist? Are barriers placed around temporary floor openings, and used to restrict access to dangerous machines and processes? Are sharp,dangerous or hot objects removed,or located so that workers cannot be hurt accidentally?
Are all fire escapes and routes to emergency exit free from obstacles? Are all emergency escape exits clearly marked? Are there enough fire extinguishers of the correct type within easy reach and near each exit? Have workers been instructed in the evacuation procedures in the event of an emergency?
FALLS OR FALLING OBJECTS
Are all staircases secure and fitted with suitable handrails? Are ladders,platforms,crawling boards and other equipment for working at heights in good repair and suitable for the task? Are all fragile roofs and surfaces clearly identified? Have measures been taken to prevent falls into vessels containing dangerous substances? Are materials and objects adequately stored or stacked to prevent them from falling and causing injury? Are vehicles unloaded safely,without workers having to climb on top vehicles or loads?
Are there any exposed, loose or entangled wires or connections? Are all switchboxes,panel boards and sockets provided with suitable covers? Is all electrical equipment effectively earthed? Is all electrical equipment regularly inspected for signs of wear and tear?
Have all substances used in the workplace been assessed and adequately controlled under the COSHH Regulations? Have safer materials and substances been substituted where possible? Are dust or fume producing machines enclosed or isolated? Are sources of hazardous gases or vapours completely enclosed or sealed? Is local exhaust ventilation adequate? Is it regularly cleaned and maintained? Is suitable protective equipment provided where exposure cannot be controlled by other means?
HANDLING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Is work organised to eliminate or minimise the handling of hazardous materials? Where direct handling is unavoidable, are workers provided with suitable personal protective equipment,clothing and gloves? Are there emergency procedures and facilities for dealing with chemical spillages and other accidents? Are all hazardous substances and materials properly labelled? Is suitable protective equipment provided with the full information, instruction and training on the hazards of the materials?
Has the need to use personal protective equipment been minimised by the introduction of other risk control measures? Is the protective equipment provided (eg safety glasses, face shields, masks,ear defenders, safety footwear,helmets,gloves, etc)suitable for the task? Has all protective equipment which is used only at work been provided at no cost to the worker? Is all protective equipment in good condition and well maintained? Have all workers who use personal protective equipment been provided with full information on the risks they are being protected from,and given instruction and training on proper use of the equipment?
Are all moving parts of machines and equipment fitted with appropriate guards? Are all machinery guards securely fastened to the machines? Do machines have safety cut-out switches or other safety devices to prevent the operation of machines while workers’ hands are in danger? Can emergency stop controls be easily reached by all machine operators? Are safety devices and controls regularly checked,and the machines properly maintained to ensure safe working? Is maintenance work carried out safely,and machinery maintenance logs kept up to date?
Are tools and work equipment suitable for the job? Are tools of appropriate size,and shaped for easy and safe use? Are locking devices (or similar)fitted to tools to reduce gripping or handling force and vibration? Are all tolls and equipment kept in good repair and properly maintained? Has the location where the equipment or tools are being used been assessed to identify any particular risks which may arise? For example,working in confined spaces or a flammable atmosphere? Is training provided for those who use tools and work equipment,and also for their managers and supervisors?
Have all work tasks been assessed to determine whether the handling of loads can be avoided altogether? Have manual handling assessments taken account of factors other than weight, such as the size and shape of the load and the condition of the work environment? Is mechanical equipment, such as lever,conveyors,vacuum lifters, cranes, lift trucks and trolleys used to avoid manual handling? Can the load be altered(for example,by reducing the size or weitht or providing handles)to reduce the risk of injury? Are workers properly trained in lifting and other manual handling techniques?
Does the layout of working surfaces,controls and equipment cause workers to bend, stretch or adopt awkward postures? Are footstands or platforms provided for standing workers to avoid the need to work with raised hands or arms? Are workbenches or tables for seated workers positioned at the correct height to avoid awkward hand and are positions? Are frequently operated switches and controls easily distinguishable from each other by clearly identified sizes,shapes,colours and positions? Are all racks, storage bins and materials within easy reach of workers?
Could work which is carried out standing be done just as well whilst seated? Are all seats individually adjustable to suit the height of the work surface and posture of the worker, and are footrests provided when necessary? Are seats in good condition,with comfortable surfaces and cushions? Do chairs have correctly sizd and positioned backrests to provide lower back support?
FIRST AID FACILITIES
Is there at least one fully equipped first iad box provided in all workplaces? Where necessary, is there a first aid room with adequate facilities and equipment (taking into account the type of work or workplace,the numbers employed,etc)? Is there a sufficient number of qualified first-aiders? Are qualified first-aiders available at all times (on late and night shifts, for example)?
Are there sufficient toilet facilities near to work areas,with separate hand washing facilities and an adequate supply of hot water,soap or hand cleaners? Are toilet and washing facilities regularly cleaned and in a sanitary condition? Is a clean locker room provided for changing clothes,with facilities for separating soiled working clothes from personal clothing? Is there a comfortable separate room for workers to take rest breaks? Is there a separate rest room (or area of the rest room)for nonsmokers? Is there a rest room for pregnant women and nursing mothers,near to sanitary facilities and with somewhere to lie down? Is there an adequate supply of fresh drinking water? Is there a separate,hygienic and comfortable eating area which is adequate for the numbers employed?
SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Regular inspection of the workplace is the ideal method to pro-actively identify hazards and implement changes to prevent accidents from occurring.
Each Site Manager who has responsibility for safety at the site must schedule safety inspections at the beginning of each year and complete the Safety Inspection Form, which the local safety committee will monitor.
The manager or supervisor of the area to be inspected will:
- Organise/arrange for the local safety representative to accompany them on the inspection.
- Arrange for a Safety Inspection Checklist to be provided.
- Complete the Safety Inspection Checklist, including categorising hazards according to the severity of each hazard.
- Establish remedial solutions to minimalise the risk.
- When the inspection has been completed the Manager or Supervisor will forward the inspection report to the Site Manager.
The Site Manager is responsible for:
- Forwarding the inspection report to the Safety Coordinator (Headquarters) for reporting purposes.
- Delegating identified risks or hazards to the appropriate manager, supervisor or facilities.
- Obtaining an expected date when the hazard or risk will be rectified and monitor that alterations occur.
- Monitoring that hazards have been completed on time.
- Keeping the safety committee advised of progress regarding each identified hazard.
- Rectifying hazards or potential hazards within the required time-frame.
- Ensuring that, at the completion of each inspection, the checklist is signed off by the Safety Representative and Manager/supervisor of the area.
The Safety Coordinator will report to the Divisional Safety Steering Group regarding progress on all safety inspections.
- Category ‘A’ type hazard is regarded as dangerous and requires immediate corrective action
- Category ‘B’ type hazard is less dangerous and corrective action must be taken within three weeks
- Category ‘C’ type hazard must be corrected within eight weeks
The following checklist is intended as a guide for Managers, Supervisors, Safety and Health Representatives, OSH Resource Officers and the Safety Committee to assess their workplace for hazards. The Safety Coordinator is available to assist and provide advice to Safety Reps’, OSH Resource Officers and Managers.
Note: these items are not an exhaustive list but rather these are to be extended by people completing the safety inspections.
