Biology

Ion Channels

Ion Channels

Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient across the plasma membrane of all living cells by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. They are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells. They are pres.....

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Immunoglobulins

Immunoglobulins

Immunoglobulins are large Y-shaped proteins that can stick to the surface of bacteria and viruses. They are found in the blood or other body fluids of vertebrates. They act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as bacteria o.....

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An Organotroph

An Organotroph

An organotroph is an organism that obtains hydrogen or electrons from organic substrates. It is an organism that obtains hydrogen or electrons from organic substrates. This term is used in microbiology to classify and describe organisms based on how they obtain electrons for their respiration pro.....

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A Mixotroph

A Mixotroph

A mixotroph is an organism that can use a mix of different sources of energy and carbon. It is estimated that mixotrophs comprise more than half of all microscopic plankton. It is an organism capable of existing as either an autotroph or heterotroph. Usually, this means that it may be either auto.....

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An Autotroph

An Autotroph

Autotrophs are usually plants; they are also called “self-feeders” or “primary producers”. It is an organism that makes organic compounds from simple molecules. They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in the water. They are the primary produ.....

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Heterotroph

Heterotroph

A heterotroph is an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food. It is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. It depends either directly or indirectly on autotrophs for nutrients and food energy. By consuming reduced ca.....

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Krebs Cycle

Krebs Cycle

The Krebs cycle (named after Hans Krebs) is a part of cellular respiration. Its other names are the citric acidity cycle, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle). Carbon dioxide is a gas resulting from decarboxylation reactions and an important ubiquitary source of the catabolite is the K.....

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Fat

Fat

Fat is one of the three main types of nutrients. Fats are found in many foods. They are an essential part of our diet and are important for good health. It is crucial for normal body function, and without it, we could not live. They are made of macromolecules called lipids. Lipids are based on [&.....

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Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin, or Erythropoetin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidneys. Epoetin is a synthetic version. It plays a key role in the production of red blood cells (RBCs), which carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. It is also called haematopoietin or haemopoietin, but these name.....

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Sympathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous System

The Sympathetic nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system. It becomes more active when you are stressed. It directs the body’s rapid involuntary response to dangerous or stressful situations. It is a part of the “fight or flight” response. It controls aspects of the.....

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS or PSNS) is part of the autonomic nervous system. It is organized in a manner similar to the sympathetic nervous system. It does the opposite things of the sympathetic nervous system, the other part of the autonomic nervous system. It is composed mainly of .....

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Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls the conditions inside the body. It regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. It is sometimes called the ‘visceral nervous system’ or ‘involuntary nervous system’. This system works automa.....

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