Biology

Forensic Entomology – study of insect biology

Forensic Entomology – study of insect biology

Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in a criminal investigation. It is the study of insect biology as it relates to societal problems that come to the attention of the legal profession and that often must be resolved by legal proceedings. In forensic entomology, entomotoxicolog.....

Read More »

Exotoxin – a toxin secreted by bacteria

Exotoxin – a toxin secreted by bacteria

An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. It is a toxin released by a living bacterial cell into its surroundings. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are a group of soluble proteins that are secreted by the bacterium, ent.....

Read More »

Microbial Toxins

Microbial Toxins

Microbial toxins are chemical substances that are produced by microorganisms. They are toxins produced by micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi. They can occur naturally in food. These promote infection and disease by directly damaging host tissues and by disabling the immune system. Whil.....

Read More »

Cyanotoxins – toxins that produced by bacteria 

Cyanotoxins – toxins that produced by bacteria 

Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria. It also referred to as blue-green algae, are microscopic organisms that live primarily in fresh water and saltwater, at the surface and below. Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere, but particularly in lakes and in the ocean wh.....

Read More »

Aquatic Toxicology – a multidisciplinary field which integrates toxicology

Aquatic Toxicology – a multidisciplinary field which integrates toxicology

Aquatic Toxicology is a multidisciplinary branch that includes the study of natural and synthetic toxicants and their effects that are leading to toxicity of aquatic systems. It is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on a.....

Read More »

Ecotoxicology – a study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms

Ecotoxicology – a study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms

Ecotoxicology is the science devoted to the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on an ecosystem’s structure, functions, and biodiversity. It is the study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms, especially at the population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels.....

Read More »

Plant Hormones – affecting plant growth and yield production

Plant Hormones – affecting plant growth and yield production

Plant hormones are chemical plants use for communication, coordination, and development between their many cells. They also are known as phytohormones, are signal molecules, produced within plants that occur in extremely low concentrations. They are among the most important biochemicals affecting.....

Read More »

Plant Nutrition

Plant Nutrition

Plant Nutrition Plants need nutrients for the same reasons that animals need them. They need them to germinate, grow, fight off diseases and pests, and to reproduce. Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism, and external supp.....

Read More »

Plant Pathology

Plant Pathology

Plant pathology is a branch of botany concerned with the diseases of plants. It is the science that studies the causes of plant diseases, the mechanisms by which diseases develop in individual plants and in plant populations, and the ways and means by which plant diseases can be managed or contro.....

Read More »

Nuclear Envelope

Nuclear Envelope

A double membrane consisting of an outer and an inner phospholipid bilayer is the nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane. It is present in the cells of both animals and plants. Two lipid bilayer membranes, an inner nuclear membrane, and an outer nuclear membrane make up the nuclear .....

Read More »

Anaerobic Digestion Process

Anaerobic Digestion Process

Anaerobic digestion is the process by which organic matter such as animal or food waste is broken down to produce biogas and biofertilizer. It is a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domes.....

Read More »

Amyloplast

Amyloplast

An amyloplast is an organelle that is present in plant cells involved in different biological pathways. Specifically, amyloplasts are a leucoplast type, a subcategory for colorless, non-pigment-containing plastids. Amyloplasts are plastids that, within internal membrane compartments, generate and.....

Read More »