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Date
|Vehicle parking area|
|Entrances and exits clearly marked|
|Surface of parking area and driveways free from potholes and cracks|
|Well drained to prevent flooding and pooling of water|
|Drainage grates in good order|
|Direction of traffic well defined|
|Traffic and speed restrictions signs clearly defined and free from obstructions|
|Adequate lighting installed and operational|
|Intersections and pedestrian areas identified|
|Potential vehicle damage areas, corners, guardrails and entrances effectively marked|
|“No Parking” areas clearly identified|
|Parking for drivers with disabilities provided|
|Continuous clear accessible pathway i.e. no barriers|
|No raised curbs or changes in the pathways|
|Surface free of holes and projections|
|Well drained to prevent flooding|
|Adequate illumination of walkways, stairways and ramps|
|Steps and changes of level clearly defined|
|Emergency entrance and exits clear, well defined and lit|
|Waste bins provided and regularly emptied|
|Walls / gates / fences|
|In good order|
|No protruding nails or loose palings|
|Childproof locks fitted where needed|
2.1 Sun protection
|Adequate protection from sun provided|
|Staff and clients have access to sun block if needed|
|Staff are encouraged to wear hats|
|Mustering area for emergency evacuations|
|Gardens are in good order – debris, fallen branches removed, lawns mown regularly|
|Gardens are free of sharp objects (broken glass, metal, wood splinters, needles etc)|
|Containers provided for smokers (if smoking allowed)|
|Play equipment safe (check with child care agencies to identify criteria)|
|Storage sheds tidy and locked|
|Vehicles in good repair and working order|
|Vehicles regularly serviced and records maintained|
|First aid kit is in good order|
|Child seats / capsules provided|
|Outdoor security lights triggered to operate after dark|
|Areas around the organisation where an aggressor could hide have been identified|
WORKPLACE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Date:
|Adequate locks on all external doors|
|Adequate locks on all external windows|
|Register of who has what keys|
|Alarm system provided|
|Duress alarms in offices and interview rooms|
|Two exits from interview rooms|
|Security screens for windows and doors|
|Valuable items such as cash and video players are stored when not in use, e.g. hidden safes|
|Areas inside the organisation where an aggressor could hide have been identified|
|Floors, aisles, exits|
|Entrance / steps in good order|
|Hand rails where appropriate|
|Floor coverings in good repair|
|Floors even, uncracked, no holes|
|Floors clean and not slippery|
|All entrances, doorways and stairs kept clear at all times|
|Cords secured and clear of walkways|
|Walkways free from rubbish|
|Stairs and landings|
|Good visual contrast between steps|
|Slip resistant strips on edge (nosing) of steps|
|Handrails present and at correct height|
|Minimal variation between step height and step depth|
2.3 Indoor climate
|Temperature appropriate for the workplace|
|Air conditioning filters cleaned regularly (if appropriate)|
|Air quality acceptable, e.g. free of fumes and smells, replacement frequency adequate|
2.4 Bathrooms / toilets
|Adequate toilets for male / female|
|Toilets for people with disabilities provided|
|Parent rooms available|
|Soap and hand towels / driers provided|
|Sanitary facilities provided|
|Kitchen / lunch room|
|Suitable eating / tea break facilities|
|Stock stored appropriately|
|Food is stored appropriately, i.e. refrigerated|
|Cooking facilities clean and in good order|
|Work benches clean|
|Locked cupboard / drawer for knives and sharps|
|Staff are wearing protective clothing|
|Gloves are used when handling food|
|Exhaust fans over cooking units are clean|
|Electrical equipment is in good repair|
|Anti-slip floor surfaces|
WORKPLACE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Date:
|Lighting in the workplace suitable for the work performed|
|Accessible light switches|
|Task lighting provided for detailed work|
|Overhead lights shielded to minimise glare|
|Stairwells and exits well illuminated|
|Faults such as flickering globes, blown globes replaced /repaired immediately|
|Glare minimised in the work area|
|Good natural lighting|
|Emergency lighting works|
|Exit signs are illuminated|
|Work areas kept clean and tidy|
|Materials and equipment stored safely|
|Rubbish bins emptied regularly|
|Workers provided with personal protective equipment for cleaning, e.g. gloves|
|Appropriate container provided for disposing of “sharps”|
|Procedures in place to ensure that any accidental spills or leakages are immediately cleaned up|
2.5 Hazardous substances
|Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous substances|
|Register of hazardous substances kept|
|Chemicals disposed of correctly|
|Locked cupboard / drawer for hazardous substances|
|Emergency procedures in place and communicated|
|Workers instructed in correct use of hazardous substances|
|Materials stored in racks or bins wherever possible|
|Storage designed to minimise manual handling|
|Floors in store areas free from rubbish and packing|
|Files stored appropriately|
2.6 First aid
|Cabinet easy to access for all staff|
|Staff aware of where cabinet is located|
|Cabinet clearly labelled|
|Adequate stocks kept|
|Name of first aid officer clearly displayed|
|Current first aid certificate held by first aid officer|
|Gloves used for treatment of all injuries|
|Register of injuries kept|
|Equipment regularly maintained|
|Noisy equipment enclosed or isolated|
2.7 Workstations / office
|No broken items|
|No sharp edges|
|Filing cabinets / cupboards stable or secured to walls to prevent tipping|
|Furniture not blocking doorways|
WORKPLACE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Date:
|Back rest adjustable|
|Seats adjusted for person using them|
2.8 Work surface
|Desk at correct height for work performed|
|Sufficient leg room under desk|
2.9 Workplace layout
|Document holder provided for continuous keying work|
|Phone connections nearby|
|Sufficient individual storage space|
|All frequently used items within easy reach|
|Cables secured behind work surface|
|VDU screen at correct height|
|Keyboard and mouse positioned correctly|
|Adequate space between furniture|
|Plugs, sockets and switches in good repair|
|No frayed or defective leads|
|Adequate number of power points for the appliances in use|
|Earth leakage protection installed|
|Located in a well ventilated room|
|Located away from workers to minimise noise|
2.10 Office environment – general
|Adequate space for staff and clients|
|Staff shift arrangements organised to prevent fatigue|
|Adequate staffing during shift|
|Staff pass on information about each shift|
|Secure sleeping arrangements for staff and residents|
|Privacy for clients and staff, i.e. no TV and stereo in same room|
|Kitchen safety rules displayed and implemented|
|House rules displayed|
|Residents aware of curfew times and adhere to rules|
|Visitors follow house rules|
|Drugs and alcohol policy displayed and implemented|
|Residents aware of emergency procedures|
|Door with handle which can be pulled closed and locked|
|Double lock on door|
|Exit from the room other than the entry door|
|Telephone in the room|
WORKPLACE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Date:
|Fire exits and procedures|
|Smoke detectors and alarms|
|Accessible fire exits|
|Uncluttered fire exits|
|Unlocked during working hours|
|Fire extinguishers located appropriate to risk|
|Appropriate to the conditions and exposures|
|Regularly serviced and date noted|
|Fire blankets provided where appropriate|
|Regular fire drills with documented staff attendance|
|Comments and review of above results (i.e. action required):|
WORKPLACE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
SAFETY & SECURITY Date:
|Clients of the organization are likely to be distressed or aggressive|
|There are written criteria for the types of clients that the service either accepts or refers elsewhere|
|There are procedures for referring clients to appropriate services for psychiatric, drug and alcohol and behavioural reasons|
|Written procedures are used to assess clients|
|Referring organizations are providing enough information|
|Referral information is verified|
|Clients are made aware of their rights and responsibilities|
|There are experienced workers only in front line positions|
|Workers have the appropriate knowledge and skills to deal with clients|
|There are procedures for sole worker times|
|The roster avoids back to back shifts for staff|
|The clothing worn by staff does not increase the risk of injury during a violent incident, e.g. earrings, ties, scarfs|
|Staff levels are adjusted to match times where violent behaviour is more likely to occur|
