Biology

Receptor Antagonist – a biological repressor molecule

Receptor Antagonist – a biological repressor molecule

A receptor antagonist is a biological repressor molecule. It is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist. This describes a ligand that, when binding to a neurotransmitter receptor.....

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Signal Transduction in biology is a cellular mechanism

Signal Transduction in biology is a cellular mechanism

Signal transduction is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell’s exterior to its interior. A signal transduction in biology is a cellular mechanism. Signals received by cells must be transmitted effectively into the cell to ensure an appropriate response. It converts a stimulus in.....

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Ligand – a biochemical substance

Ligand – a biochemical substance

A ligand is a biochemical substance. It is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Its function is to bind to a biological molecule and make the molecule perform a function. Ligand binding alters the shape of the receptor protein. This changes the protei.....

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Rafflesia Arnoldii

Rafflesia Arnoldii

In the parasitic genus Rafflesia, Rafflesia arnoldii is a species of flowering plant. It is parasitic on members of the Tetrastigma genus (in the grape family, Vitaceae). The largest individual flower on Earth is noted for growing it. Since it smells like dead flesh, Rafflesia arnoldii is known a.....

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Tendril Plant Anatomy

Tendril Plant Anatomy

Tendril, a plant organ specializing in anchoring and protecting vine stems in botany. It is a specialized threadlike shaped stem, leaf, or petiole that is used by climbing plants for parasitic plants’ support, attachment, and cellular invasion, typically by twining around suitable hosts fou.....

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Medical toxicology – a field of medicine 

Medical toxicology – a field of medicine 

Medical Toxicology is a field of medicine dedicated to the evaluation and treatment of poisoned and envenomated patients. It is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of poisoning and related health effects from medication, biological agents, and environmental or occupational toxins. It is a su.....

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Human performance toxicology – a division of forensic toxicology

Human performance toxicology – a division of forensic toxicology

Human performance toxicology is a division of forensic toxicology dealing with substances that are typically taken to improve athletic performance. It is the study of human response to environmental conditions and stimuli under the influence of drugs. This toxicology deals with the effects of alc.....

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Forensic toxicology – a toxicological investigation

Forensic toxicology – a toxicological investigation

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of drugs and chemicals on biological systems. Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. It .....

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Environmental toxicology – a study of harmful effects of various agents

Environmental toxicology – a study of harmful effects of various agents

Environmental toxicology – a study of the harmful effects of various agents on living organisms Environmental Toxicology is the study of the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment. It is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of va.....

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Forensic Entomology – study of insect biology

Forensic Entomology – study of insect biology

Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in a criminal investigation. It is the study of insect biology as it relates to societal problems that come to the attention of the legal profession and that often must be resolved by legal proceedings. In forensic entomology, entomotoxicolog.....

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Exotoxin – a toxin secreted by bacteria

Exotoxin – a toxin secreted by bacteria

An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. It is a toxin released by a living bacterial cell into its surroundings. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are a group of soluble proteins that are secreted by the bacterium, ent.....

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Microbial Toxins

Microbial Toxins

Microbial toxins are chemical substances that are produced by microorganisms. They are toxins produced by micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi. They can occur naturally in food. These promote infection and disease by directly damaging host tissues and by disabling the immune system. Whil.....

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