|Staff meeting regularly with their Manager and other workers for support|
|Supervisors monitor caseload numbers of each worker to avoid overload|
|Shift hand-overs ensure that sufficient information is passed on from events in the previous shift|
|Current staff levels prevent excessive workload and overtime|
All workers, volunteers and management trained in the following: Induction into the organisation’s policies & procedures Time management How to identify, assess and resolve conflict Negotiation skills Techniques for diffusing violence Armed hold-up procedures Medication management for clients Anger management Crisis communication Basic self-defence Post trauma debriefing procedure Accident and incident reporting Complaints and grievance procedures Fire drills and emergency procedure Home visit / Call-out procedure
WORKPLACE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
SAFETY & SECURITY Date:
|There is one telephone that cannot be accessed by clients|
|Staff members on duty have the capacity to contact each other easily|
|Mobile phones, intercoms, duress alarms and beepers are available and in good working order|
|Telephone numbers of all emergency services are displayed prominently above all telephones and on automatic dial|
|There is one telephone that can be used by clients|
|Office-based staff are familiar with their role in home visit / emergency procedures|
|Procedures There are day-to-day procedures in the organization for:|
|Handling disputes between clients|
|Handling disputes / grievances between staff, volunteers and/ or management|
|Removing from clients items that could be used as a weapon|
|Securing the premises|
|Responding to alarms|
|Issuing medication to clients, including record keeping|
|Post incident debriefing|
|Dealing with bomb threats|
|Management of violent incidents|
|Home visits and call-outs|
|Comments and review of above results (i.e. action required):|
How to prepare a Company for Social Compliance Audit
Condition found during check
(If Ok / not Please Tick/Cross)
CommentsDocumentationp Trade License p Fire License & Insurance p Certificate of Incorporation p Boiler Operation License p Boiler Operator License/waiver from Boiler Authority p Waiver certificate /permission for the Generator (s) from Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission. p Certificate from Ministry of power, Electricity & Mineral Resource for the Electric Sub-station. p Provident Fund Record(Original audit report of last balance sheet) p Leave encashment payment Documents. p Leave encashment payment for the resigned worker p Recruitment Policy. p Grivence Policy & Procedures p Electrician Certificate p Environmental Certificate p Nurse Qualification Certificate p Drinking Water Test p DOT / Building Approval Plan p Construction / Extension building floor plan from govt. authority p Floor Diagram p Group Insurance p Calibration Certificate p IRC/ ERC / EPB / Export p TIN Certificate p Register from BOY p Official approvals to run operations, machinery etc. p Company’s Policies p Personal file in which exit :- Family Name and first name of employee, Date of Birth, Address of employee, Company name & address, Joining Date, Clause governing termination of employee. Indication of probation period, amount of gross pay, bonus & special payment, p Responsibilities, Date & signature of employee & employer,. p Time Record System: – beginning & end of a working day, number of OT hour, Days free from wok, Days of absence. p Pay slip . p On payment to social insurance fund exist. p Wage List existence. p Maternity levee for pregnant woman. p Work Rules. p Health & Safety Training including fire safety. p Certificate to First Aider p Inspection documents for lift and machineries. p Bond License p Previous Social Compliance audit report & their CAP. p Performance Appraisal p Machine Maintenance Record p Self Audit Report p WRAP COC p WRAP Manual p Generator License / Permission p VAT Certificate p Lease / Rent Agreement p Factory License p Desha Approval p Hospital Agreement p Sludge Test Report p Waster Test Report p Generator Permission for using generator p BSCI COC p Waste water test report p Freight Lift Operation License p Acid Use License p BGMEA / BKMEA Certificate p Bond License p Calibration Certificate to all Weighting Machine p Calibration Certificate to all Scale. p Calibration Certificate to Metal Detector p Accident & Injury Record. p Job Description of Security Guard. p Fire License, Group Insurance, Boiler License p Photograph of Fire Drill or any other Register p Appointment Letter should provide to employee p Age verification certificate should be certify by doctor p Service Book to all employees. p Certificate for First Aid & Fire Fighter. p Documentation Health & Safety Training. p Facility should have employees trained in first aid procedures from a nationally recognized program. p Drinking Water Test Report. p Accident Record. p Pay Slip for employee. p ID Card having employees sign p Electrician having experience Certificate. p Noise / air quality certificate p Medical Exam for employee : Boiler Operator, Generator Operator, Chemical Operator etc. Documents Req During Auditp Today’s attendance (Male & Female) p List of new recruited worker p Machinery Certificate , Inspection & Maintenance Record p MSDS for all chemical used & relative training record p Emergency Medical Procedures p Waste Disposal Policy & Procedures (air, liquid & Solid waste and medical waste) p Factory Profile p Boiler Instruction p Chemical Use & God owning Procedures p Waste Jute Sales Agreement p Tag gun Policy p Job Discharge Policy p Hazardous & Non Hazardous Wastage Handling Procedures p Production Plan p Electric Hazard analysis & instruction p Factory Key Policy p Daily Production Report p Wastage Recycling Policy p No smoking Policy p Workers Hand Book p Floor wise & section wise space p Floor wise toilet sheet p Individual production ticket/sheet p Copies of official documents on legal status, company name(s), year of foundation p Production Unit Record sheet, QC inspection report & Goods in out records from store p Duty Roaster for security guard (Last 03months) p Workers awareness program key issues of Labour Laws 2006 p Danger goods movement records p Dormitory’s rules & regulation (If applicable) p Valid business licences and all necessary official approvals to run operations, machines etc. p Company’s fiscal figures p List of company’s figures on employment structure p List of valid certificates on Management Systems and of social/code of conduct audits, which have been conducted in the company on behalf of other organisations, copies of the audit reports p Documentation of responsibilities in the company on senior management and operational level for implementation of and checking compliance with the BSCI Code of Conduct p Calculation of the necessary financial and personnel resources to comply with the Minimum Social Requirements p Cost calculation in written form p Anti-corruption/bribery policy. p Capacity planning in written form p Documentation of trainings conducted for employees on BSCI Code of Conduct. p Record of inspection results for possible hazard sources and corrective actions taken (Safety Assessment) p Personnel Data Files for all employees p List of subcontractors including names and addresses of production units p Written declaration of commitment of subcontractors’ compliance with the BSCI Code of Conduct p Proofs of continuous improvement of social performance in the facilities of subcontractors p Corporate social policy in written form p Working time recording system p Working Rules in written form p Documents to prove that the water is drinkable. p Documentation on all benefits to employees with remarks if they are mandatory or voluntary p Documentation of working hours prevailing in the industry and the source of this information p Documentation of the defined regular working hours, shifts, multi-shift working, breaks and holidays for the company p Documentation of the legal/industrial minimum wages and the source of this information p Payslips for employees and evidence of payment of wages p Payment documents proving the transfer of contributions to social insurance funds p Wage lists and wage calculation incl. record of output of piece rate workers incl. all elements of wages and deductions p Records on the granting of benefits for pregnant women and mothers p Calculation documents for fixing piece rate p For piece rate workers: records of the quantity produced by each individual employee p Documentation of any infringements of the working rules and any disciplinary measures taken p Contract of employment/contracts for service with security personnel (if security personnel is used) p List of production processes outsourced to prisons, and name and place of premises (if relevant) p Minutes of meetings and records of written agreements with employees’ representatives p Records of complaints by employees and of any measures taken or manner of dealing with complaints p Inspection documents for room temperature, noise level and lighting p Certificates on Qualification of Medical Personnel p Record of the number of accidents including the source of the accidents, the type of accidents, the dates, the damages and indication of harmed persons p Documentation of conducted health and safety trainings (evacuation drills and fire fighting drills) including names of participants and dates of training p Records of receipt, consumption, withdrawal and disposal of chemicals and crop protection products (including presentation of Material Safety Data Sheets – MSDS) p Proof that employees working with electrical installation are qualified p Inspection reports and maintenance records for lifts, dangerous machines, electrical equipment p Inspection reports and maintenance records for fire fighting equipment (e.g. inspection tags on fire extinguishers) p Operating and Safety Instructions for machines, workplaces and high-pressure equipment (if used) p Safety documents for employee dormitories (fire protection, hygiene, etc.) p Updated Policy on WRAP & communicated with all p WRAP COC Bengali & English p Procedures on WRAP 12 principal p Written Policy on Prohibition of harassment, abuse and corporal punishment. p Post legal minimum wages rate, benefit polices, & additional payment information in native language. p All employees signed in a statement regarding affirming their receipt and understanding of the facility’s anti discrimation practise. p Environmental Management System. p Appointed a person responsible for Principle 11 (Customs Compliance) p Background checks & application verification on security, shipping, loadding dock personnel before thier job permanent. p Visitor parking areas shall be segrated. p Latest Drinking water Yest p M/C :List p Name & Address of Sub Contractor p Labour Union Agreement / WPC Company Datap company organisation and structure p number of employees per department p total number of employees p number of female employees p if relevant, number of employees considered as children p number of employees considered as young workers p number of pregnant employees p number of unskilled workers p number of migrant workersp number of employees in maternity leave p number of apprentices p number of disabled persons p number of employees on probation p number of homeworkers p structure of wages: p number of employees: p on a monthly rate p on a daily rate p on a hourly rate piece rates Listp Master List of worker p List of Festival Holidays p List of Fire Fighter p List of Fist Aider p List of toilet p Number of Fire Fighting equipmentsp Number of Forst Aid Box p Chemical List p Machinery List p New Employee List Production Site Inspectionp Fire Extinguisher and theier mounting p Emergency Exits, escape routes & their marking p Occupational Health & safety p Machines, electrical equipments and power generator p Steam generators and steam pipes p Lighting conditions, room temperature & ventilation p General Cleanliness & hygiene pp Sanitary facilities (toilet, washroom, changing room if relevant, portable water system) p Prescribed Social amenities, eg, place for eating,kitchen areass for cofee, tea making facilities, child care, sick room, first aid, Environmental requirement p Dormitory Inspection (living conditions, health & safety) Statutory Register Updatedp WPC Committee p Fire Training Register p Fire Drill p General Awareness p First Aid Training p PPE Use Register p Environmental, Health & Safety Training p No. of Person trained in Fire Fighting & Certificate p Last Date of Fire Drill Evacuation & Records Documents p Training Documents p Orientation Program p OT Register & Check p Material Safety Datasheet (MSDS) p No Holiday Records p Permission of Second Shift (If second Shift Available) p How many worker crossed their OT limit. p Muster Roll-Job Card-Salary Statement p Does the facility has documentation of boiler & pressure vessels inspection on files & posted? p Personal file : Application Form, Appointment Letter, Age Estimation & Fitness Certificate, Nominee Declaration, Emergency Contact person name & No, Increment Details,p Mid Management Awareness Training Register p Accident Register p National & Festival Holiday p Organization Chart p Minimum Wages Notification p Major & Minor Accident Report p Verbal Abuse & Harassment p No. of Person trained in First Aid & Certificate p Machine Maintenance Register p Boiler Fitness Certificate & Operators Certificate p Authorization-Permission for OT Approval / Friday Working p Compensatory Holiday p Exceeding Manpower strength as per fixed strength. p Leave with Wages p Labor Welfare Fund (WPF) p Unpaid Accumulation p Does the facility has a Welfare Officer? p Medical Fitness Certificate for Canteen Worker & Security Guard. Displaysp Factories Policies p Factories Policies on Harassment, H & S, Discrimination & OT. p Minimum Wages Abstract p The payment of wages abstract p The payment of gratuity abstract p The payment of Maternity benefit abstract p The payment of Bonus abstract p Weekly Holiday Notice p Notice of nearest Hospital, Fire Station, Police Station etc p National & Festival Holidays. p Standing Order p Needle Control Policy p Voluntary Work Policy p Health & Safety Policy p Child Labor Abolition p Anti Discrimination Policy p Urgent Need Business Policy p Zero Abusement Policy p Working Hour Policy p Broken needle Policy p Hiring / Recruitment Policy. p Environment Policy p Security Policy p Buyers Code of Conduct p Health & Safety committee members photo with name. p Canteen members photo with name. p Transport committee members photo with name. p Harassment & Discrimination committee members photo with name. p Worker committee members photo with name. Emergency Exitp Is their sufficient directional & exit signs to ensure that all routes are clearly indicated in bilingual languages? p Do all work areas have at least two exits? p Emergency exit door to be opened outside? p Evacuation Plan in all Floor /Areas? p Emergency Exit with Outside open Facilities? p Emergence Exit Board Light witg UPS connection?p Emergency Exit light to all staircase? p Emergency Light daily on/off Log sheet? p Emergency light Location List? p Emergency Light kept on 6 feet height. p Emergency Electricity Switched off system (Floor wise) p Signage Emergency Electricity Switch off p No Hindrance Emergency Switch off Access areas? Aisle Markingp Are aisle clearly marked with directional sign Red arrow? Aisle without block. Indication Arrows in the passage.p Are aisle larger than 3 feet wide? Emergency Lighting p Do all emergency lighting units work properly? p Do all emergency lighting units work properly? p No smoking sign displayed Fire Preventionp Fire Hose Rule usages instruction p All walkway / Fire Exits free from obstacle p Operating Instruction of Fire Extinguisher p Proper Record of Fire Extinguisher Checklist p No Smoking Signage are displayed p Fire Alarm Should be availablep Fire extinguisher are easy to marked & easy to reach. p Fire Alarm Should be available p evacuation routes p Group Insurance p List of Fire Trained person should be displayed. p Visual Fire alarm in generator room Fire Alarmp Functional Every Time p Maintenance Card maintainedp Signage Displayed Smoke Detectorp Functional Every Time (Indication Light glow up.) Fire Extinguisher / Hose Reel / Hydrantp Are their adequate number of Fire Extinguisher Available? p Functional every time p Signage displayed p Are locations of Fire Extinguishers clearly marked? p Are Extinguisher Visually checked monthly (with control Tag?) p Are fire extinguishers inspected annually by outside professional agency, documentation is on file? p Fire Extinguisher Service Checklist p Operational Instruction (Bangle & English)p Fire Buckets to Diesel Storage Area with Water & Sand p Zebra marking p Fire Buckets to Boiler Room with Water & Sand p Fire Buckets to Genset Room Area with Water & Sand p Fire Buckets to E.B. Panel board with Water & Sand p Fire Buckets to Motor Room with Water & Sand p Fire Tray with sand p Diesel Storage areas floor filled by sand. p Fire Safety trained employees name & Photo Emergency Preparednessp Does a facility has a documented emergency preparedness program? p Records of Evacuation Drill p Record of test of Alarm & Emergency lighting system/ p Does the facility has the documented fire & emergency evacuation Plan? p The plan has floor maps prominently displayed in the factory (including office) p Actual Location (You Are Here) p First Aid kit all locationp Extinguisher Location. p Identification of Major Fire Risk. p Phone number of local Fire Department. p Phone number of ambulance / hospital. p evacuation routes. p Assembly areas Machine Safetyp Electricity supply should be tested regularly to prevent shocks & burns p All cable have plugs and loose wire . p Fire Aid must have burn cream.p Machine maintenance to be done regularly & keep records. p Machine Operating Instruction & monthly check p No. of sewing machine Electrical Panelsp Loose wire/ without insulated wire not found. p Signage displayed (Danger, Do not touch)p Rubber mat available p Zebra marking Electrical Fittingsp All connection made properly p Loose wire /without insulated wire not accepted over factory.p Power point, plug in good condition and marking switch board. p All light, ceiling fan, Exhaust fan should be functional. Utility Areap Loose wire / without insulated wire not found. p Rubber mat availability. p Signage (Authorized Person only, No Smoking, and Danger etc.) p Operational Instruction (Bangle & English)p PPEs (Air Muff, Ear Plug) p Flickering Light instead of Fire Alarm p Emergency Light p First Aidp Is the clinic suitably equipped in compliance with the guideline (beds, first aid materials, medicines? p Are screens / Curtains provide to allow privacy? p Is there system in place to check expiration dates of medicine? p Are Fist aid Kits adequately stocked and appropriate for work areas?p Item List Displayed p All items available as per list check expiry date) p First aider name, picture displayed. p Are sufficient number of employees trained in First aid by a recognized organization? p Are First Aid Kits available to all work areas? p Healthp Appoibted MBBS doctor & Nurse p Accident Register, p Medical Stock Register p Sick analysis p Temperature Meter to all section p Drinking Water p Drinking water Test Report. p Drinking water not in plastic pot.& make sure all pot are clen. p Please confirm no one collecting the drinking water from toilet. p Area should be cleaned p Signage displayed p Drinking water cup ability. p Drinking WaterCenter (one place to every 150 employees up to 500 p Water Reservoir or Tank Cleaned at least once in a week.p Drinking water Signage in English & Bangla. p Located from 20 feet away from Toilet. p Locate maximum 50 meters distance from work spot. p Water supply should be regular. p Drinking water vassal cleaned at least once in a week. p Water cooler / Heater available at every canteen, dinning hall, rest room etc. p Water vassal Cleaning log sheet. p WaterCenter in charge person with cleanliness. Toiletp Toilet use rules. p Suggestion Box p Sufficient Toilet p Toilet should be cleaned p Soap p All toilet seat with proper privacy & Locked, p Urinal accommodation min 61 cm for ever 100 employees for above 500 p Effective Sewage system, Soap, Towel, Bathroom lock, Water tap, Dust bin, Bucket with mug at toilet p Toilet whit washed once in every four month. p Tiles /Mosaic floors washed with detergent or disinfectant once in four month. p Exhaust Fan p Toilet has water flushing system?p Bucket with cover p Signage as per gender. p Daily Cleaning Log Sheet Provided. p No smoking sign in Gents Toilet p Cleaning record behind door of toilet p Awareness Quotes in Toilet p Ladies / Gents Toilet name sign in Dual language & Picture. p The bathroom facility is clean and generally free from odor. p Are the bathrooms facilities are well ventilated and have running water? Health & Social Facilitiesp Cantine facility (at least 30% seating capacity of worker) p Clean MedicalCenter. p Clean Portable drinking water. p Employee have access to an appropriate, clean area for eating. p Washing facilities and separated it in accordance with gender. p Quick medication assured in emergency cases. p First aid facilities p Selected First aider. p Drinking water facility. p Mark portable worker. p Sanitary Facilities: Sufficient Toilet, Clean toilet & washroom regularly, seprate by gender & indication, Cleaning log sheet, Responsible person for cleaning, Provide soap or other care products and towel. p Full Time Medical Officer p Ambulance Room p Washing facilities in medical center. p Drinking Water Test Report. p Retirement Benefit p Unemployment Insurance p Accident Insurance p Physician in charge p Visual Fire Alarm should at generator room p Sufficient Trained Fire Fighter p Soap, Towel, Slipper should provide at Toilet. p Ails mark not properly installed and some where partially blocked. p Workers found workng by sitting on floor. p Does not have evacuation plan. p Child Care room (equiped with cradle, toy, bed, breast feeding areas, & attached Toilet) p Workers found blocked by by table and garments in most of the place of the factory. p Boiler Operator should use ear muff. p Dinining & Canteen p Missing ebonite plate in the electrical panel board. Rubbar mat is not avilable under the board. p Inadequate content of medicine found in first aid box. Safety (Checkpoint) p First Aid box is available with all required contents. Expiry Date is mentioned. p All Emergency exits are clearly marked and kept unblocked for movement . p Appropriate Fire Extinguisher at all designated places in healthy condition. Refilling Due Date is marked on it. p Electrical Cables are well-dressed and in good condition. p No Road / Pathway in the section is blocked for movement of material and transport. p Effective Use of Personal Protective Equipments in the area. p Defined Emergency lights are available and are in working condition. Records are available for testing. p Any accident happened in the section / department. Reporting is done. Corrective and Preventive action taken within one month of occurrence of Accidents and Incidents p Safety Booklet & Unique Identification Number are available with all employees in the section / dept. including contract workers p No Safety violation /Unsafe condition / Unsafe Act is reported during Safety Audit p SOP / Work Instruction should be displayed on required equipments. p All electrical fittings are earthed , records of earth Pit resistance available with Maintenance Dept. and no visibility of loose connection in any equipment /Panels. p All Welding Machines / Girding Machines / Gas Cutting Sets are ok. p Ext. No. is in working condition and emergency phone no. is displayed on it. p Fans are cleaned and in good working condition in the section. p All Safety Committee Points in respective section are completed. p All Floors / Walkways are safe for working in the section. Eg. No oil leakage. p Permit-To-Work System is followed strictly and records are available in the section p All Safety Interlocks are identified in each area and non of them found by passed. Records with the section. p Effective use of Safety Helmet & Shoes in the section. p All pathways are marked for Man and Material movement and is followed . p Service Floor is illuminated properly with no obstruction for movement p All moving parts are guarded with mesh / properly grouted Fencing to avoid any incident/accident. p All fork lifts have required facility e.g proper lighting, horn, PUC and other necessary things. p Floor wise Fire Alarm & Centralized Control p Training on First Aider p Fire Evacuation Drill & Record p Marking on Assembly Area p Place of Fire Extinguisher p Marking Danger on Electrical Panels Factory / Working Conditionsp ID card of all employee. p No trainee worker is allowed. p Central Fire Alarm & PA system p Work Instruction p Walkway/aisle/worker should not be blocked. p No worker will work by seating on floor. p No worker will gossip or cry or sleep inside the toilet or under the table anywhere of the factory. p Please confirm that any types of PIN not attached with the Elastic rolls kept in the warehouse p Compliance Sign in related areas. p Risk Assesment p Painting work in dirty area. p Proper Lighting in each area. p Workers Toilet p Doors in Toilet p Exhaust Fan in Toilet p Marking on Toilet Workshop layout and the factory building acceptable? Room Temperature acceptable. Production area clean. p Company must comply with national law regarding the working conditions such as Room Temperature, Ventilation, Noise Level, Lighting Condition, p Hygienic aspects in toilet, production place, kitchen, dormitories, machinery, chemical;, electricity, working from ladder, slippery floor, noise, leaking substance, dust etc p Thread Sucker Machine p Risk assessment: Worker, young employee, pregnant woman, cleaners, visitors, contractors, maintenance employee. p Facility include workplace, rest rooms, first aid room, canteen properly maintain. p Waste disposal policy. p Define time frame for cleaning and waste disposal (such as every day at 10 am) p Keep documents along with responsible personnel. p PA Syetem p Blade / Sharp Tool policy and it should be posted in production floor & Store. p Scissor , cuttar all sharp tools should be tied in each work station. p No one is allowed to use old cutting knife. p All machine should be have PPE (Needle Guard, Finger guard, eye safety guard, pulley cover, belt cover etc.) p Machine maintenace card for all type of machine. p Idle machine without needle p Garments / fabrics even finished goods cartoon should not be floor contact. Should keep on rack / pallet (buyerwise/stylewise/colorwise) p Fabrics with poly cover & bin card. no mixed colour is allowed. p Goods in excess height are not allowed. Use ladder if there is anyrack. p Fabrics inspection Report Point. (4 point system.) p Defect Swatch in fabrics inspection report. p Accessories Inspection Report (AQL Based) p Rejected areas should be seperated & marked. p Approval sample with trim card in each line /each areas. Hours & Wages, Working policyp Salary Sheet / Pay Roll Record (For last 12 months) p OT Sheet for last moths, p Piece Rate Record p All labour Contract p Legal minimum Wages p Personal file are maintained & age verification certificate including National ID Card, birth registration certificate p Day Care centre facilities p Working Hours allowed (including OT Hour) p Any deduction made out salary? p Is OT compulsory? p Leave Record. p OT Record? p Time record of all employee p One weekly off p Service Book p Hand Book p Approval Duty Roaster from Labour p Factory Regulation p Factories Policy, Rules & Regulation p Salary Payment Voucher p Final Settlement p Maternity Benifit p Appointment Letter to all worker & maintain registerp Attendance Register p Wages Record? p Display of all policies. p Proof of minimum wages legal? p Proof of minimum wages given? p Payment of OT as per law? p Pay slip should be given p Duty Roaster p Break per shift. p OT Should not be compulsory. p Piece Rate Record (For Last 12 months) p Job Card p Personal File p Security Guard personal file p Worker ID Card p All labour Contact p Notice File p Previous Audit Report p Maternity Benefit p WPF Fund p Securityp Record af all movement of raw materials/ finished goods ? p Daily Record of Security guard checking windows, gate, fence etc p Visitor Registerp Visitor Register p Written security policies, practice & training record to security. Main Gatep Locking Arrangement p Signage -Company name, No Child Labor, Document Required on Recruitment.p List Of Authorized Person Loading & Unloading Areap Marked & Separated p Signage
By Department wise
Fabrics Storep Stacking of all fabrics properly and making on stacking. a. Buyer Name b.Style No. c. Lot no. & qty. p Fabrics should be covered. p No fabrics on ground. p Signage Displayed as per stacking (Like awaiting for inspection, Inspected fabrics, Rejected etc.) Fabrics Inspection Tablep Lux level of light should be 1000 lux maintained. p Four Point Penalty system.p Calibration done properly. p All record should be maintained: a. Accessories receiving record. b. Inspection. c. Issuing Record. Calibration done properly. Accessories Storep Accessories Store should be stacking in the rack: a. Buyer, Style wise b. Bin Card should be displayed.p Lux level of light should be as per requirement. Sewingp Machine to machine distance should be proper. p Gap of sewing:- Machine to machine min : 24″, Line to Line min : 36″ p PPE’s : Needle Guard, Pulley & Motor Guard, Mask for O/L & other sewing Op p Control over metal part like stapler etc. p All Sharp Items should be tied with (Rope/chain) cutter, scissor etc. p machine light should be functional. p Machine oil should be clean & Required level maintained.p Needle Record (as per needle policy) a. All broken parts available on records. b. Received / issued record tally with broken needle record, c. Needle Detection Machine. p All workers must know: a. Operating of Fire Extinguisher. b. Last Fire Drill date p All furniture are cleaned. p Machine not in use covered, Needle Removed. p No blockage of aisle. p Broken needle carrier box (at least 2pcs starting & ending at thread stand, in each line. p Needle swatch card should be posted in front of the needle issue girl/boy. p Needle register of store should be cross checked with the broken/damaged needle register. Record should be same. p Seating arrangement of needle issue girl/boy should be separated from the production floor. Finishing Departmentp Required signage should be displayed on working table. p All scissor cutter should be tied up with rope and issue / receipt record maintained. p All Aisle clear, No blockage.p All furniture are cleaned, no stickers on side of table. p No printed tape on table. p Tag gun to bear the name of user. Spotting Roomp Spotting room signage. p PPE should be available such as goggles, hand gloves, eye wash safety glass, repertory musk p Required lux level of light should be maintained. p Write chemical name on small pots used for chemical. p No loose electrical connection. p MSDS displayed & all spotters aware of its usage p Exhaust Fan p Eye wash basin. p Pressing Departmentp All table should be functional , required lux level maintained. p Table cloth in good conditions. p Rubber mat should be available. p All electrical connection should be proper. p No leakage in steam line. p Teflon boot for all press to be available.p Press Handle in good condition. p Exhaust fan available & functional. p Table should not shake & no wires on ground. p No leakage from steam pipe. p Area around the steam pipe to be clean, Not spit mark, No dirt. Packing Departmentp Metal free zone without metal. p Hourly Calibration Report (9 point system) of metal detector by 1.2mm ferrous card. p HourlyPass report throuh metal detector. p Register for metal contaminated garments. p Authorized person for packing. A list with workers should be displayed. p All signage should be displayed. p Entry restricted in this department. A visitor log book should be maintained. p Packed cartoon should be accountable & storage in fence area. p While packing going on loose cartoon not to be left unattended. p No loose blade anywhere.p All light & fans should be functional & no loose wire lying ground. p Separation areas for loose cartoon & packed cartoon. p Needle detection machine properly functional . No metal parts like nails, staplers pin etc close by. p All scissors , cutters tied at work place. p Stacking cartoon as per buyer. Cutting Departmentp Cutting gloves should be available & not damaged. p Cutting table tube light functional. p Overhead cutting machine wire& plug should be good conditions. p All cutting machine should be functional p Fusing machine operational -a. Operation instruction displayed. b. Maint. & Temp. record should be maintained. c. Machine proper covered while not in use.p Dust bin should be available for wastage. No wastage on ground. p All fans/light should be functional. p No loose wire lying on ground and electrical connection should be proper. p All cutting table should be cleaned every time . p No fabrics lying on ground and under the table improper way. p All cutting machine stored in proper place. p All scissors tied with rope. Boiler Roomp Operating instruction displayed p Rubber mat should be available. p No leakage in steam line. p PPE should be available such as Rubber boot, Ear muff, Rubber gloves. p Flickering light should be available instead of fire alarm. Buttonsp Machine connection should be proper. p PPE’s should be available. p Pulley guards should be available on machine. p Eye guard availability. Issue / Receivingp All incoming / outgoing movement of paces through chalan only. p No blockage of aisle.p All light & fans should be functional. p No pcs on ground. Surrounding areas of the building p Wall & fence should be proper, No damage. p All security cheking system functional.p Surrounding areas cleaned regularly. p Signage of assembly point. Miscellaneousp All signage of each floor should be displayed. p Water supply should be regularly in all toilet and drinking water point. p Lunch room layout & cleaning should be maintained properly. p Lunch room timing, menu, rate list displayed in lunch room p Dust bin availability near lunch room p Cabteencooking place should be cleaned & fire safety measure covered every time. p Medical check up Chemical/S\pot : Lunch test, Boiler/Generator/knitting : hearing test Report available. Management Practice: p Appointed Senior Management Representative p BSCI awareness to all Executive, Officer & Staff, all worker as well. p Conduct meeting regular basis on social requirement between staff & management. p System in place for anti-corruption / anti bribery activities. p Periodically risk assessment & Take preventive action of work accident. p Cost accounting method in use. p Establish & maintain appropriate procedures to recruit sub contractors & monitor sub contractors social requirement. And keep evidence. Working Time : p Regular daily working hours start & End. p Daily Break start & end. p Regular number of working days per working week. p Overtime hours did the worker with the highest amount of OT hors last week? p Average weekly amount of OT hours during peak season. p Is it of their own free will? p OT shall not exceed legal hours (2 hrs every day) record, time card, salary sheet, for this reason wages could not be verified. p 01 day off after latest 6 consecutive days of work. p Inconsistency noted between production p Overtime payment not provide to store keeper, time keeper, knitting operator, loader, cuttar, sample man, electrician, boiler operator etc. p Employees of the facility worked on weekly holiday, but the facility management did not provide substitute holiday against those holidays work. Compensation p Minimum wages. p Lowest basic monthly wage for regular working time paid. p Average wage last month excluding OT for all employees on work floor. p Total sum of wages (incl. OT differential) which was paid for all employees last moth. p OT hours paid individual hour rate. p All employee receive paid leave according to law. p Employees receive paid statuary and or religious holiday. p Evidence of maternity benefitp Maternity leave. p Does company provide statutory benefit/ p Is their any illegal deduction? p From production records it was observed most of the weekend factory remains open and the workers of the factory did not get compensatory holiday. p The facility does not provide benefit to resigned employees according to the law. p Form of workers participation committee & welfare fund. Working Timep Start & end working time per day. p Start & end of brakes per day. p Regular working day, Festival Leave. p Rest day. p Leave register p Maternity Leave. p Knitting sections time keeping system (Shifting) shall made [roperly. p Period of absence without indicated reason. p Responsible Personnel for keeping records of hours worked by each employee. p Related Data : Pay day, amount of payment, Contributions of social insurance fund, Period of worked, regular hours & OT, modality of payment such as cash, bank transfer, cheque etc. p Payment during statutory work free periods: Festival leave, Sick leave, maternity leave, short time working, low capacity production period. p Contributions to social insurance Fund : Provident Fund, Health insurance, social security, education find for employee. p Additional Benefit: Transportation Cost, Own transportation system, Accommodation. Allowance on food, medical treatment, education etc. p Deduction from wages: Do not make deduction from wages without employees prior approval. Keep record. p Contractual Security : The minimum information on payment :- Amount incl. Benefits & deduction. Frequency, Terms, pay day. Employee must have the opportunity to refuse or negotiate conditions before payment. p Define wage, benefits, deduction and conditions before hiring employee. p Joining Letter . It is a confirmation workers are agree on terms and conditions. p Provide Appointment Letter in which incl. Compensation (Wages, benefits, deduction, piece rate etc.) work rules, job description, working hour, type of job & function, Terms of payment, Period of payment, Name of employee. Child Labor /Young Employeep All employees at last 18 years old. p In case under age found, the child must removed from production immediately, with continued payment of wages in accordance with laws. p Employ only persons who are at least 18 years above. p During employment must collect & check birth certificate, passport/ID card, Health Certificate, Driving License, academic qualification, UP Cert. Nationality Cert. Forced Labor Disciplinary Measure / Prisoner Labor:- p Employee can leave the factory compound after work at any time. p Original Document must not keep permanently such as ID card, Passport, and Birth certificate. Keep photocopy for personal file. Freedom of Association and collective Bargainingp Worker have right to join workers organization without taking approval from authority.p Is factory faces a strike, walkout, unrest the past 02 years. Discrimination Harassment & Abusep Is there any pregnancy test / virginity test before hiring. p Is there any evidence that woman are mistreated or fired as a result of being pregnant. p All employees have equal opportunity to work overtime?p Is their any sexual harassment, physical coercion or verbal abuse? p Is any evidence that employees are disciplined or otherwise discriminated against because they complain against infringements of their right? Occupational Health and Safety p p Is the employees’ health seriously and avoidably endangered by work processes? p General safety conditions p Chemicals p Fire protection p Escape routes p Emergency Exits p Machine safety
p Steam boiler (…)
p Accident prevention p Protective measures p Chemicals p Risk minimisation p others p Protective Measures:- p ear plugs p gloves p safety shoes p dust masks p hair cover p goggles and others p Safety of Machines, Storage and other facilities p Machinery, warehouse and other storage facilities must be sufficiently secure and storage rooms must be safe and equipped with appropriate protective p Handling & Storage of Chemicals:- p Chemicals such as oils, greases, solvents, gas, dyestuffs, printing inks etc. have to be handeled properly with care. p Handling & Storage of Chemicals:- Define a function/person responsible for distributing harmful substances. Define who is authorized to access chemicals. Document the responsible function/person for distribution of harmful substances. p Document the responsible function/person having access to chemicals. p Handling of Electric Power:- Display high voltage warning signs wherever relevant. Please refer to Appendix B.11-Warning Signs Fig.II.5 as examples. p Ensure that power sockets, switches and such as fuse boxes, cables, lamp sockets, power sockets and others must be installed in a safe way. p Electrical contacts must be covered with appropriate non- conductive materials. p Electrical installations must be fixed and installed in a way that they are secure against falling down or employees getting tangled. lamp mounts are in good condition and functioning properly. p Cover switches and sockets. p Block the access to electrical installations of machinery. p Allow only qualified employees or external people to maintain and conduct repair work at electric facilities. p Lock electrical junction boxes, electric switchgear/electric control rooms and fuse boxes. Install these areas in a way that cabinets are made of flameproof material. p Define authorised persons who have access to these places and ensure that only these persons have access. p Handling of Electric Power:- Conduct regularly inspections on safety of electric facilities. p Define a function/person who is responsible for these inspections, maintenance and arrangement of repairs. p Fire Protection & Fighting p Escape routes & emergency exits p Install accessible and functional fire extinguishers or fire hoses on each floor. Functionality must be proved with valid inspection dates. p Arrange fire extinguishers in a way that they do not block escape routes. assess all risks to new expectant mothers & ensure that reasonable steps are taken to remove or reduce risks to their health & safety. p Fire Alarm , Smoke Detector should installed. p Emergency light with individual batery back up are not installed in every floor. p Rubber mat of IronMan. p Ear muffler for generator Operator & Thread sucking operator. p Protect fire extinguishers from all parameters having an influence on their– weather (if placed outside) temperature (direct sun shine, freeze etc.) caustic gases liquids etc p Define a function/person who is responsible to check all protective measures and fire fighting equipment regularly on their functionality. p Define a function/person who is responsible for maintenance and arrangement repairs and replacements. Perform regular fire drills at least once per year including at least explanations on following issues: p fire fighting strategies p handling of fire fighting equipment p fire characteristics of substances in use and the required fire fighting method p Examine regular evacuation drills with all employees, at least once per year. p Instruct new employees before they start p Operation of Steam Boilers: Install steam boilers operated with gas, oil, coal or other combustible materials in areas not close to dormitories, emergency exits, escape routes or staircases. p Install stationary steam boilers in separate rooms or buildings which are lockable. Allow only authorised persons access to these places. Ensure that high pressure steam generators are properly working without having leaks or improvised repairs. p Ensure that the high-pressure steam pipes are working properly without having leaks or improvised repairs. Check the pipes on their functionality and maintain them in regular intervals. p Allow only qualified employees to operate, maintain or repair steam boilers. p Define a function/person responsible for checking, maintenance, repairs of steam boilers. p Health & Safety Training & PPEs training. p Company does not p Electrical distribution boxes do not have danger sign posted on the led. p Chemicals are not properly keeping with ID and caution. p Missing machine guard such as needle guard, eye guard, safety guard etc in the production floor. p Electricity: Electrical Installation checked periodically p Properly fixed p High voltage sign installed ie main power point, main fuse box p Steam Boiler are steam boiler ru by gas, oil, coal or other inflammable fuel installed close to dormitories, emergency exit, escape route, staircase? p Written safety regulation and operating procedures exists? p Steam running machinery good conditions? p Does any employee work close to blow-off valves, leaks, poorly isulated tube or any other soursc of danger caused by stam installation and machinery? p Fire Hose pipe should water connection p Evacuation Plan should be bilingual language p Steam iron pipe insulated covering Dormitoriep Does the Company provide dormitories or any kind of overnight accommodation for the employees? p Is the dormitory separated from production area and warehouses? p Are the sleeping quarters segregated by gender? p Are employees allowed to enter and leave the dormitory at any time? p Is the dormitory clean, safe and adequately lit? p Secondary exit p Is the room temperature acceptable? p Is the space per person acceptable (…)? p Is there clean potable water? p Are there enough unblocked, marked emergency exits? p Does adequate fire protection equipment exist? p Does adequate fire protection equipment exist? p Determine if all necessary approvals from official authorities are available. If not, get these approvals. p Determine whether you fulfil the legal or industrial minimum standards. p Observe at least the required minimum standards on:
- construction materials to be used
- minimum size
- floor and air space
- cooking area/equipment
- washing area/equipment
- water supply
- sanitary facilities and others
p Is the waste management arranged in a way that does not lead to pollution of the environment? p Are chemicals properly and separately disposed off? p Is it ensured that chemicals do not leak into the ground? p Is effluent treated to prevent environmental pollution? p Are emissions in legal conformity? p Chemical Drums should provide secondary container to ensure that chemical do not leak in to the ground with no MSDS. Documents Ready For Inspected: p Production Unit Record Sheet p Documentation of Management System and Responsibilities p List of Valid Certificates (Environment, Quality, etc.) p General Company Figures (Finance, Employment) p Personnel Data Files (Contract) p Documentation on Corporate Social Policy (incl. Subcontractors) p Documentation on Legal Framework of Working Hours and Remuneration p Master List for worker p List of festival holiday p List of fire fighter p List of Toilet p Number of Fire Fighting Equipment p Number of First Aid Box p Chemical List p Juvenile workers health examination & registration record (If applicable) p Competency Certificate of Boiler Operator p Competency Certificate of Electrician p Working Time Recording System p Payslips and Evidence of Payment p Wage Lists and Calculation (incl. Benefits) p Documentation on Health and Safety (incl. Inspection and Training) p Certificates on Qualification of First Aid Assistance p Licenses for Machinery and Vehicles p Documentation on Environmental Requirements and Chemicals p Machinery List p Factory Profile p Todays Attendance p New Employee List p Left Worker letter issue register p Welfare Committee p Health & Safety Committee p Grievance Procedure p Disciplinary Action Log p Training Record p Employee First Aid Training/Fire Fighting Training Certificate p Doctors Appointment Letter & Registration Certificate p Nurse Qualification Certificate p Contract with security, nearby medical and cantin supplier & wastage disposal
Production Site Inspection:
p Recording of the employees actually present p Fire extinguishers and their mounting p Emergency exits, escape routes and their marking p Occupational health & safety p Machines, electrical equipment and power generators p Steam generators and steam pipes p Lighting conditions, room temperature and ventilation hygienep General cleanliness and p Sanitary facilities (toilets, washrooms, changing rooms if relevant, potable water systems) p Prescribed social amenities, e.g. place for eating, kitchen area for coffee/tea making etc., childcare facility, sick room, first-aid kits etc. p Environmental Requirements p Dormitory Inspection (living conditions, health and safety, etc.) Training & Awarenessp BSCI / WRAP COC p Welfare Officer /Committee p Registerp Attendance Register p OT Register p Leave Register p Earn Leave Payment Register p Maternity Leave Register p Child Care Register p Fire Drill Register p Emergency Preparedness p Accident & Injury Register with doctors signature. p Broken Beedle Policy with register(For sewing needle, tag gun needle, hand needle, knitting needle & Linking needle). Policy should be post in the production floor. p Broken Needle Register (Tag Gun, Sewing, Hand, Knitting, Linking) p Grievance Register /File p Welfare meeting register p Fine / Deduction Register p List of Chemical p Daily Production Record p Management Policy p MSDS p Recruitment Guidance , Appeal Procedure Record for award & Punishment. p Electrical Maintenance Register p File of few disciplinary cases. p Baby Food Register p Switch off register p Sharp Tool attaching register /keeping box with lock & key. p Security System (CT-PAT)p Access Control: v Visitor Log Book v incoming /Outgoing vehicle registration log book or record v Security Guard Petrol log p Procedural Security v Security Policy v Securities Guard Duties & Responsibilities v Packing Procedures v Loading & Unloading security Proceduresa v Container inspection & loading procedures v Security seal handling & storage procedures v Policy for detecting & reporting shortage/coverage (discrepancies) on shipment v Procedures for transit of finished goods to forwards v Shipping Documents v Bill of loading (Copy) v Commercial Invoice(Copy) v Packing List (Copy) v Other related shipping manifest if any v Any other documentation related to shipment p Human Resource v Employee Record (sample) v Employee Background check record v Employee Termination Checklist v Employee Security Traning Manual v Security incident Reprt p Other Security Record v Security meeting record with attendance list v Security Training Program (Incl .: Security Guard, Mail receiving, Packing, Cargo Loading, Logistics) v Internal Audit Record v Keys, Log and seals control log v Inspection or maintenance record of alarm & surveillance cameras v Crisis management plan v Others p Physical Security p Boundary Wall p Separated & Restricted loading & unloading areas. p Separated & Restricted packing areas. p Separated & Restricted loading & unloading areas. p Separated & Restricted finished goods areas. p
Thank You Page
When I started the thesis many clouds are gattered on the sky of mind. After completing the research the clouds ran away from my mind and I am feeling very well. This work is done by me the grace of Allah. I am very grateful to the almi
Everything starting from planning, it seeing to be the most important step to start this industry report. In this industry report I have learned a lot of things, for instance communication, how to solve the problem, what are the recommendation, and what are the suggestion that given.
In this training establishment I have gained a lot of knowledge, the main thing that I can give is communication. Communication is the most important in hospitality studies. The communication between me, staffs and guests was the important part. In this case I have improved my language and communication skills as far as good. A part from that, the duties that given to me in eight hours, I know how to finish as fast as I can.
I would like to conclude that completion of the assignment has been both benefit and important to us. The industry report is really helpful for us towards the understanding of training establishment. We have learned a lot from the industry report and it is something that we will remember forever. We think we have learned to be better person now after do this industry report as it has helped us to improve knowledge in Performance appraisal. It is a great experience and we think that tasks are effective was to improve us members in any way and to be more productive.